Nigel Leader-Williams

Nigel Leader-Williams
University of Cambridge | Cam · Department of Geography

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138
Publications
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Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Full-text available
The snow leopard Panthera uncia is a vulnerable wild felid native to mountainous regions of 12 Asian countries. It faces numerous overlapping threats, including killings by herders retaliating against livestock losses, the illegal wildlife trade, loss of prey and habitat, infrastructure, energy and mining developments, and climate change. The speci...
Article
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Increasing the coverage of effectively managed protected areas (PAs) is a key focus of the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. PA management has received considerable attention, often based on the widely held, but rarely examined, assumption that positive conservation outcomes will result from increased PA management inputs. To shed light on this assu...
Article
Full-text available
Tigers are critically endangered due to deforestation and persecution. Yet in places, Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) continue to coexist with people, offering insights for managing wildlife elsewhere. Here, we couple spatial models of encounter risk with information on tolerance from 2386 Sumatrans to reveal drivers of human-tiger confl...
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Religious beliefs and spiritual connections to biodiversity have the potential to reduce animosity towards wildlife that might otherwise present a real or perceived threat to local people. Understanding this social dynamic can therefore be important for formulating locally-appropriate species-specific conservation strategies. Using semi-structured...
Data
Interview transcript in English. (DOCX)
Data
Interview transcript in Indonesia. (DOCX)
Article
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Many communities worldwide face serious environmental degradation, including deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, overexploitation of biodiversity and serious air and water pollution problems, all associated with mismanagement of natural resources. However, natural resource management institutions that are based on systems of common property c...
Article
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Tolerance may lessen when wildlife adversely impacts people. Models from psychology can help elucidate how people make judgements, why they act accordingly, and whether beliefs and norms influence support for policy and intervention. Working in a globally important region for tigers, we estimated hunting prevalence for this endangered species and t...
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State-controlled protected areas (PAs) have dominated conservation strategies globally, yet their performance relative to other governance regimes is rarely assessed comprehensively. Furthermore, performance indicators of forest PAs are typically restricted to deforestation, although the extent of forest degradation is greater. We address these sho...
Article
State-controlled protected areas (PAs) have dominated conservation strategies globally, yet their performance relative to other governance regimes is rarely assessed comprehensively. Furthermore, performance indicators of forest PAs are typically restricted to deforestation, although the extent of forest degradation is greater. We address these sho...
Article
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It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting...
Article
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Mammalian carnivores have suffered the biggest range contraction among all biodiversity and are particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Therefore, we identified priority areas for the conservation of mammalian carnivores, while accounting for species-specific requirements for connectivity and expected agricultural and urban expan...
Article
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International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political, and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of spec...
Article
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The United Nations recently listed illegal wildlife trade as a serious crime because of the escalating demand for highly prized species, such as tiger and rhinoceros, and the failure to effectively control the trade. In turn, this places greater urgency on reducing supply by securing source populations of these species. Yet, whether law enforcement...
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Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine w...
Chapter
Bonobos are the most recently discovered species of great ape, and are endemic to an area within a large convex bend of the Congo River, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In this chapter, we highlight issues related to the discovery for science of a significant population of bonobos to the west of their range (Inogwabini et al., 2007a, b),...
Article
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Trophy hunting can provide economic incentives to conserve wild species, but it can also involve risk when rare species are hunted. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) is a conceptual model that seeks to explain how rarity may spread the seeds of further endangerment. The AAE model has increasingly been invoked in the context of trophy hunting, in...
Article
High rates of deforestation are presumed to adversely affect large-bodied mammal populations across South-east Asia. Understanding how these species respond to deforestation is therefore important for their conservation, particularly for more cryptic species that have proved a challenge to enumerate. Here, we use an occupancy approach based on dete...
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This study examined how outbreaks and the occurrence of Anthrax, Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis may differentially affect the distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Using a combination of mapping, Jaccard overlapping coefficients and binary regressions, the study determined how each disease correlated with the extent of occurrence of, and th...
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Quantitative and qualitative analyses of ecological factors conducted on the distribution of the bonobos of the Lake Tumba Landscape did not fully explain the actual distribution of bonobos in that part of their range. Hence, the aim of this paper was to study the human cultural landscape of the region to shed light on questions raised by different...
Article
Several studies suggest that protected areas conserve forests because deforestation rates are lower inside than outside protected area boundaries. Such benefits may be overestimated when deforestation rates within protected areas are contrasted with rates in lands where forest conversion is sanctioned. Here, we reexamine protected area performance...
