Nikhil Bhalla

Nikhil Bhalla
Ulster University · School of Engineering

PhD, M.S., B. E. (Hons)

About

55
Publications
18,695
Reads
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1,425
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - October 2015
University of Bath
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • My PhD research focuses on developing nano/micro-scale biosensors for drug discovery applications. I am combining nano plasmonic and electrochemical techniques for understanding kinase mediated protein phosphorylation and screening inhibitors of it.
February 2011 - August 2011
National Tsing Hua University
Position
  • PhD Student
September 2010 - September 2012
Chung Yuan Christian University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
October 2012 - October 2015
University of Bath
Field of study
  • Electronic Engineering (Biosensors)
February 2011 - September 2011
National Tsing Hua University
Field of study
  • Microsystems & Nanosystems
September 2010 - September 2012
Chung Yuan Christian University
Field of study
  • Microelectronics

Publications

Publications (55)
Chapter
Nose-to-brain drug delivery system is becoming a desirable alternative approach to conventional drug delivery systems used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Trigeminal and olfactory routes are implicated to deliver drugs from the nose-to-brain, which bypasses the blood-brain barrier and the first-pass metabolism. In this review,...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional techniques (e.g., culture-based method) for bacterial detection typically require a central laboratory and well-trained technicians, which may take several hours or days. However, recent developments within various disciplines of science and engineering have led to a major paradigm shift in how microorganisms can be detected. The analy...
Article
Full-text available
As viruses constantly change due to mutation, variants are expected to emerge demanding development of sensors capable of detecting multiple variants using one single sensor plat- form. Herein, we report the integration of a synthetic binder against SARS-CoV-2 with a nanoplasmonic-based sensing technology, which enables the successful detection of...
Article
Tuning optical or magnetic properties of nanoparticles, by addition of impurities, for specific applications is usually achieved at the cost of band gap and work function reduction. Additionally, conventional strategies to develop nanoparticles with a large band gap also encounter problems of phase separation and poor crystallinity at high alloying...
Article
Magnetic nanoparticles are widely used for in vivo applications such as in disease diagnostics-magnetic resonance imaging, treatment-magnetoresponsive therapy, hyperthermia agents and in the delivery of drugs to specific cells, due to the unique physicochemical properties which materials posses at the nanoscale. Despite important therapeutic implic...
Article
Hypothesis: Controlled particle assembly from a dilute suspension droplet is challenging yet important for many lab-on-a-chip and biosensing applications. The formation of hot spots on the localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) substrates induced by laser excitation can generate microbubbles. These microbubbles, upon the laser removal, shrin...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses image analysis techniques for comparative analysis of the lung HRCT features and RT-PCR of 325 suspected patients to COVID-19 pneumonia. Our findings propose more caution in the interpretation of RT-PCR data, promoting, instead, also the quantification of age and sex-based risk factors using HRCT images. Statistical analysis of our...
Article
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of intestinal disorders which cause prolonged digestive tract inflammation. The early diagnosis of IBD through the detection of its biomarkers (including tumour necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein, cytokines and microRNAs) and imaging agents is a challenge. Nanotechnology enabled biosensors and enha...
Article
Cell rotation reveals important information which facilitates identification and characterization of different cells. Markedly, achieving three dimensional (3D) rolling rotation of single cells within a larger group of cells is rare among existing cell rotation techniques. In this work we present a simple biochip which can be used to trap and rotat...
Article
Miniaturized total analysis systems, for the rapid detection of disease biomarkers, with features including high biomarker sensitivity, selectivity, biocompatibility and disposability, all at low cost are of profound importance in the healthcare sector. Within this frame of reference, we developed a lab-on-carbohydrate-microneedle, biodevice, by in...
Article
Full-text available
Biosensors and nanoscale analytical tools have seen unprecedented growth in literature in the past 20 years, with a large number of reports on the topic of ’ultra-sensitive’, ’cost-effective’ and ’early-detection’ tools with a potential of ’mass- production’ cited on the web of science. Yet none of these tools are commercially available in the mark...
Article
Researchers are taking great interest in the synthesis and characterization of MnZn ferrites due to their wide range of applications in many areas. MnZn ferrites are a class of soft magnetic materials that have very good electrical, magnetic and optical properties. The properties of MnZn ferrites include high value of resistivity, permeability, per...
Article
Full-text available
The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensitivity of metal nanostructures is strongly dependent on the interaction between the supporting substrate and the metal nanostructure, which may cause a change in the local refractive index of the metal nanostructure. Among various techniques used for the development of LSPR chip preparation, solid...
Article
DNA polymerase catalyzes the replication of DNA, one of the key steps in cell division. The control and understanding of this reaction owns great potential for the fundamental study of DNA-enzyme interactions. In this context, we developed a label-free microfluidic biosensor platform based on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LS...
