Nina Zidar

Nina Zidar
University of Ljubljana · Institute of Pathology

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134
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Publications

Publications (134)
Article
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Benign peripheral non-cranial nerve sheath tumors are rare lesions, including both schwannomas and neurofibromas. These tumors arise from Schwann cells, and may originate from any peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerve. Most of them are localized and sporadic but multifocal systemic forms can occur. Cervical sympathetic chain, brachial plexus, cer...
Article
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Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis, influencing cancer progression, metastases, stemness, immune evasion, metabolic reprogramming and therapeutic resistance. EMT in most carcinomas, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC), is only partial, and can be evidenced by identification of the underlying molecular dr...
Article
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This review gives a brief history of the development of head and neck pathology in Europe from a humble beginning in the 1930s to the explosive activities the last 15 years. During the decades before the introduction of immunohistochemistry in the 1980s, head and neck pathology grew as a subspeciality in many European countries. In the late 1940s,...
Article
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Introduction: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) from primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is an infrequent condition, and classically it was thought that CNS tumors could not spread via the lymphatic route. Recent discoveries about this route of dissemination make its knowledge necessary for surgeons and pathologists to avoid delays in dia...
Article
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In this article, we review the chapter on tumors of the larynx, hypopharynx, trachea and parapharyngeal space in the new edition of the WHO book, focusing on the new developments in comparison to the previous edition. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its variants are by far the most common malignancies at these locations, with very limited new ins...
Article
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Despite the lack of approved anti-angiogenic therapies in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), preclinical and more recent clinical evidence support the role of targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in this disease. Targeting VEGF has gained even greater interest following the recent evidence supporting the role o...
Article
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Fibrosis is an important feature of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Our aim was to identify genes important for fibrosis in IBD by comparison with kidney and liver fibrosis. First, we performed bioinformatics analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus datasets of liver and kidney fibrosis and identified...
Article
Aims The transcriptional activity of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) within oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) has been linked to improved survival of patients. HR-HPV mRNA silver in situ hybridization (SISH) was evaluated on a cohort of OPSCC and compared with viral HPV DNA tests and p16 expression. Clinical outcomes of HPV-d...
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Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the head and neck are rare and the experience scanty. The Cancer Registry of Slovenia database was used to identify cases of laryngeal and pharyngeal NECs diagnosed between 1995–2020. Biopsies were analyzed for the expression of standard neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56), INSM1, Ki-67, p1...
Article
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are characterized by an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interfering with the resolution of inflammation. Due to the crucial role of cytokines, new insights into their profiles in UC and CD would help to improve our understanding of pathogenesis and enable the devel...
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The diagnosis is the art of determining the nature of a disease, and an accurate diagnosis is the true cornerstone on which rational treatment should be built. Within the workflow in the management of head and neck tumours, there are different types of diagnosis. The purpose of this work is to point out the differences and the aims of the different...
Article
Introduction Many diseases can imitate inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] clinically and pathologically. This review outlines the differential diagnosis of IBD and discusses morphological pointers and ancillary techniques that assist with the distinction between IBD and its mimics. Methods European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation [ECCO] Topical Rev...
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There is emerging evidence suggesting that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) play an important role in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but their exact role remains controversial. Our aim was to analyze the miR-200 family as EMT markers and their target genes expression at invasive tumor front and in nod...
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Significant progress has been made in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cancer stem cells (CSC) have gained much attention and are now believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of various cancers, including CRC. In the current study, we validated gene expression of four genes r...
Article
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NANOG is a stem cell transcription factor that is believed to play an important role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but there is limited data regarding the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of NANOG expression. We therefore analyzed expression of NANOG, NANOG-regulating miRNA...
Chapter
The chapter provides historical context and biological understanding of precancerous changes, and describes disorders that predispose to squamous carcinoma. It discusses grading systems for use at different head and neck sites, with no single grading system being applicable to all, and those developed for cervix, colon, and other sites being inappr...
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Colorectal carcinoma usually evolves gradually, forming a spectrum of lesions, due to accumulation of genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations. Many early lesions are detected since the introduction of screening programs. The greatest challenge is to distinguish between adenomas with epithelial misplacement (AEM) and adenomas with early carcino...
Article
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We present the historical review and current state of the histopathological classifications and terminology of laryngeal precursor lesions. Attention to recent genetic findings is also presented; although in need of additional confirmation, these raise possibility for early detection of patients at risk of dysplasia progression. Although a number o...
Article
Aim: Identification of aberrant hypermethylation in promoter regions of candidate genes to discover potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Materials & Methods: Genes BMP2, IRF4, KCNA1, LRRC7, NRG3, SLC27A6 and UNC5D were pre-selected in a bioinformatics study for their hypermethylation status in colorectal cancer. Methylation analysis was perf...
Article
Aim: To identify (epi)genetic regulators of osteopontin (OPN, encoded by SPP1 gene) from normal colon mucosa to adenoma, adenoma with early carcinoma and advanced carcinoma. Patients & methods: Biopsy samples of 41 patients with different patohistologic diagnosis were used. Using qPCR, pyrosequencing and statistical analysis, we determined the expr...
