Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Columbia University | CU · Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience

PhD

About

243
Publications
49,687
Reads
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18,841
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
January 2004 - August 2009
National Institutes of Health
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (243)
Article
Full-text available
Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a b...
Article
Full-text available
Human object recognition is remarkably efficient. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in our understanding of how the brain represents visual objects and organizes them into categories. Recent studies using pattern analyses methods have characterized a representational space of objects in human and primate inferior temporal cor...
Article
Full-text available
Primate inferior temporal (IT) cortex is thought to contain a high-level representation of objects at the interface between vision and semantics. This suggests that the perceived similarity of real-world objects might be predicted from the IT representation. Here we show that objects that elicit similar activity patterns in human IT (hIT) tend to b...
Article
Inferior temporal (IT) object representations have been intensively studied in monkeys and humans, but representations of the same particular objects have never been compared between the species. Moreover, IT's role in categorization is not well understood. Here, we presented monkeys and humans with the same images of real-world objects and measure...
Article
Full-text available
Human vision is attuned to the subtle differences between individual faces. Yet we lack a quantitative way of predicting how similar two face images look and whether they appear to show the same person. Principal component–based three-dimensional (3D) morphable models are widely used to generate stimuli in face perception research. These models cap...
Preprint
Full-text available
Representational distinctions within categories are important in all perceptual modalities and also in cognitive and motor representations. Recent pattern-information studies of brain activity have used condition-rich designs to sample the stimulus space more densely. To test whether brain response patterns discriminate among a set of stimuli (e.g....
Preprint
Full-text available
Neural network language models can serve as computational hypotheses about how humans process language. We compared the model-human consistency of diverse language models using a novel experimental approach: controversial sentence pairs. For each controversial sentence pair, two language models disagree about which sentence is more likely to occur...
Preprint
Neuroscience has recently made much progress, expanding the complexity of both neural-activity measurements and brain-computational models. However, we lack robust methods for connecting theory and experiment by evaluating our new big models with our new big data. Here we introduce a new inferential methodology to evaluate models based on their pre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are promising models of the cortical computations supporting human object recognition. However, despite their ability to explain a significant portion of variance in neural data, the agreement between models and brain representational dynamics is far from perfect. Here, we address this issue by asking which representatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
The perception of animate things is of great behavioural importance to humans. Despite the prominence of the distinct brain and behavioural responses to animate and inanimate things, however, it remains unclear which of several commonly entangled properties underlie these observations. Here, we investigate the importance of five dimensions of anima...
Article
A central goal of neuroscience is to understand the representations formed by brain activity patterns and their connection to behaviour. The classic approach is to investigate how individual neurons encode stimuli and how their tuning determines the fidelity of the neural representation. Tuning analyses often use the Fisher information to character...
Preprint
Human visual perception carves a scene at its physical joints, decomposing the world into objects, which are selectively attended, tracked, and predicted as we engage our surroundings. Object representations emancipate perception from the sensory input, enabling us to keep in mind that which is out of sight and to use perceptual content as a basis...
Preprint
Neuronal populations code similar concepts by similar activity patterns across the human brain's networks supporting language comprehension. However, it is unclear to what extent such meaning-to-symbol mapping reflects statistical distributions of symbol meanings in language use, as quantified by word co-occurrence frequencies, or, rather, experien...
Article
Full-text available
Long-standing affective science theories conceive the perception of emotional stimuli either as discrete categories (for example, an angry voice) or continuous dimensional attributes (for example, an intense and negative vocal emotion). Which position provides a better account is still widely debated. Here we contrast the positions to account for a...
Article
Human visual perception carves a scene at its physical joints, decomposing the world into objects, which are selectively attended, tracked and predicted as we engage our surroundings. Object representations emancipate perception from the sensory input, enabling us to keep in mind that which is out of sight and to use perceptual content as a basis f...
Article
Deep neural networks (DNNs) trained on object recognition provide the best current models of high-level visual cortex. What remains unclear is how strongly experimental choices, such as network architecture, training, and fitting to brain data, contribute to the observed similarities. Here, we compare a diverse set of nine DNN architectures on thei...
Preprint
Data visualizations summarize high-dimensional distributions in two or three dimensions. Dimensionality reduction entails a loss of information, and what is preserved differs between methods. Existing methods preserve the local or the global geometry of the points, and most techniques do not consider labels. Here we introduce "hypersphere2sphere" (...
Article
Full-text available
Social behaviour is coordinated by a network of brain regions, including those involved in the perception of social stimuli and those involved in complex functions like inferring perceptual and mental states and controlling social interactions. The properties and function of many of these regions in isolation is relatively well-understood, but less...
