Nina Joffard

Nina Joffard
Evolutionary Biology Centre (Uppsala) · Department of Ecology and Genetics

PhD

About

16
Publications
4,315
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114
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
114 Citations
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Introduction
During my PhD at the Functional and Evolutionary Ecology Centre (CEFE, Montpellier), I have worked on the ecology and evolution of Mediterranean orchids. In particular, I have studied the evolution of olfactory signals involved in plant-pollinator interactions at different evolutionary scales using selection analyses and phylogenetic comparative analyses in several orchid clades characterized by distinct pollination strategies. I am now working on the effect of coexistence on floral trait evolution in two orchid species (Gymnadenia conopsea and G. densiflora) at the Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC, Uppsala).

Publications

Publications (16)
Article
Full-text available
Accurate species delimitation is critical for biodiversity conservation. Integrative taxonomy has been advocated for a long time, yet tools allowing true integration of genetic and phenotypic data have been developed quite recently and applied to few models, especially in plants. In this study, we investigated species boundaries within a group of t...
Article
Natural selection on floral scent composition is a key element of the hypothesis that pollinators and other floral visitors drive scent evolution. The measure of such selection is complicated by the high-dimensional nature of floral scent data and uncertainty about the cognitive processes involved in scent-mediated communication. We use dimension r...
Article
Full-text available
Global changes induce a general decline in the abundance and diversity of European orchids and their pollinators. Such a decline is especially likely to affect species engaged in specialized interactions, thereby causing their replacement by generalists. In this study, we focused on sexually deceptive orchids from the genus Ophrys, which are often...
Chapter
Full-text available
Orchids of the genus Ophrys have experienced recent explosive evolutionary radiation. In order to propose a coherent definition of the notion of species for the Ophrys, it is therefore essential to consider the species in the context of the process of speciation. Since the genus Ophrys has undergone significant, rapid and recent diversification, th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Le vivant a d’innombrables facettes qui sont prises en compte par le concept de diversité biologique (biodiversité). Ne s’attacher qu’aux mécanismes ou processus généraux qui seraient communs à un grand nombre d’espèces véhicule une pensée réductionniste qui ne permet pas de répondre aux questions d’évolution, d’adaptation et de changement environn...
Article
Recently diverged species often show incomplete reproductive isolation and subsequently experience hybridization and introgression. The plant genus Mimulus includes many such examples of closely related taxa that prove useful for studying incipient speciation. However, Sandstedt et al. (4) show that in contrast to other Mimulus species, species of...
Article
Full-text available
Current divergent selection may promote floral trait differentiation among conspecific populations in flowering plants. However, whether this applies to complex traits such as colour or scents has been little studied, even though these traits often vary within species. In this study, we compared floral colour and odour as well as selective pressure...
Article
Full-text available
• Sexually deceptive orchid species from the Mediterranean genus Ophrys usually interact with one or a few pollinator species by means of specific floral scents. In this study, we investigated the respective role of pollinator‐mediated selection and phylogenetic constraints in the evolution of floral scents in the section Pseudophrys. • We built a...
Article
Full-text available
Many flowering plant species are characterized by a large variation in floral traits at the population or individual levels. Among these traits, colors and odors are particularly important for pollinator attraction, yet they appear to be highly variable among conspecifics. Orchids are famous for their great taxonomic and floral diversity, as well a...
Article
1.Pollination niches are important components of ecological niches and have played a major role in the diversification of Angiosperms. In this study, we focused on Euro‐Mediterranean orchids, which use diverse pollination strategies and interact with various functional groups of insects. In these orchids, we investigated the determinants of pollina...
Article
Leaf and root essential oils of two closely related but ecologically distant Philodendron species were extracted in natural conditions in French Guyana and analysed by GC-MS to (i) describe the blends of Volatile Organic Compounds produced by those species and (ii) analyse species and environment-based variations in extracts composition. A total of...
Article
Several authors have recently stressed the need to develop an integrative approach in taxonomy, but studies applying such an approach to Mediterranean orchids are scarce. In sexually deceptive orchids from the taxonomically difficult genus Ophrys, pollination is specific and performed by male insects attracted to the flowers by sex pheromone-mimick...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Orchidaceae family is famous for its taxonomic and floral diversity and has attracted the attention of the scientific community for a long time. This is particularly true for the Ophrys genus, which is known for its unusual pollination strategy, sexual deception, and its insect-mimicking flowers. However, the Ophrys genus currently knows a “tax...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Orchidaceae family is famous for its great taxonomic and floral diversity, which may result from the extremely diverse orchid-pollinator interactions. In Mediterranean orchids, these interactions are often categorised into three main pollination strategies (food reward, food deception and sexual deception) and are more or less specific. In part...

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Project (1)
Project
This project uses orchids of the genus Ophrys as a model of adaptive radiations. The highly specialized pollination strategy by sexual swindle of Ophrys is a key innovation that fueled a recent and rapid diversification of the genus (ca. 350 species since <5.106 years in 9-11 clades). Pollinator species shifts caused by the high intraspecific variability allow speciation in sympatry, which superimposes to the allopatric speciation typical of Mediterranean taxa. We perform intra- and inter-clade comparisons, where each species is characterized by its phenotype (flower morphology and pseudo-pheromone composition, pollinator identity), its genotype (SNPs and transcriptomes) and its ecological niche. Using an original integrative approach, we aim at retracing the scenario of the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation mechanisms to promote the conservation of the evolutionary potential of this fascinating group. Publications: Baguette M., Bertrand J., Stevens V.M., Schatz B. 2019. Why are there so many bee-orchid species? Adaptive radiation by intraspecific competition for mnemonic pollinators. Preprints 2019, 2019100204 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201910.0204.v1) Bertrand J.A.M, Gibert A., LLauro C., Panaud O. 2019. Characterization of the complete pastime of Ophrys aveyronensis, a Euro-Mediterranean orchid with an intriguing disjunct geographic distribution. Mitochondrial DNA Part B, in press. Joffard N., Massol F., Grenié F., Montgelard C., Schatz B. 2019. Effect of pollination strategy, phylogeny and distribution on pollination niches of Euro-Mediterranean orchids. Journal of Ecology 107, 478-490 Joffard N., Arnal V., Buatois B., Schatz B., Montgelard C. in press. Floral scent evolution in the section Pseudophrys: phylogenetic constraints or pollinator-mediated selection? Schatz B., Sauvion N., Kjellberg F., Nel A. 2017. Plant–insect interactions: a palaeontological and an evolutionary perspective. In N. Sauvion, D. Thiéry, P.-A. Calatayud (Eds.), Insect-Plant interactions in a Crop Protection Perspective, Elsevier, The Hague, 1–24