Article
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Various polymerase chain reaction- (PCR-) based methods with varying positivity rates were designed to detect the Helicobacter pylori babA2 gene. To compare different primer sets, babA2 prevalence was determined in 279 H. pylori-positive pediatric samples using the 832 bp, 139 bp, and 271 bp PCR primer sets, resulting in 34.0%, 51.3%, and 79.6% pre...
Article
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Background: Results of previous studies suggest that NANOG may be an important prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but there are contradictory results regarding NANOG expression patterns on mRNA and protein levels, and the mechanisms of its regulation are poorly understood. Our aim was to analyze the expression and diagnos...
Article
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Background: Despite significant progress in the research of fibrosis in various organs, fibrosis remains a poorly understood complication of Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed pathologic features of fibrosis and inflammation in CD and compared them with the normal bowel, aiming to clarify whether fibrosis in CD pathogenetically resembles fibrosis in...
Article
Vnetje požiralnika, povzročeno z virusom herpes simpleks (HSV), je stanje, ki se pri imunokompetentnih posameznikih pojavi redko, še zlasti v obdobju otroštva. Če so pri otroku prisotni simptomi v zgornjih prebavilih, opravimo endoskopijo požiralnika z biopsijami sluznice, s katerimi potrdimo prisotnost HSV. Zdravljenje je največkrat samo podporno,...
Article
NANOG is an important stem cell transcription factor involved in human development and cancerogenesis. Its expression is complex and regulated on different levels. Moreover, NANOG protein might regulate hundreds of target genes at the same time. NANOG is crucial for preimplantation development phase and progressively decreases during embryonic stem...
Article
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“miRNA colorectal cancer” (https://mirna-coadread.omics.si/) is a freely available web application for studying microRNA and mRNA expression and their correlation in colorectal cancer. To the best of our knowledge, “miRNA colorectal cancer” has the largest knowledge base of miRNA-target gene expressions and correlations in colorectal cancer, based...
Article
During colorectal carcinogenesis, a spectrum of lesions is formed with different malignant potentials and occasionally with ambiguous morphologic features. To identify novel biomarkers, we previously performed a bioinformatics study to detect differentially expressed genes between colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The present...
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The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to develop evidence-based, universally available surgical pathology reporting data sets. Standardized pathologic reporting for cancers facilitates improved communication for patient care and prognosis and the comparison of data between countries to prog...
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The significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) virulence genes such as cagA and vacA has been extensively studied in children; however, data regarding the significance of homA and homB genes are scarce. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of these genes in Slovenian children. All children diagnosed with H...
Article
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death by cancer worldwide. Bowel cancer screening programs enable us to detect early lesions and improve the prognosis of patients with CRC. However, they also generate a significant number of problematic polyps, e.g., adenomas with epithelial misplacement (pseudoinvasion) which can mimic earl...
Data
Supplementary Table 1 shows a list of genes common in each comparison and their expressions for each project.
Data
Supplementary Figures: Figure 1 shows the number of genes differentially expressed in each comparison and their intersection; Figure 2 shows the logarithmic values of average intensities for normal, adenoma, and carcinoma samples for (a) GSE10714, (b) GSE37364, (c) GSE50114 and GSE50115.
Data
Supplementary Table 2 shows gene ontology and KEGG of differentially expressed genes in each comparison group.
Article
Full-text available
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a possible mechanism of cancer metastasizing, but strong evidence for EMT involvement in human cancer is lacking. Our aim was to compare oral spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) as an example of EMT with oral conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without nodal metastases to test the hyp...
Article
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of physiologic and pathologic conditions of the heart. Animal models of heart diseases have shown that miRNAs may contribute to the development of arrhythmias. However, little is known about the expression of muscle- and cardiac-specific miRNAs in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) who have develope...
Article
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Chapter 3 “Tumours of the hypopharynx, larynx, trachea, and parapharyngeal space” of the World Health Organization (WHO) Blue Book 2017 “Classification of Head and Neck Tumours” shows a shortened list of entities, especially due to reducing the number of benign and malignant soft tissue tumours, malignant melanoma and some others, which are transfe...
Article
We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with two rare concomitant diseases; sarcoidosis and collagenous colitis. Patient was admitted to our hospital with the symptoms of watery diarrhea that intermittently lasted for years because of delayed diagnosis. Despite increasing awareness of microscopic colitis, the delayed diagnosis remains an import...
Article
Aims: Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a variant of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and is in the anal region regarded as synonymous with giant condyloma (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor) (BLT). Etiology, diagnostic criteria and clinical behavior of both lesions are controversial. Recent studies suggest that VC at other sites is not associated wit...
Article
Full-text available
Fibrosis is an important feature of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD), but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. To determine the postulated involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the development of fibrosis in IBD, we analysed the expression profiles of the miR-200 family which has been shown...
Article
Laryngeal carcinogenesis is a multistep process, characterized by an accumulation of genetic changes associated with architectural and cytologic alterations, ranging from squamous hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and encompassed by the terminology of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). The etiology, classification, genetic changes, and maligna...
