Niina Nummela

Niina Nummela
University of Turku | UTU · Turku School of Economics

D.Sc., Professor

About

85
Publications
21,624
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2,206
Citations
Introduction
I am a professor of International Business. My areas of interest include international entrepreneurship and SME internationalisation, cross-border M&As, mixed methods and cosmopolitan individuals (https://cosmoresearchproject.wordpress.com/ ),
Additional affiliations
August 2004 - present
University of Turku
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
Our knowledge concerning the link between internationalization and business model innovation remains limited. This study investigates the change in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) searching for organizational resilience. It particularly focuses on discovering how SMEs innovate their business models when seeking organisational resilience t...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes SME internationalization as a process that combines entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial behaviour. We bring in insights from prior literature and use an illustrative case study of an Italian SME to demonstrate the interplay of entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial behaviour during the internationalization process. Our stu...
Article
Full-text available
By conducting a qualitative single case study, we have depicted in this study a suspected case of international money laundering in Finland, and described its consequences in terms of policy changes. The case allowed us to investigate how new anti-money laundering policies emerge over time and thus advance knowledge relevant to formulating effectiv...
Chapter
Leveraging data for novel services and solutions is rapidly gaining momentum among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data-based offerings are typically easily scalable and have the potential to boost the international growth of an SME. Yet, the novel service or solution is not enough; the firm also needs to have a viable business model tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Call for papers We invite you to submit your research to explore the theme of “Bringing Research Together” for the 26th biennial NFF Conference in Örebro. We are looking forward to receiving your submissions. Track 3.2 – International Migrants in Business Corresponding Chair: Wilhelm Barner-Rasmussen, Åbo Akademi University, Finland (wbarner@abo...
Chapter
This chapter highlights how, through management interventions, positive emotions can be generated and fostered during post-acquisition integration. The findings are based on a Finnish–German acquisition completed in late 2013. Data collection via interviews and employee satisfaction surveys conducted in both involved organizations centred on explor...
Article
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The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic is an external shock that has disrupted the foundations of everyday life. For cosmopolitan entrepreneurs, the impact is even more decisive as it confronts their core values and jeopardises their identities, ways of working and the lifestyles they cherish. Cosmopolitans are individuals who identify themselves a...
Article
When entering international markets, manufacturers of consumer products are expected to adapt their products in order to meet local consumption practices. Doing so is particularly challenging for producers of culturally-specific products-that is, products that are little known, understood, or valued outside their original cultural milieu-whose oper...
Article
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The purpose of the study is to analyse small businesses as respondents, particularly from the perspective of validity of the results. The article is a dialogue between existing theoretical and methodological knowledge and an empirical case: a longitudinal study of Finnish SMEs.
Article
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Although networks have been the epicenter of research in B2B marketing for many years, our understanding of their dynamics remains in its formative stages. In this paper, we explore how the integration of various process theories broadens our perspective of business network dynamics and allows us to study the microfoundations of network change and...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how resource-constrained, knowledge-intensive firms capitalise on the knowledge from collaboration with big-science centres. It pays particular attention to what kind of knowledge a firm obtains and how it can be efficiently used in exploring and exploiting opportunities in international markets....
Chapter
In this chapter, we focus on virtual teams and emotions during postmerger and acquisition (M&A) integration. Our main research question is “How to manage emotions and virtual teams following cross-border M&A?”. We answer this question through the following research subquestions: (1) What virtual interaction can be identified post-M&A?; (2) What emo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Outstanding Author Contribution in the 2019 Emerald Literati Awards The concept of global mindset was introduced more than a decade ago as a prerequisite for successful internationalisation of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, the pace of global integration and globalisation has accelerated, and complexity has increased. Therefo...
Chapter
This section provides an overview of the book and introduces future research avenues. Socio-cultural integration is a complex process involving many activities, events and, most importantly, human engagement. This book does not offer a comprehensive, holistic approach to socio-cultural integration, but instead it highlights the role of emotions and...
