Nina Eisenmenger

Nina Eisenmenger
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt · Institute of Social Ecology

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74
Publications
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Publications

Publications (74)
Article
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Informed environmental-economic policy decisions require a solid understanding of the economy's biophysical basis. Global physical input-output tables (gPIOTs) collate a vast array of information on the world economy's physical structure and its interdependence with the environment, which can help to monitor progress toward a sustainable circular e...
Technical Report
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Maßnahmen für einen nachhaltigeren Ressourcenverbrauch in Österreich können auch CO2-Emissionen senken und damit zum Klimaschutz beitragen. Diese Synergiewirkung wurde anhand einer modellbasierten Analyse in den Bereichen Wohngebäude und Pkw-Verkehr bestätigt. Ressourcenmindernde Maßnahmen sollten daher gemeinsam mit Klimaschutzmaßnahmen implementi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Informed environmental-economic policy decisions require a solid understanding of the economy's biophysical basis. Global physical input-output tables (gPIOTs) collate a vast array of information on the world economy's physical structure and its interdependence with the environment. However, building gPIOTs requires dealing with mismatched and inco...
Article
Full-text available
To keep global heating and other negative consequences of socioeconomic activities within manageable boundaries, industrialized countries must undergo substantial decarbonization, requiring the exploitation of synergies with other environmental endeavors. Improving resource efficiency-that is, reducing the resources required to generate a unit of e...
Article
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The sustainable development goals (SDGs) were adopted in 2015, succeeding the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). While the MDGs focused on improving well-being in the developing world, the 17 SDGs address all countries and aim at reconciling economic and social with ecological goals. We adopt a social ecology perspective and critically reflect on...
Article
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Input-output analysis is one of the central methodological pillars of industrial ecology. However, the literature that discusses different structures of environmental extensions (EEs), i.e. the scope of physical flows and their attribution to sectors in the monetary input-output table (MIOT), remains fragmented. This paper investigates the conceptu...
Article
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Biodiversity and ecosystem service losses driven by land-use change are expected to intensify as a growing and more affluent global population requires more agricultural and forestry products, and teleconnections in the global economy lead to increasing remote environmental responsibility. By combining global biophysical and economic models, we sho...
Article
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In various international policy processes such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals, an urgent demand for robust consumption‐based indicators of material flows, or material footprints (MFs), has emerged over the past years. Yet, MFs for national economies diverge when calculated with different Global Multiregional Input–Output (GMRIO) databases,...
Article
Globalization led to an immense increase of international trade and the emergence of complex global value chains. At the same time, global resource use and pressures on the environment are increasing steadily. With these two processes in parallel, the question arises whether trade contributes positively to resource efficiency, or to the contrary is...
Article
Full-text available
Environmentally extended multiregional input-output (EE MRIO) tables have emerged as a key framework to provide a comprehensive description of the global economy and analyze its effects on the environment. Of the available EE MRIO databases, EXIOBASE stands out as a database compatible with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) wit...
Article
The growing extraction of natural resources and the waste and emissions resulting from their use are directly or indirectly responsible for humanity approaching or even surpassing critical planetary boundaries. A sound knowledge base of society’s metabolism, i.e., the physical exchange processes between society and its natural environment and the p...
Data
Supporting Information S1: This supporting information provides details on data and data sources used in the exergy account. This includes in particular: 1) data tables on exergy inputs by energy carrier and by use, as well as useful work supply by type, and 2) data sources with a detailed description of historical data sources used and a compariso...
Technical Report
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In a previous report for the OECD Environment Directorate (Giljum et al., 2015), the state of scientific knowledge about the robustness and reliability of demand-based indicators of material flows to guide the OECD’s engagement in this domain was assessed. This report builds upon the results and recommendations of the previous study. The first obje...
Article
Full-text available
The international industrial ecology (IE) research community and United Nations (UN) Environment have, for the first time, agreed on an authoritative and comprehensive data set for global material extraction and trade covering 40 years of global economic activity and natural resource use. This new data set is becoming the standard information sourc...
Article
Full-text available
In the past few years, resource use and resource efficiency have been implemented in the European Union (EU) environmental policy programs as well as international sustainable development programs. In their programs, the EU focuses on four resource types that should be addressed: materials, energy (or carbon dioxide [CO2] emissions), water, and lan...
