Noëlle Gunst

Noëlle Gunst
University of Lethbridge · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

52
Publications
11,780
Reads
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1,314
Citations
Citations since 2016
19 Research Items
555 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - August 2019
University of Lethbridge
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2016 - August 2019
University of Lethbridge
Position
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor
January 2011 - August 2015
University of Lethbridge
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
The term “structure” indicates a set of components that, in relation to each other, shape an organic complex. Such a complex takes on essential connotations of functionally unitary entity resulting from the mutual relationships of its constituent elements. In a broader sense, we can use the word “structure” to define the set of relationships among...
Article
Full-text available
Self-handicapping behaviors evolved as honest signals that reliably reflect the quality of their performers. In playful activities, self-handicapping is described as intentionally and unnecessarily putting oneself into disadvantageous positions and situations. Self-handicapping during play may allow individuals to learn to cope with unexpected even...
Article
Social influence is at the core of the emergence and maintenance of behavioral traditions in various animal taxa. Response facilitation is a mechanism of social influence whereby observing a demonstrator performing a behavior temporarily increases the probability that the observer will perform the same behavior. We focused on stone handling (SH) be...
Article
Recent reports on tool use in nonforaging contexts have led researchers to reconsider the proximate drivers of instrumental object manipulation. In this study, we explore the physiological and behavioral correlates of two stone‐directed and seemingly playful actions, the repetitive tapping and rubbing of stones onto the genital and inguinal area, r...
Article
Previous research on Japanese macaques has shown that female-to-male mounting (FMM) is performed by some females as an exaggerated form of sexual solicitation that may occur in the context of high female competition for male mates. This supernormal courtship behavior functions to prompt subsequent male-to-female mounting. In this report, we focused...
Article
We analysed heterosexual consortships in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques in which adult females routinely perform female-to-male mounting (FMM). We tested whether FMM is more efficient (i.e., a ‘supernormal courtship’ behavioural pattern) than species-typical female-to-male sexual solicitations (FMSS) at prompting subsequent male-to-femal...
Article
Full-text available
The token exchange paradigm shows that monkeys and great apes are able to use objects as symbolic tools to request specific food rewards. Such studies provide insights into the cognitive underpinnings of economic behavior in non-human primates. However, the ecological validity of these lab-based experimental situations tends to be limited. Our fiel...
Article
In certain populations of Japanese macaques, adult females mount adult males in the context of heterosexual consortships (i.e., temporary but exclusive sexual associations between a male and a female). Previous research suggested that, in this primate species, female-male mounting (FMM) may be a behavioral adaptation. This functional hypothesis hol...
Article
Inferring functional components of behavioral sequences is a crucial but challenging task. A systematic comparison of their temporal structure is a good starting point, based on the postulate that more functional traits are less structurally variable. We studied stone handling behavior (SH) in Balinese long-tailed macaques, a versatile form of ston...
Article
Full-text available
Animals use social information, available from conspecifics, to learn and express novel and adaptive behaviours. Amongst social learning mechanisms, response facilitation occurs when observing a demonstrator performing a behaviour temporarily increases the probability that the observer will perform the same behaviour shortly after. We studied “robb...
Article
We assessed the effect of a progestin-based contraceptive treatment (chlormadinone acetate) on female heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Central Japan. The data included estimated intensity of fertility cues, sexual solicitations and mounting behaviors coll...
Article
We assessed the effect of a progestin-based contraceptive treatment (chlormadinone acetate) on female heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Central Japan. The data included estimated intensity of fertility cues, sexual solicitations and mounting behaviors coll...
Presentation
Full-text available
Because tool use behaviour is more functionally constrained than object-directed play, the former should be more temporally structured (i.e., more predictable in its sequence) than the latter. Stone play (SP), defined as the non-functional and culturally transmitted manipulation of stones in several macaque species, is an ideal candidate behaviour...
Article
Full-text available
Stone handling (SH), has been identified in four closely related primate species of the Macaca genus. We provide the first ethogram of SH in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), a primate species known to use stones for extractive foraging. A total of 62.7 hrs of video recorded data were scored from a population of Balinese long-tailed macaq...