Article
Full-text available
Silver (Ag) is one of the most sensitive noble metals for nanoplasmonic applications. However, Ag is prone to oxidation in wet environments (e.g., aqueous and organic solvents), which usually leads to poor adhesion between Ag and dielectrics, thereby limiting its use in biosensing applications. To address this challenge, we propose a new design pri...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial biofilms possess intrinsic resistance against conventional antibiotics and cleaning procedures, thus a better understanding of their complex biological structures is crucial in both medical and industrial applications. Existing laboratory methodologies have focused on macroscopic and mostly indirect characterization of mechanical and micr...
Article
Multimodal sensing methods have a great promise in biosensing applications as they can measure independently several properties that characterise the biomolecular interaction to be detected as well as providing inherent on-chip validation of the sensing signals. This work describes the mechanisms of a concept of insulator–semiconductor field-effect...
Article
In article number 1700258, Amy Q. Shen and co‐workers present a biocompatible gold nanomushroom substrate on which fibroblast cells proliferate. The substrate enables nanoplasmonic detection of cell kinetics and enhances long‐term cell survival. These results open new opportunities in developing standard cell assays without chemical labels to detec...
Article
Full-text available
Innovative sensing materials have enabled the discovery of cell biology principles at the nanoscale. In order to evaluate cell behavior and responses, it is necessary to accurately monitor cell proliferation. However, it remains challenging to develop nanomaterials possessing pertinent properties for sensing, while ensuring long-term cell survival...
Chapter
Full-text available
It is at the nanometer scale where biology, chemistry, and material science converge. With recent progresses in nanotechnology, research in cell biology has gained enormous interest from a growing multidisciplinary community of scientists in academia and industry. Many efforts have been made to discover cures for diseases through advancements in na...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale plasmonic substrates consisting of metal-insulator nanostructures coated with a bio-recognition layer can be exploited for enhanced label-free sensing, by utilizing the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Most often the uniformity and thickness of the bio-recognition layer determines the sensitivity of plasmonic res...
Article
Full-text available
Specific gravity (SG), the ratio of density of a substance to the density of a reference material, is a standard indicator of concentration of an analyte in a given solution. SG is routinely used for product quality assessment in food industries. However, currently available commercial SG meters, such as hand-held refractometers and density meters,...
Article
Full-text available
The cover image depicts a wilted tree with (bottom) and without (top) nanoferrite coating. The tree with the coating revives, while the leaves shred off without the coating. The image highlights the need to develop nanomaterial-based fungicides to protect plants, addressing a global challenge of saving plant life. Further details can be found in ar...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in engineering lead to the fabrication of nanomaterials with unique properties targeted toward specific applications. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture, in particular for plant protection and production, is an under-explored area in the research community. Fungal diseases are one of the leading causes of crop destruction and,...
Article
For successful drug discovery it is important to understand the fundamentals of the underlying causes and consequences of the diseases for which the drug is being developed. One such physiological process in eukaryotic cells is protein phosphorylation, which is the main post-translational modification of proteins responsible for the onset or progre...
Article
Full-text available
During medical treatment it is critical to maintain the circulatory concentration of drugs within their therapeutic range. A novel biosensor is presented in this work to address the lack of a reliable point-of-care drug monitoring system in the market. The biosensor incorporates high selectivity and sensitivity by integrating aptamers as the recogn...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, tungsten substituted Ni-Zn nano ferrites of the composition Ni0.5Zn0.5WxFe2−xO4 with x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 have been synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The prepared samples were pre-sintered at 850 °C and then annealed at 1000 °C for 3 h each. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of these samples were stu...
Article
This work presents a novel dual-mode charge and refractive index sensitive device integrated with nanoplasmonic islands, for the first time, on insulator-semiconductor junctions. The developed nano-metal-insulator semiconductor (nMIS) sensor facilitates simultaneous detection of charge and mass changes on the nanoislands due to the binding of biomo...
Article
The study reports the use of extended gate field-effect transistors (FET) for the label-free and sensitive detection of prostate cancer (PCa) bio-markers in human plasma. The approach integrates for the first time hybrid synthetic receptors compris-ing of highly selective aptamer-lined pockets (apta-MIP) with FETs for sensitive detection of prostat...
Article
Since the discovery of protein kinase activity in 1954, close to 600 kinases have been discovered that have crucial roles in cell physiology. In several pathological conditions, aberrant protein kinase activity leads to abnormal cell and tissue physiology. Therefore, protein kinase inhibitors are investigated as potential treatments for several dis...
