Nohora Emma Montes Ramírez

Nohora Emma Montes Ramírez
Servicio Geológico Colombiano · Geociencias Básicas


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Projects (2)
The aim of the project is to produce periodic versions of the GMC in the light of new information and scientific advances in the interpretation of geological phenomena.
The new edition of the Geological Map of South America (GMSA) at scale of 1:5M is a project of the Subcommission for South America of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) approved during CGMW General Assembly held in Oslo (Norway) during the 33rd International Geological Congress. The Geological Map of South America is carried out under the general coordination of Jorge GÓMEZ TAPIAS (Andes and Patagonia) and Carlos SCHOBBENHAUS (South American Platform). This new version has been prepared with the cooperation of the Iberoamerican Association of Geology and Mining Surveys (ASGMI); the geological surveys of Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, Ecuador, Paraguay and Guyana; and Sao Paulo University, Funvisis of Venezuela, Surinam University, Central University of Venezuela, Chile University, Delft University of Technology of the Netherlands, San Andrés University of Bolivia and Buenos Aires University. The first steps of this continental project began with a series of interdisciplinary workshops. The 3 first workshops were carried out in 2009, 2010 and 2011, at the Amazonas University in Tabatinga (Brazil). A significant advance was achieved during a Geological Map of South America Workshop in Villa de Leyva (Colombia) carried out from 21st to 26th, 2014. The main achievements of the Villa de Leyva´s Workshop were: 1. The official handing over of the geological map data by each country 2. The accord of national coordinators 3. A consensus agreement of the official map legend that has grouped the chronostratigraphic units in the following way: Sedimentary Rocks (Siliciclastic, Carbonatic and Undifferentiated), Volcanic Rocks (Andesitic and related rocks, Basaltic, Rhyolitic, Alkaline and Undifferentiated), Plutonic Rocks (Granitic and Gabbroic, Ultramafic, Alkaline and Undifferentiated) and Metamorphic Rocks (Low to Medium grade, Medium to High grade, High P/T and Undifferentiated). 4. The final peer–reviewing will be carried out by Prof. Víctor RAMOS, from Buenos Aires University; Prof. Emond W.F. DE ROEVER from Free University of Amsterdan; Prof. Francisco HERVÉ ALLAMAND from Chile University; Prof. Benjamin B. de BRITO NEVES from São Paulo University, and Prof. Salomon KROONENBERG from Delft University of Technology of the Netherlands. The methodology followed to integrate the geological information was: first, using the information provided by each country a new code was generated for each unit, according to the proposed legend. Once those codes were ready, the symbology and colours were created, in that way patterns represent the rock–type and colours present the ages. Finally, a map with coded units at a scale of 1:5 M was prepared. Afterwards, with the objective of achieving the generalization and link the units by hand, the map with the new codification was printed at a scale of 1:3 M. Afterwards, the map was scanned and georeferenced in order to generalize the geological units, faults and folds at a scale of 1:5 M. Once those were done and despite the small–scale of the GMSA, the chronostratigraphic units of the map were adjusted with the aid of shaded relief images (STRM of NASA) in order to obtain a better matching between the images and the geological units of the map, and ensure that the map will be displayed correctly in Google Earth. Critically, an updating was done with published international papers. Lastly, the harmonization between the countries has been carried out. During the Villa de Leyva´s Workshop it was agreed that the Colombian Geological Survey will be in charge of the Andean region and the Geological Survey of Brazil) will be in charge of the South American Platform, just as it has been done until now. Afterwards, the harmonization between the Andes and the South American Platform will be undertaken, the reviewing and validation by official delegates of the South American geological surveys will be carried out, and after that the next version will be evaluated by final peer–review. The final version of the GMSA will be distributed after publication by the CGMW during the General Assembly of the CGMW in February 2018 that will be hold at UNESCO headquarters in Paris (France). The final product of the project will include the production of a printed geological map, a GIS data CD–ROM and the accompanying explanatory notes.