Article
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Large carnivores living in tropical rainforests are under immense pressure from the rapid conversion of their habitat. In response, millions of dollars are spent on conserving these species. However, the cost-effectiveness of such investments is poorly understood and this is largely because the requisite population estimates are difficult to achiev...
Article
Conflicts between protected-area managers and local people are common, but the drivers of conflict are rarely analyzed. This limits opportunities to identify strategies that reduce conflict and the magnitude of resulting threats to conservation. Integrated conservation and development (ICD) was adopted at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, to redu...
Article
Curtailing overharvest, whether illegal or legal, is often a critical conservation objective. Yet even if overexploitation can be stopped, subsequent rates of population recovery can be highly variable due to Allee effects, alterations to age and sex structure and disruptions of animal social systems. Moreover, understanding the influence of densit...
Article
D. A. Conde and colleagues' Policy Forum “An emerging role of zoos to conserve biodiversity” (18 March, p. [1390][1]) presents an inspiring view of zoos' potential contributions to conservation through captive breeding and reintroduction. However, their analysis overlooks two key issues. First
Article
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Conservation scientists, national governments, and international conservation groups seek to devise, and implement, governance strategies that mitigate human impact on the environment. However, few studies to date have systematically investigated the performance of different systems of governance in achieving successful conservation outcomes. Here,...
Article
Human-wildlife conflicts, such as crop-raiding, increase as people expand their agricultural activities into wildlife habitats. Crop-raiding can reduce tolerance toward species that are already threatened, whereas potential dangers posed by conflicts with large-bodied species may also negatively influence local attitudes. Across Asia, wild pigs and...
Article
Density-dependent feedback mechanisms provide insights into the population dynamics and interactions of large herbivores with their ecosystem. Sex ratio also has particularly important implications for growth rates of many large mammal populations through its influence on reproductive potential. Therefore, the interrelationships between density-dep...
Chapter
This book demonstrates that trade-offs can be very important for conservationists. Its various chapters show how and why trade-offs are made, and why conservationists need to think very hard about what, if anything, to do about them. The book argues that conservationists must carefully weigh up, and be explicit about, the trade-offs that they make...
Chapter
IntroductionWhy are trade-offs in conservation so severe?Improving the decision-making process: toolkits and beyondWidening the discussionWidening supportFinal conclusionsReferences
Article
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Across Africa, national policies that established protected areas (PAs) typically limited local use of wildlife and other resources. Over time, these policies have raised tensions with rural communities and today threaten to undermine conservation goals. This article examines community-PA relationships at four important sites in Ethiopia—a country...
Article
Summary Britain supports very little globally important biodiversity, but many of its wild habitats have been heavily modified by people to produce a beautiful, varied and much cherished countryside. However, Britain and Britons have exerted a probably disproportionate impact and influence, both positive and negative, on international efforts to co...
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Introduced mammals have had a major impact on the biota of islands in the Southern Ocean. Management plans for some islands include control measures for both introduced herbivores and carnivores that are justified on scientific grounds. In contrast, any active management of reindeer on South Georgia does not have a scientific justification since th...
Article
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Aim This study determines whether the establishment of tropical protected areas (PAs) has led to a reduction in deforestation within their boundaries or whether deforestation has been displaced to adjacent unprotected areas: a process termed neighbourhood leakage. Location Sumatra, Indonesia. Methods We processed and analysed 98 corresponding LANDS...
Article
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To save biodiversity, on-the-ground agencies need to set the conservation research agenda, not distant academics and non-governmental organizations, argue Robert J. Smith and colleagues.
Article
The ages of South Georgia Reindeer collected from the introduced herds, and of carcasses from natural deaths were determined using patterns of tooth replacement and eruption, and annulations in the cementum of incisor teeth. Replacement and eruption patterns are typical of the species. The difficulties encountered with the patterns of cementum depo...
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Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km² that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative...
Article
In situ conservation of tropical forests often requires restricting human use and occupancy within protected areas by enforcing regulations. However, law enforcement interventions that seek to prevent deforestation rarely have been evaluated. Conservationists increasingly recognize the need to measure the effectiveness of their interventions, using...