Conference Paper
This work demonstrates, for the first time, the use of lithium niobate as a biosensor that detects local refractive index changes triggered by the presence of biomolecules on its surface. The sensitivity of the sensor was found to be 242±16 nm/RIU. As a case study, we immobilized proteins (IgG antibodies) using micro-contact printing to demonstrate...
Chapter
Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling w...
Article
While pathogenic bacteria contribute to a large number of globally important diseases and infections, current clinical diagnosis is based on processes that often involve culturing which can be time-consuming. Therefore, innovative, simple, rapid and low-cost solutions to effectively reduce the burden of bacterial infections are urgently needed. Her...
Article
Full-text available
An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human throm...
Article
Protein kinases are cellular switches that mediate phosphorylation of proteins. Abnormal phosphorylation of proteins is associated with lethal diseases such as cancer. In the pharmaceutical industry, protein kinases have become an important class of drug targets. This study reports a versatile approach for the detection of protein phosphorylation....
Article
Full-text available
Phosphorylation by kinases is an important post-translational modification of proteins. It is a critical control for the regulation of vital cellular activities, and its dysregulation is implicated in several diseases. A common drug discovery approach involves, therefore, time-consuming screenings of large libraries of candidate compounds to identi...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of the phenomena known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has provided the basis for many research areas, ranging from materials science to biosensing. LSPR has since been viewed as a transduction platform that could yield affordable, portable devices for a multitude of applications. This review aims to outline the potentia...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract— This work demonstrates a unique DMF (Digital Microfluidics) immunoassay chip with 17 microelectrodes in an area of 6×6 mm2, which manipulates both electric and magnetic fields, to carry magnetic particle based immunoassay. Superparamagentic particles act as a label for the analyte in measurement and Hall sensor response indicates the pre...
Article
Phosphorylation is the most important post-translational modification of proteins in eukaryotic cells and it is catalysed by enzymes called kinases. The balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is critical for the regulation of physiological processes and its unbalance is the cause of several diseases. Conventional assays used...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents design and testing of a microfluidic platform for immunoassay. The method is based on sandwiched ELISA, whereby the primary antibody is immobilized on nitrocelluose and, subsequently, magnetic beads are used as a label to detect the analyte. The chip takes approximately 2 h and 15 min to complete the assay. A Hall Effect senso...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The investigation in this paper involves a design of a linear Current to Frequency Converter (CFC). The CFC has been designed by using current controlled resistor (CCR) with TSMC 0.35 µm technology. In addition, a conditioning circuit has been used to acquire wide range of input which includes three sets of different input ranges. The testing resul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The work accomplished in this article discusses the design and testing of microfluidic platform for carrying immunoassay. The approach is based on continuous flow of fluid where the platform involves micro-channel and micro-chambers built with Poly-Di-Methyl-Siloxane (PDMS) on glass. The design involves six reagent storage chambers, one reaction ch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work sensing mechanism for nanomagnetic particles (nano size magnetic beads) bounded with protein complex has been studied. The methodology employed involves formation of antibody-protein complex, similar to the one formed in sandwiched ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay), which is bounded to super paramagnetic particle instead of enz...
Article
Full-text available
Investigation in this paper aims at performing Mechanical Stress-Strain analysis, Thermal, Piezoresistive and Piezoelectric analysis of Silicon based structures using COMSOL. Such structures forms the main component of MEMS based sensors used for various applications, since it is this part which actually senses the stimulus. Therefore realization o...
Article
The investigation in this paper involves Final Element Analysis (FEA) of piezoresistive accelerometer designs. Three different configurations of MEMS based accelerometer has been made and analysed using COMSOL Multiphysics. The designs presented in this paper consist of a square shaped proof mass with flexures supporting it. Different position and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The investigation in this paper involves detection of cancer cells using far infrared light and formulating concept of feedback assisted surgical scalpel on the basis of the results obtained. Cancer cells and Normal cells have been distinguished on basis of their optical response to laser light in the range of far infrared wavelength. Then a unique...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I see in literature a lot of researchers use a small Vds to study pH response on extended gate MOSFETs i.e. in triode or linear region. In linear region Id is dependent on Vgs and Vds. When measuring pH response as a change in Vgs (threshold) , why shouldn't  one  prefer to operate MOSFET in saturation region and make Id dependent only on Vgs.  
More importantly WHY operate in 'that' region for such an application ? 

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Researching cost-effective water and wastewater management approaches, especially in Low and middle income countries.
Archived project