Chapter
Post-acquisition socio-cultural integration has received increasing attention from both scholars and practitioners since the early 1990s. During the past decade, research has increasingly focused on emotions and identity in mergers and acquisitions. This chapter introduces the reader to the vibrant research field and its relevance. This section set...
Book
‘I am happy and proud to see Nordic scholars playing a central role in advancing state-of-the-art knowledge in this important area of management and organization research. A must-read for all interested in Nordic mergers and acquisitions.’ Eero Vaara, Professor, Aalto University, Finland Taking a fresh and much-needed perspective on the management...
Book
Taking a fresh and much-needed perspective on the management of international acquisitions, this book focuses on socio-cultural integration, and in particular the importance of emotions and values. The authors build on the human-centric and typically Nordic approach to mergers and acquisitions by presenting rich empirical cases of cross-border acqu...
Book
This edited collection brings into focus the meanings, interpretations and the process of value creation in international business. Exploring value creation in the context of emerging and developed economies, Volume 1 takes the perspective of multinational firms and examines various modes of foreign market servicing varying from exporting to joint...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse how dialogue can be used to promote post-acquisition socio-cultural integration. Specifically, it addresses questions regarding when and how companies can utilise dialogue to generate positivity regarding socio-cultural integration. Design/methodology/approach A single case study approach was adopt...
Chapter
When discussing the role of value creation in international business, the meanings and interpretations of “value” are essential in understanding its contextual manifestations. Somehow, it seems we know what “value” means, but if we try to use it in different processes and contexts, in relation to diverse actors, we might be surprised by the various...
Chapter
When discussing the role of value creation in international business, the meanings and interpretations of value are essential in understanding its contextual manifestations. Somehow, it seems we know what value means, but if you try to use it in different processes and contexts, in relation to diverse actors, one might be surprised by the various i...
Chapter
Literature on SME internationalisation often ignores that internationalisation is a process that involves the whole value producing chain of activities. This chapter takes a holistic view to the internationalisation of an SME by examining, also its capabilities to manage the value chain. Therefore, it makes an important contribution to organisation...
Chapter
India is an important player regarding mergers and acquisitions (M&As) from emerging economy (EE) countries, both in terms of inward and outward foreign direct investment (FDI). After two consecutive years of decline, the gross value of cross-border M&A deals increased in 2014 by 34%, reaching US$900 billion. One key characteristic was the increasi...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study explores the sources and triggers of positivity during a major organizational change. The qualitative research methodology is developed around discovering and interpreting employees’ perceptions in a mergers & acquisitions (M&A) process. The results lead us to suggest that change may be perceived in at least three positive ways to consti...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores how location-bound service small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)—such as tourism companies—internationalise. We suggest that key dimensions in the internationalisation of these firms are the available resource base, the company network and its embeddedness and entrepreneurial capabilities, particularly entrepreneur’s languag...
Chapter
This paper develops the concept of affordable loss in the context of decision-making in entrepreneurial internationalisation and offers both an in-depth conceptual analysis and practical application in the biotechnology sector. Based on our findings, affordable loss seems to be connected to short-term, operative decisions, but is less applicable fo...
Chapter
We argue that acquisition capability is a dynamic capability involving the whole M&A process from identification of opportunities to the completion of integration. Based on qualitative data from M&A experts in Finnish multinational companies, we identify four categories of acquisition capability microfoundations—managerial skills, organizational st...
Book
The edited collection brings into focus the meanings, interpretations and the process of value creation in international business. Exploring value creation in the context of emerging and developed economies, Volume 2 takes the perspective of small and medium sized enterprises and examines various approaches to value creation in the process of firm...
Chapter
There is ample evidence suggesting that the business networks of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) drive the internationalization process. Network competence, in other words the ability of SMEs to develop and manage key business relationships with their suppliers, customers and other key actors, tends to increase the propensity to expand b...
Article
This study focuses on the impact of language skills on international opportunity recognition and exploitation. Data were collected from Finnish food industry companies employing a mixed-methods research strategy. It was found that the linguistic knowledge of the decision-maker is related to international opportunity recognition and exploitation, po...