Article
Stone handling (SH), has been identified in four closely related primate species of the Macaca genus. We provide the first ethogram of SH in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), a primate species known to use stones for extractive foraging. A total of 62.7 hours of video recorded data were scored from a population of Balinese long-tailed mac...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural primatology (i.e., the study of behavioral traditions in nonhuman primates as a window into the evolution of human cultural capacities) was founded in Japan by Kinji Imanishi in the early 1950s. This relatively new research area straddles different disciplines and now benefits from collaborations between Japanese and Western primatologists...
Article
Full-text available
Mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona) were introduced from West-Central Africa to the Caribbean island of Grenada about 250 years ago. Little is known, however, about the recent trends in size and conservation status of this non-native primate population. We estimated the population density and abundance of mona monkeys in and around the forested areas...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putat...
Research
Full-text available
Abstract: Most of the information available on the conservation status of the ebony leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus), a species categorized as “Vulnerable” on The IUCN Red List􀀏􀀃􀁆􀁒􀁐􀁈􀁖􀀃􀁉􀁕􀁒􀁐􀀃􀁖􀁗􀁘􀁇􀁌􀁈􀁖􀀃􀁆􀁒􀁑􀁇􀁘􀁆􀁗􀁈􀁇􀀃􀁌􀁑􀀃􀀭􀁄􀁙􀁄􀀑􀀃􀀫􀁒􀁚􀁈􀁙􀁈􀁕􀀏􀀃􀁗􀁋􀁈􀁖􀁈􀀃􀂿􀁑􀁇􀁌􀁑􀁊􀁖􀀃􀁐􀁄􀁜􀀃􀁑􀁒􀁗􀀃 be representative of other islands of the Indonesian archipelago, such as Bali. In order to estima...
Article
We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the “adult male disinterest in adolescent females” hypothesis, t...
Article
Full-text available
The Sulawesi endemic species Macaca maura has been listed in the IUCN Red List as Endangered (A2cd) since 1996, mainly due to habitat disturbance and fragmentation. Nowadays, residual populations have increasingly been relegated to the karst areas of the island's Southern District. The main goal of this project is to point out preferences and strat...
Article
We used cross-sectional focal data collected in adolescent and adult females to elucidate the comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our data fully or p...
Article
In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of study of this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to fema...
Article
We studied the development of sexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our cross-sectional data on juvenile, adolescent, and adult females supported most of our predictions related to the learning hypot...
Article
Full-text available
We compared two non-conceptive sexual behavioral patterns (female-male mounting – FMM – and female-female mounting – FFM) across four free-ranging groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at three different field sites in Japan (Arashiyama, Minoo, and Jigokudani). We found marked inter-group differences and covariation in the frequency a...
Article
We documented nine male homosexual consortships within three different male-male dyads in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), at Minoo, Japan. A total of 63 male-male mounts were observed during these consortships. Male homosexual interactions shared most of the behavioral components that have been reported to chara...
Article
Full-text available
We compared two non-conceptive sexual behavioral patterns (female-male mounting – FMM – and female-female mounting – FFM) across four free-ranging groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at three different field sites in Japan (Arashiyama, Minoo, and Jigokudani). We found marked inter-group differences and covariation in the frequency a...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the information available on the conservation status of the ebony leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus), a species categorized as “Vulnerable” on The IUCN Red List, comes from studies conducted in Java. However, these findings may not be representative of other islands of the Indonesian archipelago, such as Bali. In order to estimate the den...
Article
The emergence of conceptive and non-conceptive sexual behaviours in mature individuals can be traced back to immature socio-sexual behavioural patterns. We tested the ‘needing-to-learn hypothesis’ in the development of sexual behaviours in the immature male Japanese macaques of Arashiyama, Japan. This hypothesis holds that juvenility serves to prov...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques holds a distinguished place in primatology as one of the longest continuously studied non-human primate populations in the world. The resulting long-term data provide a unique resource for researchers, allowing them to move beyond cross-sectional studies to tackle larger issues involving individual, matrili...
Article
Defined as a spontaneous stone-directed noninstrumental manipulative behavior, and comprised of multiple one-handed and (a)symmetrical/(un)coordinated two-handed patterns, stone handling (SH) is a good candidate for the study of complexity in object manipulation. We present a cross-sectional developmental analysis of SH complexity in Japanese macaq...
