Noemi Proietti

Noemi Proietti
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Chemical Methodologies IMC

Chemistry

About

95
Publications
17,172
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,978
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - December 2012
Italian National Research Council
January 1997 - present
January 1993 - present
University of Rome Spaienza
Position
  • University of Rome Sapienza

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Full-text available
Beer antioxidants originate mainly from malts, classified as colored, caramel, and roasted, according to the malting process. This study aimed to characterize, in terms of phenolic antioxidants, three types of Pale Ale craft beers brewed using increasing percentage of dark malt (0, 5, and 15% Caraamber malt, called PA100, PA95, PA85, respectively)...
Article
Full-text available
San Nicola in Carcere, one of the minor basilicas in the historical center of Rome, was the location of a wide investigation campaign of the water-related deterioration causes, present in the lower sector of the apse and adjacent pillars, affected by water infiltrations, mould and salt efflorescence. The results obtained identify the presence of wa...
Article
Owing to the amphiphilic nature of their constituent molecules, binary mixtures of pure liquid surfactants are usually characterized by enhanced nano-segregation and thus can exhibit interesting transport properties and complex macroscopic behavior. In this ambit it was recently shown by Turco Liveri et al. (J. Mol. Liq. 263 (2018) 274–281) at room...
Article
Full-text available
Paintings are complex multi-layered systems made of organic and inorganic materials. Several factors can affect the degradation of paintings, such as environmental conditions, past restoration works and, finally, the type of painting technique and the art materials used over the centuries. The chemical–physical characterization of paintings is a co...
Article
Ancient vegetable tanned leathers and parchments are very complex materials in which both different manufacturing and deterioration processes make their study and chemical characterization difficult. In this research, solid state NMR spectroscopy was applied to identify different tannin families (condensed and hydrolyzable) in historical leather ob...
Article
In this study a multi-analytical approach has been performed to characterise the constitutive materials of an ancient painted barkcloth or Tapa. Originating from Wallis Island, Polynesia, this cloth likely served utilitarian or ceremonial purposes and is part of the Felice Junck collection at the Pigorini, Muciv museum of Rome. During a recent cons...
Article
The dispute over the paternity of western paper is a longstanding problem. In Italy, a country that has a long tradition of papermaking, many cities compete for the leadership in the production of this material; on the other hand, several studies attribute to Fabriano (13th century), a little center in Marche region, the birth of modern paper and i...
Article
Organic waste is a valuable raw material with potential for replacing synthetic products of petroleum origin in a more sustainable economy. Such a material is unmarketable wool, which is a growing resource in many countries and has recently concerned authorities because of the low degree of biodegradation of keratin and the potential for long-term...
Chapter
NMR can be successfully applied in the study of cultural inorganic materials. In this chapter case studies illustrating the potential of solid-state NMR in this field are reported. The first case deals with the use of ²⁰⁷Pb solid-state NMR to investigate inorganic pigments and related degradation processes. The second and third cases are focused on...
Article
In this study, portable NMR was applied to monitor and evaluate cleaning treatments on the surface of a 16th century Italian wall painting. Due to the complexity of the state of degradation of the wall painting, a campaign of measurements was carried in situ to evaluate the performance of traditional and innovative eco-friendly cleaning systems su...
Article
Agar is an interesting and versatile biopolymer capable of forming hydrogels useful in different applications. In particular, in the field of Cultural Heritage agar gels are often used as tools for cleaning the surfaces of artifacts. Agar gels are thermoreversible, peelable materials, exhibiting high retention of water and an intrinsic cleaning cap...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper five case studies illustrating applications of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) in the field of cultural heritage, are reported. Different issues were afforded, namely the investigation of advanced cleaning systems, the quantitative mapping of moisture in historic walls, the investigation and evaluation of restoration treatments on po...
Article
Full-text available
Low-field ¹H NMR relaxometry is an important tool used to investigate on the most abundant components of intact foodstuffs based on relaxation parameters and amplitude of the NMR signals. In particular, information on water compartments, diffusion and movement can be obtained by detecting proton signals prevalently ascribable to H2O contained in fo...