Article
Intercultural competences are highly valued in international business (IB) as antecedents to building trust, whereas a lack of them and problems concerning cultural sensitivity have been identified as major reasons for failure. And yet, there is very little research on trust building and interaction on the level of the individual, particularly from...
Chapter
This chapter aims to answer two key questions: (1) how should international entrepreneurship be studied in the future and (2) what are the main challenges that remain to be overcome? Based on a systematic literature review on international entrepreneurship research, the field is particularly in need of longitudinal, context-sensitive and cross-cult...
Article
This paper extends current understanding on international growth process of born global firms from the perspective of strategic decision-making. The data were collected from three software companies in Finland, Ireland and Israel both in real-time and retrospectively, and data triangulation was employed to increase the validity of the findings. Wit...
Article
This article investigates venture failure in the context of rapid internationalisation using a literature-based framework and four illustrative cases from Finland and Ireland. In addition to introducing a contextualised definition of failure, we offer a holistic framework for analysing failure in future studies while also identifying critical incid...
Article
In order to balance their local and global operations optimally, SMEs are moving toward a ‘global factory’ type of organizational form, meaning a differentiated network of activities held together through the control of key assets and flows of knowledge, and coordinated by a focal firm. Managing such a network requires a specific dynamic capability...
Chapter
Worldwide, cross-border investments increased up until 2007. Since then, cross-border acquisitions have led the recovery of foreign direct investment (FDI) (World Investment Report, 2010). Accordingly, cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As1) increase their importance in international business transactions. Due to their international nature, c...
Chapter
International business researchers have been interested in the choice of a company’s foreign operation mode since the 1960s (Hymer 1960, 1976), and there is good reason to conclude that this has become an established field of research (Benito et al., 2010; Werner 2002). Therefore, one might question whether there is really a need for another study...
Article
Purpose – In order to respond to the call for a broader perspective on the internationalization of entrepreneurial firms, this study aims to bring the business model concept to the context of international entrepreneurship, with special emphasis on the notion of value formation and value exchange at company interfaces. Design/methodology/approach –...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing globalisation of business has made the research on international business more complicated than ever. Consequently, the nature of research questions has evolved: it seems that simple research problems have already been solved, now the more complex ones remain. This conclusion is supported by the notion of converging theoretical disci...
Chapter
Expansion to international markets requires changes in company strategy in order for it to fit into the novel environment (Calof and Beamish, 1995; Lam and White, 1999; McDougall and Oviatt, 1996). However, prior research on international entrepreneurship (IE) provides only a limited understanding of how companies change during internationalization...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper The aim of the paper is to empirically examine whether and how the prior experience influences the internationalization of the firm, i.e. are there differences to be found between habitual and novice entrepreneurial firms, for example. The contribution to the literature Our understanding of the role of knowledge and experien...
Conference Paper
Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to create a theory-based framework to analyze how the new business creation and acquisition activity come together and how to manage the entire M&A process in an integrated manner, i.e. continuity between pre- and post-acquisition phase, and in line with the corporate strategy and ensuring business continu...
Article
Purpose – This study analyzes international new ventures (INVs) by means of the classification developed by Oviatt and McDougall (1994): global start-ups (GSUs) are compared with other types of INVs. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical data for the study were collected via a Web-based survey of Finnish ICT companies. Particular emphasis was...
Article
This study offers a contribution to our understanding of the role of a global mindset in the successful internationalization of small and medium-sized companies. The particular focus is on the drivers of the global mindset and the connection with performance. We created a framework and tested it, empirically, with a representative sample of small F...
Chapter
Internationalization can be defined as a growth process that is tightly intertwined with the company’s other activities. However, during the last decade we have witnessed clear acceleration in this process, as the time span in all areas of business development has shortened. It is not surprising, therefore, that researchers have also started to emp...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the role of market orientation in the internationalisation of small software firms. Design/methodology/approach – The study combines qualitative case studies with quantitative data from the firms in question. Findings – Market orientation in the internationalisation of knowledge-intensive small firms consists of...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to study the roles of trust and contracts in technology-intensive Born-Global firms (BGs). By definition these firms compete in the area of knowledge and cutting-edge innovation, use external resources, and internationalize at inception or soon thereafter. For entering global markets successfully, these firms typically...