Article
We examined age-related differences in wild brown capuchins' foraging efficiency and the food-processing behaviors directed toward maripa palm fruit (Maximiliana maripa). A detailed comparison of the different foraging techniques showed that plucking the fruit from the infructescence constituted the main difficulty of this task. Foraging efficiency...
Article
Full-text available
Brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella apella) in Suriname forage on larvae enclosed within healthy bamboo stalks. We applied the searching versus handling dichotomy of optimal foraging models to highlight developmental processes contributing to foraging on embedded prey. Larvae acquisition begins with search; selecting an appropriate stalk and locat...
Article
Comparative and longitudinal studies have shown that stone-handling (SH) behaviour, defined as the noninstrumental manipulation of stones by performing various behavioural patterns, is socially transmitted across generations as a cultural behaviour in Japanese macaques. We investigated experimentally how stimulus/local enhancement, a form of indire...
Article
The preferential use of one hand over the other is considered the primary behavioral expression of structural and functional asymmetry in cerebral structures, which is a decisive factor in human evolution. We present the first analysis of manual laterality in a form of object play-stone handling (SH) behavior-in a free-ranging group of Japanese mac...
Article
We report the first case of dental flossing behavior by a Japanese macaque. We used cross-sectional data to assess the presence of this novel tool-use behavior at the group-level. Although this behavior was performed frequently by a central middle-ranking middle-aged female during her grooming interactions, and appeared at least four years ago, it...
Article
Throwing is a major behavioral component of hominid evolution. Comparison of this behavior across a broad range of non-human primate species is needed to elucidate the phylogenetic constraints on throwing behavior. In this study of stone-throwing in Japanese macaques, we present a systematic multi-group comparison of the frequency and prevalence of...
Article
By addressing the influence of food provisioning on stone handling (SH), a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques, this study contributes to the ongoing debate in cultural primatology by asking whether human intervention influences the emergence or propagation of behavioral traditions. SH is a form of object play consisting of the manipulation o...
Article
Wild brown capuchins (Cebus apella) in Raleighvallen, Suriname forage on larvae hidden inside bamboo stalks via searching and extractive behaviours. We found that developing proficiency at obtaining larvae from bamboo stalks extends through several years of juvenescence. Older juveniles pass through a transition from a juvenile pattern to an adult...
Article
Japanese macaques are known to manipulate stones by displaying various seemingly functionless behavioral patterns, including carrying a stone, rubbing two stones together, or gathering several stones into a pile. This form of solitary object play called stone handling (SH) is a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques, showing striking intertroop...
Article
Identifying the sources of behavioral diversity in non-human primates is vital to understanding the evolution of human behavior. Stone handling (SH, hereafter) is a form of object play consisting of the manipulation of stones by performing various behavioral patterns. This behavior is socially transmitted from generation to generation in Japanese m...
Article
Full-text available
Capuchins rub particular plant materials into their pelage, a behavior for which most authors have proposed a medicinal function (Baker in American Journal of Primatology 38:263–270, 1996, Baker, M. (1998). Fur Rubbing as Evidence for Medicinal Plant Use by Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus): Ecological, Social, and Cognitive Aspects of the Behavio...
Article
This is the first detailed report of social factors affecting fish-eating in Japanese macaques under natural circumstances. We video-recorded a complete event of fish eating, involving a new fish food species for the monkeys on Koshima island. Following the discovery of a large beached sea bass by a peripheral male, we observed a total of 16 indivi...
Article
Full-text available
How can we explain inter- and intra-group differences in stone handling (SH), a form of solitary object play, consisting of manipulating stones by performing various behavioral patterns? SH is presumably socially transmitted across generations, as a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques. We tested hypotheses proposing that SH variability reflec...
Article
Stone handling (SH), a form of solitary object play, consists of an individual manipulating stones by performing various behavioural patterns. Previous findings from the Arashiyama population of Japanese macaques suggested that SH is socially transmitted across generations as a behavioural tradition. To further test the hypothesis that SH is a trad...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the initiation of group movements in white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, with the aim of determining whether a single individual with high dominance status consistently leads movements or whether leadership is distributed between group members. The group studied was reared in semifree-ranging conditions. A multivariate an...

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