Chapter
Due to the global fragmentation of supply and use chains, final consumption and the production of goods and services are often spatially disconnected. A country in which a large share of material and energy use is dedicated to the production of exports may seem to consume more material than a country that imports material-intensive products. Materi...
Chapter
The basic characteristics of the size and composition of material flows depend on the respective stage of countries’ metabolic transition from an agrarian to an industrial society. On a global level, resource use grew between 1950 and 2010 by a factor of 3.7 to 71 Gt (gigatons) per year. Moreover, the spectrum of resources used by industrializing s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Material stocks are an important part of the metabolism of society. Due to their long service-lifetimes, these stocks induce long-term dynamics of resource use for their regular reproduction, triggering resource flows during construction, use, maintenance, refurbishment and at the end of their useful lifetime in the form of waste. This chapter expl...
Chapter
The metabolism of human society is dynamic; it has undergone major changes during the course of human history, and it is currently in a transition process. Since the time of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, the amount of materials extracted and used by humans and the associated impact on the environment have grown by several orders of magnitude, and t...
Chapter
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In the 20th century, the human population grew fourfold and the global economy grew 20-fold. This chapter explores how social metabolism has changed with these megatrends. It shows that material and energy use have grown faster than the population but less than the GDP, implying a growth in metabolic rates and some decoupling of resource use from e...
Article
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Available online xxxx Understanding the environmental implications of consumption and production depends on appropriate monitoring tools. Material flow accounting (MFA) is a method to monitor natural resource use by countries and has been widely used in research and policy. However, the increasing globalization requires the consideration of 'embodi...
Article
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In this article we develop a comprehensive conceptual framework for resource efficiency indicators with a consistent link of resource use to the socio-economic system and activities therein as well as to the natural system and its ecosystem functioning. Three broad groups of indicators are defined: (1) resource use indicators representing pressures...
Article
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During the second half of the 20th century, mining expanded globally and must be considered one of the dominant forms of human intervention into the environment. Metals are strategically important resources for industrialized and industrializing societies. In 2010, the five BRICS countries (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, and South Af...
Book
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Natürliche Ressourcen, das sind Energierohstoffe, Metalle, nichtmetallische Mineralstoffe, Biomasse, Wasser und Luft, stellen eine wichtige Grundlage für unser Leben auf diesem Planeten dar. Der sparsame und effiziente Umgang mit natürlichen Ressourcen gilt als eine der Schlüsselstrategien für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung unserer Umwelt, Wirtschaft...
Data
Supporting Information S1: This supporting information provides an overview of methods to measure upstream land requirements, background information on EEIOA‐based global studies, a comparison of the results of global studies, and a comparison of the results of regional and national studies.
Article
The growth in Austria's raw material consumption (RMC) or material footprint is driven by changes in consumption and production. In using the tool of structural decomposition analysis and applying it to Austrian RMC between 1995 and 2007, three specific drivers (technology, composition, and volume of final demand) are identified and quantified. The...
Article
Full-text available
The indicator domestic material consumption (domestic extraction + imports – exports) is widely used to track the scale, composition, and dynamics of material use. As production increasingly occurs at a spatial distance from the demand it ultimately satisfies, new accounting challenges arise that this indicator may not be able to meet. In response,...
Article
Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to “telecoupling” between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass-based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products...
Article
Full-text available
The Institute of Social Ecology (SEC) guide for economy wide material flow accounting (EW-MFA) provides an introduction into accounting principles and practical support for students, statisticians, researchers and all others concerned with material flow accounting. This guide is a revised and modified version of the 2009 draft of the Eurostat MFA c...
Article
Full-text available
Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7–71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with gr...
Article
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Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of...
Data
Material flows in Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago 1961-2008. For more details see Krausmann, F., Richter, R., Eisenmenger, N., 2014. Resource use in small Island states: Material flows in Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago 1961-2008. Journal of Industrial Ecology 18 (2) 294-305.
Article
With rapidly increasing trade volumes, resource use and environmental pressures related to traded products are high on research and policy agendas. Robust accounts of biophysical resources used in the production processes of traded goods are required to support sustainable consumption and to expose problem shifting related to environmental policies...