Article
Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate morphological and functional characteristics of oesophageal epithelial barrier in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) with or without gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy with oesophageal biopsies and combined oesophageal...
Article
Laryngeal carcinogenesis is a multistep process, characterized by an accumulation of genetic changes associated with architectural and cytologic alterations, ranging from squamous hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and encompassed by the terminology of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). The etiology, classification, genetic changes, and maligna...
Chapter
The chapter focuses on a wide spectrum of laryngeal pathology, including cysts, diverticles and all spectra of inflammation, from infectious to autoimmune and idiopathic inflammatory conditions. Special attention is given to exudative lesions of Reinke’s space (i.e. Reinke’s oedema, vocal cord polyp and nodule) and various conditions which present...
Chapter
The chapter is concentrated on the three main topics of squamous lesions in the head and neck pathology. The first part treats the squamous cell papillomas and related lesions with the main stress on laryngeal recurrent papillomatosis. The second part is devoted to squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), which still represent one of the most contr...
Article
Acantholytic (adenoid) squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a subtype of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in which neoplastic tumour cells form gland-like structures. Little is known about the pathogenetic mechanisms of ASCC. We hypothesised that they may be related to the compositon of desmosomes. We analysed the immunohistochemical expression of desmos...
Article
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is a common complication in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), particularly in those with steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis. It is usually diagnosed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of the colon biopsy. The introduction of quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qP...
Article
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The temporary tracheostoma's metastases of head and neck cancer had already been reported in the literature. So far, they had been considered as regional dissemination of the malignant disease. We report a case of temporary tracheostoma's metastasis of carcinoma from non-head-and-neck primary site, what has not been reported in the literature, yet....
Article
To the Editor:We read with interest the article by Paniz-Mondolfi et al. [1]. They used high-depth next-generation sequencing of 47 cancer-associated genes in order to assess the mutational landscape of cutaneous carcinosarcoma (CCS) and to investigate whether the epithelial and mesenchymal components share the same genetic signature. In CSS with a...
Article
Full-text available
The heart is the first organ to function in the developing embryo. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in the translational regulation of gene expression, which is beside transcriptional regulation crucial for the morphologic development of muscle tissue. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that the expression of miR-1...
Article
The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of the babA2 gene within Helicobacter pylori strains circulating in the Slovenian pediatric population, to further clarify its significance in causing inflammation of gastric mucosa in children and to verify whether cagA, vacA, iceA and babA genes work independently or synergistically in causin...
Article
To verify the applicability, reproducibility and predictive value of a proposed unified classification (amended Ljubljana classification) of laryngeal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Six internationally recognised experts and three pathologists from Ljubljana contributed to this study by evaluating a set of laryngeal SILs using the new sys...
Article
The current state in the field of classifying oral and laryngeal precursor lesions, as proposed in the WHO 2005 Blue Book is not ideal. The results of various inter-observer studies have shown that the currently used grading systems, with different basic concepts and different terminology, cannot continue to be reliably used in the future. The diff...
Article
Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory condition of the gastric mucosa, which may include glandular alterations. It is most frequently caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori, a smaller proportion is related to chemical agents and autoimmune mechanisms. Chronic gastritis may lead to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, depending on environ...
Article
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za endoskopsko in histološko spremljanje bolnikov s kroničnim ... 93 Priporočila za endoskopsko in histološko spremljanje bolnikov s kroničnim ... Ključne besede: rak želodca; Helicobacter pylori; predkanceroze želodca; endoskopsko in histološko sledenje za endoskopsko in histološko spremljanje bolnikov s kroničnim gastritisom in predkancerozami že...
Article
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Histološke in molekularnogenetske značilnosti predrakavih sprememb pri kroničnem gastritisu Histologic and molecular-genetic characteristics of precancerous lesions in chronic gastritis nina Zidar, 1 nika kojc, 1 Bojan Tepeš 2 Izvleček Kronični gastritis je kronično vnetje želodčne sluznice, ki ga lahko spremljajo tudi spremem-be žlez. Najpogosteje...
Article
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Association between verrucous carcinoma (VC) of the head and neck and human papillomaviruses (HPV) is highly controversial. Previous prevalence studies focused mostly on α-PV, while little is known about other PV genera. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of a broad spectrum of HPV in VC of the head and neck using sensitive and specific mole...
Article
Inflammation plays a major pathogenetic role in the development of atherosclerotic plaques and related thromboembolic events. The identification of vulnerable plaques is of the utmost importance, as this may allow the implementation of more effective preventive and therapeutic interventions. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
Article
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Sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) is a rare, usually benign tumor arising from the respiratory mucosa of the sinonasal tract. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice. In histologically overt benign IPs ( without associated malignancy) irradiation was employed only anecdotally. The patient with gross residual of benign IP after up-front surger...
Chapter
Head and neck tumors most often originate from the squamous epithelium, but they can also arise from the sinonasal mucosa and salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of this region is the sixth commonest cancer worldwide and thus forms a significant part of routine work in pathology. Benign and potentially malignant intraepithelial lesions,...