Article
Highly performing cleaning systems based on hydrogels for buildings and artefacts were studied by unilateral NMR. Specifically, the release and diffusion of water from gellan gum formulations at the gel stone interface were investigated. The study was carried out by applying gel formulations to stone specimens with different porosimetric properties...
Chapter
Full-text available
Applications of high-resolution NMR in liquid-state and in semi-solid matrices in the analysis of food components and entire food samples are described using examples of different food matrices and different problems related to food safety, traceability, geographical and botanical origin, farming methods, food processing, maturation and ageing, etc...
Chapter
Full-text available
Applications of low-field NMR relaxometry and NMR-imaging in the analysis of food samples are described using examples of different food matrices and different problems related to food processing, maturation and ageing, authenticity, shelf-life, perishability, etc.
Chapter
NMR can be successfully applied in the study of cultural inorganic materials. In this chapter case studies illustrating the potential of solid-state NMR in this field are reported. The first case deals with the use of 207Pb solid-state NMR to investigate inorganic pigments and related degradation processes. The second and third cases are focused on...
Chapter
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methodologies offer a comprehensive characterization of foodstuffs owing to the possibility to study a sample from different points of view including structural, compositional, functional, morphological etc. aspects. High resolution NMR spectroscopy applied to semi-solid food samples or to extracts in solution is us...
Article
The effectiveness and the mechanism of copper stain removal from stones by agar gels was systematically studied using marble laboratory specimens, stained and cleaned in well-controlled and reproducible conditions. The same cleaning procedure was also applied on the marble base of Napoleon's statue by A. Canova. The water release from agar gels to...
Article
13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and µ-Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize Sicilian amber samples. The main goal of this work was to supply a complete study of simetite, highlighting discriminating criteria useful to distinguish Sicilian amber from fossil resins from other regions and...
Chapter
Full-text available
NMR can be successfully applied in the study of cultural inorganic materials. In this chapter case studies illustrating the potential of solid-state NMR in this field are reported. The first case deals with the use of 207Pb solid-state NMR to investigate inorganic pigments and related degradation processes. The second and third cases are focused on...
Article
Full-text available
Arundo donax exhibits rapid growth and requires little nutrient input, making it an ideal perennial biomass crop species. However, this growth is accompanied by high rates of water use, potentially restricting the use of A. donax in rain-fed marginal lands. Here, we investigated the physiological and morphological responses to drought in two ecotyp...
Chapter
Full-text available
The research line MOdihMA (MOisture detection in historical MAsonry) proposes to improve the innovative techniques recently developed to measure different parameters related to water content in masonry, that has an important role in the damage of historical buildings. The first objective of this project is to compare the effectiveness of the differ...
Article
Full-text available
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can be successfully applied to a wide number of organic, inorganic, and hybrid materials regarding cultural heritage. High-resolution solid-state NMR provides information on the structure of materials, and portable NMR devices allow non-destructive and non-invasive in situ investigation of variably sized objects. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Drying is an important process for the conservation and subsequent marketing of fruits due to their high water activity which makes them highly perishable. Dried products have to meet high quality standards, and one of the most important aspects in fruit drying is the need to obtain products with uniform organoleptic properties. Therefore, the know...
Conference Paper
The aim of this study was the characterization of materials and the stratigraphy structure of a Sienese wooden painting, namely “Adorazione dei Magi” by Bartolo di Fredi (13th) and four cusps “San Paolo, San Giovanni Evangelista, San Pietro, San Giovanni Battista”, belonging to a lost “Polyptych”, by Andrea di Bartolo (14th). A portable NMR instrum...
Article
In this review, fundamental aspects of the untargeted NMR-based methodology applied to fruit characterization are described. The strategy to perform the structure elucidation of fruit metabolites is discussed with some examples of spectral assignments by 2D experiments. Primary ubiquitous metabolites as well as secondary species-specific metabolite...