Presentation
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Power point presentation, structured as follows: 1. The economic world context: rapidly growing resource demand, risk of supply shortages, and rising resource prices 2. The monetary and physical representation of the life cycle of resource extraction, processing, consumption and deposition, and what differences this makes 3. What is the internation...
Article
Humanity currently extracts almost 70 billion tons of materials per year. During the last century global materials extraction and use have increased by one order of magnitude. Growth accelerated in the last decade, when materials extraction grew with the global economy at an annual rate of 3.6%. For sustainable development it is of key importance t...
Article
In 2007, imports accounted for approximately 34% of the material input (domestic extraction and imports) into the Austrian economy and almost 60% of the GDP stemmed from exports. Upstream material inputs into the production of traded goods, however, are not yet included in the standard framework of material flow accounting (MFA). We have reviewed d...
Book
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By 2050, humanity could devour an estimated 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year – three times its current appetite – unless the economic growth rate is “decoupled” from the rate of natural resource consumption. Developed countries citizens consume an average of 16 tons of those four key resources per capita (rangin...
Article
Full-text available
This Report is the first in a series of reports on decoupling to be published by the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management. It aims at scoping the challenges of decoupling. On material flows, the Report gives quantitative assessments at a global scale, at national levels, classified into the four major categories of primary raw ma...
Article
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This paper presents a societal level exergy analysis approach developed to analyse transitions in the way that energy is supplied and contributes to economic growth in the UK, the US, Austria and Japan, throughout the last century. We assess changes in exergy and useful work consumption, energy efficiency and related GDP intensity measures of each...
Article
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Human use of materials is a major driver of global environmental change. The links between materials use and economic development are central to the challenge of decoupling of materials use and economic growth (dematerialization). This article presents a new global material flow dataset compiled for the year 2000, covering 175 countries, including...
Article
Full-text available
The growing industrial metabolism is a major driver of global environmental change. We present an assessment of the global use of materials since the beginning of the 20th century based on the conceptual and methodological principles of material flow accounting (MFA). On the grounds of published statistical data, data compilations and estimation pr...
Article
Australia's export-oriented large natural resources sectors of agriculture and mining, the ways large-scale services, such as nutrition, water, housing, transport and mobility, and energy are organized, and the consumption patterns of Australia's wealthy urban households, create a unique pattern of overall resource use in Australia. In an attempt t...
Article
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Summary We present the concept of sociometabolic regimes and use it to analyze patterns of change in global social metabolism. Sociometabolic regimes represent dynamic equilibria of society–nature interactions and are characterized by typical patterns of material and energy flows (metabolic profiles). From this perspective, industrialization appear...
Article
This article presents an account of global resource extraction for the year 1999 by material groups, world regions, and development status. The account is based on materials flow analysis methodology and provides benchmark information for political strategies toward sustainable resource management. It shows that currently around 50 thousand megaton...
Article
Full-text available
Economic development goes hand in hand with an increase in the consumption of natural resources. Some analysts use material flows to describe such relationship [Eurostat 2001, Weisz et al., 2006], or exergy [Ayres et al., 2003]. Instead this paper will use a characterisation of the exosomatic energy metabolism based on expected benchmark values to...
Article
Full-text available
El artículo presenta una aplicación de las metodologías de Análisis de Flujo de Materiales y Análisis Integrado Multi- Escala del Metabolismo Social (MSIASM, siglas en inglés) para la caracterización de modelos de desarrollo económico de Brasil, Chile, y Venezuela, mediante la utilización combinada de datos económicos y de uso de energía y material...
Article
This article presents an assessment of energy inputs of the European Union (the 15 countries before the 2004 enlargement, abbreviated EU-15) for the period 1970–2001 and the United States for 1980–2000. The data are based on an energy flow analysis (EFA) that evaluates socioeconomic energy flows in a way that is conceptually consistent with current...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we investigate what determines observed differences in economy-wide material use among the EU-15 member states. The empirical basis for our analysis is an extended and revised material flow data set for each of the EU-15 countries in time series from 1970 to 2001. This data set comprises consistent data for domestic extraction, import...