Article
The movements an organism makes provide insights into its internal states and motives. This principle is the foundation of the new field of computational ethology, which links rich automatic measurements of natural behaviors to motivational states and neural activity. Computational ethology has proven transformative for animal behavioral neuroscien...
Preprint
Full-text available
A central goal of neuroscience is to understand the representations formed by brain activity patterns and their connection to behavior. The classical approach is to investigate how individual neurons encode the stimuli and how their tuning determines the fidelity of the neural representation. Tuning analyses often use the Fisher information to char...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the importance of face perception in human and computer vision, no quantitative model of perceived face dissimilarity exists. We designed an efficient behavioural task to collect dissimilarity and same/different identity judgements for 232 pairs of realistic faces that densely sampled geometric relationships in a face space derived from pri...
Article
Full-text available
Research into representation learning models of lexical semantics usually utilizes some form of intrinsic evaluation to ensure that the learned representations reflect human semantic judgments. Lexical semantic similarity estimation is a widely used evaluation method, but efforts have typically focused on pairwise judgments of words in isolation, o...
Article
Full-text available
Deep neural networks provide the current best models of visual information processing in the primate brain. Drawing on work from computer vision, the most commonly used networks are pretrained on data from the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge. This dataset comprises images from 1,000 categories, selected to provide a challenging te...
Article
Faces of different people elicit distinct fMRI patterns in several face-selective regions of the human brain. Here we used representational similarity analysis to investigate what type of identity-distinguishing information is encoded in three face-selective regions: Fusiform face area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA), and posterior superior tempor...
Article
Full-text available
A class of semantic theories defines concepts in terms of statistical distributions of lexical items, basing meaning on vectors of word co-occurrence frequencies. A different approach emphasizes abstract hierarchical taxonomic relationships among concepts. However, the functional relevance of these different accounts and how they capture informatio...
Article
Full-text available
Biological visual systems exhibit abundant recurrent connectivity. State-of-the-art neural network models for visual recognition, by contrast, rely heavily or exclusively on feedforward computation. Any finite-time recurrent neural network (RNN) can be unrolled along time to yield an equivalent feedforward neural network (FNN). This important insig...
Code
A Jupyter notebook tutorial on how to generate controversial stimuli for ImageNet classifiers using PyTorch. _______________________________________________________ https://github.com/kriegeskorte-lab/controversial_stimuli_tutorial
Article
Full-text available
Distinct scientific theories can make similar predictions. To adjudicate between theories, we must design experiments for which the theories make distinct predictions. Here we consider the problem of comparing deep neural networks as models of human visual recognition. To efficiently compare models’ ability to predict human responses, we synthesize...
Article
Full-text available
Deep neural networks (DNNs) excel at visual recognition tasks and are increasingly used as a modeling framework for neural computations in the primate brain. Just like individual brains, each DNN has a unique connectivity and representational profile. Here, we investigate individual differences among DNN instances that arise from varying only the r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scientists debate where, when, and how different visual, orthographic, lexical, and semantic features are involved in visual word recognition. In this study, we investigate intracranial neurophysiology data from 151 patients engaged in reading single words. Using representational similarity analysis, we characterize the neural representation of a h...
Article
Full-text available
Deep feedforward neural network models of vision dominate in both computational neuroscience and engineering. The primate visual system, by contrast, contains abundant recurrent connections. Recurrent signal flow enables recycling of limited computational resources over time, and so might boost the performance of a physically finite brain or model....
Preprint
Representational similarity analysis (RSA) tests models of brain computation by investigating how neural activity patterns change in response to different experimental conditions. Instead of predicting activity patterns directly, the models predict the geometry of the representation, i.e. to what extent experimental conditions are associated with s...
Article
Full-text available
Representational distinctions within categories are important in all perceptual modalities and also in cognitive and motor representations. Recent pattern-information studies of brain activity have used condition-rich designs to sample the stimulus space more densely. To test whether brain response patterns discriminate among a set of stimuli (e.g....
Preprint
Full-text available
Faces of different people elicit distinct functional MRI (fMRI) patterns in several face-selective brain regions. Here we used representational similarity analysis to investigate what type of identity-distinguishing information is encoded in three face-selective regions: fusiform face area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA), and posterior superior te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep neural networks (DNNs) trained on object recognition provide the best current models of high-level visual areas in the brain. What remains unclear is how strongly network design choices, such as architecture, task training, and subsequent fitting to brain data contribute to the observed similarities. Here we compare a diverse set of nine DNN a...