Article
Consolidation and protection are among the most important treatments usually carried out in conservation of stone artifacts and monuments. In this paper, portable unilateral NMR and conventional techniques were used for investigating new multifunctional treatments based on tetraethoxysilane, silica, and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles. The st...
Article
An NMR analytical protocol based on complementary high and low field measurements is proposed for blueberry characterization. Untargeted NMR metabolite profiling of blueberries aqueous and organic extracts as well as targeted NMR analysis focused on anthocyanins and other phenols are reported. Bligh-Dyer and microwave-assisted extractions were carr...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely...
Article
Full-text available
NMR stratigraphy was used to investigate in situ, non-destructively and non-invasively, the stratigraphy of hydrogen-rich layers of an ancient Nubian detached mural painting. Because of the detachment procedure, a complex multi-layered artefact was obtained, where, besides layers of the original mural painting, also the materials used during the pr...
Conference Paper
The painting “Adoration of Magi” was located at the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena (Siena, Italy) and painted by Bartolo di Fredi, a Sienese painter of XIV century. Our aim is to characterize the materials and painting technique used by Bartolo di Fredi. Non invasive techniques, i.e. unilateral Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopy...
Article
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methodologies were applied to characterize the constitutive materials and the state of degradation of a contemporary painting. The investigation was mandatory to plan a suitable restoration. Noninvasive, portable NMR allowed the detection of degraded regions of the painting based on the measurement of longitudinal...
Article
Several factors affect antenna-soil coupling in a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey, like surface roughness, lithology, lateral heterogeneities, vegetation, antenna height from the surface and water content. Among them, lithology and water content have a direct effect on the bulk electromagnetic properties of the material under investigation. I...
Article
The present work was aimed at characterising the materials and assessing the state of conservation of the ‘Adorazione dei Magi’, a wooden panel painted by Bartolo di Fredi in the second half of fourteenth century. To this goal, innovative non-destructive investigation techniques such as portable Raman spectroscopy, visible reflectance spectroscopy...
Conference Paper
The painting “Adoration of the Magi” (Fig.1) exhibited at the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena (Siena, Italy) was executed in the second half of XIV century by Bartolo di Fredi, a Sienese painter. The pictorial theme of the “Adoration of the Magi” was inspired to the triumphal entry of the King of Cyprus in Siena in June 1368 with 300 knights. In Febr...
Article
The metabolic profiling of aqueous extracts of ZespriTM Gold (Actinidia Chinensis) and CI.GI (a controlled crossbreed from different species of Actinidia deliciosa) kiwifruits as well as the water state of the outer pericarp of entire fruits were monitored over the season by means of high field NMR spectroscopy and T2 relaxation time measurements r...
Article
Many applications of various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods to characterize and monitor Cultural Heritage were reported. NMR is a very powerful tool in the chemical characterization of materials which allows light to be shed on the techniques used by artists, and can provide knowledge about the materials constituting artifacts. Knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
Portable unilateral NMR was used to quantitatively map in a fully noninvasive way the moisture distribution in an ancient deteriorated wall painting before and after an intervention to reduce the capillary raise of water through the wall. Maps obtained at a depth of 0.5 cm clearly showed the path of the capillary raise and indicated that, after the...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work is the assessment of the possibility to produce geopolymeric materials for the specific use in the field of consolidation of stone materials or as restoration mortars, through mechano-chemical activation of two solid precursors, quartz and kaolin. These starting materials were modified by grinding at different times and then th...
Article
Hydrophobic treatment is one of the most important interventions usually carried out in the conservation of stone artifacts and monuments. The analytical study reported in this paper was aimed at answering general questions such as the penetration depth of a hydrophobic treatment into a porous material, its capability to impair the water absorption...