Article
This paper contributes to the literature on born globals by introducing the concept of strategic orientations into this domain. Only few empirical studies have investigated them in this context. The study extends the existing knowledge on born globals and responds to complaints about lacking empirical research in this as yet infant field. The liter...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the challenges involved in creating a market for radical innovations. We argue that a proactive market orientation is a necessary but not sufficient precondition for successful market creation in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industry. Using data from three company cases, we point out some important but oft...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to describe and analyse the change process related to internationalisation among three internationalising Irish SMEs. Design/methodology/approach – The authors employ a retrospective case study. The data were collected with face-to-face interviews with the founding CEOs. Findings – The study indicates that...
Article
The paper considers the use of mixed methods in international business research by reviewing empirical studies in four major journals. A total of 484 articles were reviewed, 68 of which had applied a mixed method strategy. In our analysis we categorize mixed methods according to their use in different stages of the research process and provide a ra...
Article
The objective of this study was to find out whether partner commitment to export co-operation leads to a higher degree of success.Adistinction was made between commitment to internationalisation, to co-operation, and to the group, and the role of these factors in successful co-operation was examined. A Finnish promotion programme-export circles-was...
Article
The internationalisation of technology-based small firms and their networks has been the subject of many studies in recent years. However, these studies concentrate mainly on network formation and provide limited information on network management during the internationalisation process. This paper describes the role of partnerships in the internati...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to the increasing interest in the internationalisation of knowledge-intensive firms, a measure for analysing their international growth orientation was developed. This measure was applied in empirical setting of Finnish information and communication technology companies. The development of the measure as well as the empirical findings...
Article
Full-text available
Small firms start operating internationally much more quickly than was previously the case. However, this requires that companies acquire resources and skills in a significantly shorter time than earlier. This paper discusses the pressures that such development puts on company boundaries from the viewpoint of Finnish ICT companies. Our findings ind...
Article
Full-text available
Competition in expert services has forced the service providers to consider a more customer-oriented strategy. Unfortunately, for many of them customers are a faceless “mass”. In order to facilitate a restructuring of the business, SME managers were asked about their needs for such services. The empirical analysis is based on the responses of 400 F...
Article
Full-text available
Internationalization among both small and largefirms has been steadily increasing in recent years.In order to competewith larger firms, small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have hastened theprocess of gaining the resources and skills to operate internationally. This research examines the changes made by SMEs in order to compete on aninternatio...
Article
Full-text available
The number of technological alliances has been rapidly increasing, particularly in high-tech, fast-growth industries. However, previous research suggests that our knowledge of managing R&D co-operation is quite limited. The problems related to R&D co-operation have been analysed by several researchers and it seems that one of the central problems h...
Article
ABSTRACT The purpose,of this paper is to study the roles of trust and contracts in knowledge intensive small and ,medium-sized ,companies ,(SMEs) in their ,internationalisation processes. We are concentrating especially on born global (BG) companies, which by definition compete on knowledge, use external resources and internationaliserapidly. In th...
Article
LERLA HUMERINTA-PELTOMAKI IS A researcher at the Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland, and Niina Nummela is an Assistant Professor at the same university. In this paper, the authors attempt to characterise the small business market for expert services. The aims of the paper can be summarised as follows: to distinguish the...

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Projects (3)
Project
EmoMA (Emotions in M&A) is a two year research project (2015-2016) at Turku School of Economics, University of Turku and it is funded by theFinnish Funding Agency for Innovation. The project team consists of Professor Niina Nummela, project coordinator Dr. Melanie Hassett, post-doctoral researcher Johanna Raitis and doctoral student Riikka Harikkala-Laihinen. The research project has three Finnish case companies namely Cargotec Oyj, Oras Group Oy and Trimble Solutions Oy. The main of the research project is study emotions, how to manage the post-M&A and in an increasingly virtual working environment, and how to manage emotions in an international context. For more information visit https://www.utu.fi/en/units/tse/units/international_business/emotionsresearch/emoma/Pages/home.aspx or follow us on https://www.facebook.com/groups/1496717740583788/