Article
Full-text available
Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) typically employs the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism. In non-human primates (NHP), contrast enhancement is possible using monocrystalline iron-oxide nanoparticles (MION) contrast agent, which has a more temporally extended response function. However, using BOLD fMRI in NHP i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biological visual systems exhibit abundant recurrent connectivity. State-of-the-art neural network models for visual recognition, by contrast, rely heavily or exclusively on feedforward computation. Any finite-time recurrent neural network (RNN) can be unrolled along time to yield an equivalent feedforward neural network (FNN). This important insig...
Preprint
Full-text available
An error was made in including noise ceilings for human data in Khaligh-Razavi and Kriegeskorte (2014). For comparability with the macaque data, human data were averaged across participants before analysis. Therefore the noise ceilings indicating variability across human participants do not accurately depict the upper bounds of possible model perfo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social behaviour is coordinated by a network of brain regions, including those involved in the perception of social stimuli and those involved in complex functions like inferring perceptual and mental states and controlling social interactions. The properties and function of many of these regions in isolation is relatively well understood but littl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) typically employs the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism. In non-human primates (NHP), contrast enhancement is possible using monocrystalline iron-oxide nanoparticles (MION) contrast agent, which has a more temporally extended response function. However, using BOLD fMRI in NHP i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep neural networks (DNNs) excel at visual recognition tasks and are increasingly used as a modelling framework for neural computations in the primate brain. However, each DNN instance, just like each individual brain, has a unique connectivity and representational profile. Here, we investigate individual differences among DNN instances that arise...
Preprint
Full-text available
Distinct scientific theories can make similar predictions. To adjudicate between theories, we must design experiments for which the theories make distinct predictions. Here we consider the problem of comparing deep neural networks as models of human visual recognition. To efficiently determine which models better explain human responses, we synthes...
Article
Systems neuroscience seeks explanations for how the brain implements a wide variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor tasks. Conversely, artificial intelligence attempts to design computational systems based on the tasks they will have to solve. In artificial neural networks, the three components specified by design are the objective functions, th...
Article
Full-text available
Most connectivity metrics in neuroimaging research reduce multivariate activity patterns in regions-of-interests (ROIs) to one dimension, which leads to a loss of information. Importantly, it prevents us from investigating the transformations between patterns in different ROIs. Here, we applied linear estimation theory in order to robustly estimate...
Article
Full-text available
The human visual system is an intricate network of brain regions that enables us to recognize the world around us. Despite its abundant lateral and feedback connections, object processing is commonly viewed and studied as a feedforward process. Here, we measure and model the rapid representational dynamics across multiple stages of the human ventra...
Article
Full-text available
Face-selective and voice-selective brain regions have been shown to represent face-identity and voice-identity, respectively. Here we investigated whether there are modality-general person-identity representations in the brain that can be driven by either a face or a voice, and that invariantly represent naturalistically varying face videos and voi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep feedforward neural network models of vision dominate in both computational neuroscience and engineering. The primate visual system, by contrast, contains abundant recurrent connections. Recurrent signal flow enables recycling of limited computational resources over time, and so might boost the performance of a physically finite brain or model....
Preprint
Full-text available
Representational similarity analysis (RSA) has been shown to be an effective framework to characterize brain-activity profiles and deep neural network activations as representational geometry by computing the pairwise distances of the response patterns as a representational dissimilarity matrix (RDM). However, how to properly analyze and visualize...
Article
Successful visual navigation requires a sense of the geometry of the local environment. How do our brains extract this information from retinal images? Here we visually presented scenes with all possible combinations of five scene-bounding elements (left, right, and back walls; ceiling; floor) to human subjects during functional magnetic resonance...
Article
Originally inspired by neurobiology, deep neural network models have become a powerful tool of machine learning and artificial intelligence. They can approximate functions and dynamics by learning from examples. Here we give a brief introduction to neural network models and deep learning for biologists. We introduce feedforward and recurrent networ...
Article
Full-text available
Encoding and decoding models are widely used in systems, cognitive, and computational neuroscience to make sense of brain-activity data. However, the interpretation of their results requires care. Decoding models can help reveal whether particular information is present in a brain region in a format the decoder can exploit. Encoding models make com...
Preprint
Full-text available
Successful visual navigation requires a sense of the geometry of the local environment. How do our brains extract this information from retinal images? Here we visually presented scenes with all possible combinations of five scene-bounding elements (left, right and back wall, ceiling, floor) to human subjects during functional magnetic resonance im...
Preprint
Full-text available
The visual system is an intricate network of brain regions that enables us to recognize the world around us. Despite its abundant lateral and feedback connections, human object processing is commonly viewed and studied as a feedforward process. Here, we measure and model the rapid representational dynamics across multiple stages of the human ventra...