Article
Paper and papyrus endurance depends on their intrinsic properties that are related to the manufacture processes and to the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, presence of micro-organisms, etc.). During the time, paper and papyrus undergo unavoidable ageing processes causing mainly the degradation of the cellulose. In the framework of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the present paper we combined two different non-destructive techniques to detect the water content spatial variation in a porous material. The main goal of this work was to verify the ability of radar early time signals, using the proton density values measured with the unilateral NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) technique, in order to detect th...
Article
Diagnostics and monitoring of cultural heritage sites are mandatory as part of the preservation of artistic artifacts. The more delicate and prone to degradation a work of art is, the more efficient and informative a diagnostic technique must be. The innovative techniques described in this paper were applied to the study of walls, whether painted o...
Article
Full-text available
The different techniques used for field measurements of moisture content in the San Rocco Church in Cornaredo, Italy, were compared and discussed. The comparison considers the heterogeneous nature of the data collected, and the benefits and disadvantages of each technique tested. The results from the techniques used to measure water content in the...
Article
The metabolic profiling of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa, Hayward cultivar) aqueous extracts and the water status of entire kiwifruits were monitored over the season (June-December) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodologies. The metabolic profiling of aqueous kiwifruit extracts was investigated by means of high field NMR spectroscopy. A...
Article
Full-text available
A multi-technique approach was employed to study a decorated Egyptian wooden sarcophagus (XXV-XXVI dynasty, Third Intermediate Period), belonging to the Museo del Vicino Oriente of the Sapienza University of Rome. Portable non-invasive unilateral NMR was applied to evaluate the conservation state of the sarcophagus. Moreover, using unilateral NMR,...
Article
Full-text available
As is well known, the deterioration of wall paintings due to the capillary rise of water through the walls is a very widespread problem. In this paper, a study of microclimate monitoring, unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and evanescent-field dielectrometry (EFD) was applied to map non-destructively, in situ, and in a quantitative way th...
Article
Full-text available
An integrated study of microclimate monitoring, IR thermography (IRT), gravimetric tests and portable unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was applied in the framework of planning emergency intervention on a very deteriorated wall painting in San Rocco church, Cornaredo (Milan, Italy). The IRT investigation supported by gravimetric tests sho...
Article
The chemical and biological deterioration of paper-based materials is mainly due to the degradation of its main component, the cellulose. However, paper also contains small amounts of organic and inorganic additives which might influence its biodegradability. To protect the paper-based materials against various degradative agents, coating treatment...
Article
Some polyester and polycarbonate-based waterborne polyurethanes (WPU) were characterised by means of several techniques, to correlate the morphology with their structures and properties. The morphological analysis carried out by transmission electron microscopy on thin sections showed that the selected polyurethanes, after purification, exhibit a n...
Article
Full-text available
We recently reported that aspartate (Asp) biosynthesis in plant chloroplasts is catalyzed by two different Asp aminotransferases (AAT): a previously characterized eukaryote type and a prokaryote type (PT-AAT) similar to bacterial and archaebacterial enzymes. The available molecular and kinetic data suggest that the eukaryote-type AAT is involved in...
Article
A Dutch map from the eighteenth century was multi-analytically analysed making use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Raman and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The cellulosic support was characterised and...
Article
A complete multianalytical study of a hand-coloured map from the seventeenth century is presented. The pigments atacamite, massicot, minium, gypsum, carbon black and vermilion were determined by means of XRF and Raman spectroscopy. The state of conservation of the cellulosic support was monitored by means of unilateral NMR. The analysis was nondest...
Article
Precipitated amorphous silica has been γ radiolyzed at 333, 666 and 1000 kGy in air. The structural changes undergone during irradiation have been studied by 29Si CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The spectra suggest that silica looses the hydrogen atoms attached to the silanol groups and the resulting silanol radicals undergo a crosslinking reaction by for...
Article
Full-text available
Wall paintings in the XVI century Serra Chapel in the "Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore" Rome, have been studied using unilateral NMR. In order to map the distribution of moisture content in the wall painted, a large number of Hahn echo measurements, covering large areas of the wall painting were performed. Because the intensity of the Hahn...