Chapter
IntroductionCorruption and its role in wider societyCorruption and its impacts on conservation outcomesCorruption and its impacts on recreational huntingGovernance and tourist hunting in TanzaniaFuture challenges for recreational hunting globally?AcknowledgmentsNotesReferences
Chapter
IntroductionWhat is recreational hunting?Controversial debates?Which are the appropriate scientific approaches?Contributions to development?Contributions to conservation?Future challenges?Conclusions References
Article
Full-text available
Density-dependent feedback mechanisms provide insights into the population dynamics and interactions of large herbivores with their ecosystem. Sex ratio also has particularly important implications for growth rates of many large mammal populations through its influence on reproductive potential. Therefore, the interrelationships between density-dep...
Article
Full-text available
Independent evaluations of the impact and legacy of large donor-funded integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) are critically important but rarely undertaken. The India Eco-Development Project around Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR-IEDP) in southern India received US$ 6.0 million, of which 43.2% was spent on community-based conservation...
Article
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species was increasingly used during the 1980s to assess the conservation status of species for policy and planning purposes. This use stimulated the development of a new set of quantitative criteria for listing species in the categories of threat: critically endangere...
Article
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Wild bird conservation in the UK is a widely regarded as a success story. The populations of many endangered species have grown or at least stabilised, birds that were last seen in the UK over 100 years ago have been successfully re-introduced, and bird watching makes an increasingly important contribution to the rural economy in terms of employmen...
Article
A number of global priority region schemes have been developed, but local assessments are needed to identify priority areas for conservation within these regions. Here, we describe results from a conservation assessment for Maputaland, part of a biodiversity hotspot in southern Africa that is also the focus of the Lubombo Transfrontier Conservation...
Article
Many of the large, donor-funded community-based conservation projects that seek to reduce biodiversity loss in the tropics have been unsuccessful. There is, therefore, a need for empirical evaluations to identify the driving factors and to provide evidence that supports the development of context-specific conservation projects. We used a quantitati...
Article
Black rhinos in Luangwa Valley, Zambia have been subjected to heavy illegal hunting since the late 1970s. A study population monitored by individual recognition decreased at an instantaneous rate of - 0.29 yr-1 between 1981 and 1985. Two-thirds of skulls found throughout Luangwa Valley between 1979 and 1985 were axed, indicating death from poaching...
Article
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Abstract: The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species was increasingly used during the 1980s to assess the conservation status of species for policy and planning purposes. This use stimulated the development of a new set of quantitative criteria for listing species in the categories of threat: critically...
Chapter
This paper examines the role of Mexico as importer, manufacturer, producer and distributor centre of reptile skins from non-native and native species, through a combination of documentary research and survey methods. A number of key findings were derived from this study. Although Mexico has adopted the “System for the Conservation, Management and S...
Article
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Proactive management of trade in endangered wildlife makes more sense than last-minute bans that can themselves increase trading activity, argue Philippe Rivalan and his co-authors.
Article
Crop raiding can reduce farmers' tolerance towards wildlife. Despite higher human population densities in rural areas, and more rapid conversion of forest to farmland, much less is known about crop raiding in Asia than in Africa. Over 14 months, we identified perceived and actual crop pests, and their patterns of crop raiding from farmland in and a...
Article
The patterns of growth and seasonal changes in body weight and fat reserves of three herds of introduced reindeer on the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia were investigated. Two of the herds, derived from the same stock, were at different densities but the higher density herd was on the better range. In this herd there was a significant growth...
Article
This paper examines the role of Mexico as importer, manufacturer, producer and distributor centre of reptile skins from non-native and native species, through a combination of documentary research and survey methods. A number of key findings were derived from this study. Although Mexico has adopted the ‘‘System for the Conservation, Management and...
Article
Conservation managers require accurate and timely information on the occurrence, size and viability of populations, but this is often difficult for cryptic species living at low densities over large areas. This study aimed to provide such information for tigers in the 36 400‐km ² Kerinci Seblat (KS) region, Sumatra, by identifying and assessing sub...
Article
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Across its range in Latin America the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and through conflict with people. In the Pantanal of Brazil, where large areas of land are devoted to cattle ranching, jaguars often attack livestock and are persecuted by ranchers. However, the extent to which livestock predation and/or other socio-economic fa...
Article
Crop raiding by African elephants Loxodonta africana erodes local tolerance for elephants and thereby impedes conservation efforts, so solutions are urgently required. Within conflict zones, crop raiding is not distributed equally amongst farms, which may be a result of variation in local physical or geographical factors, or in farmers’ efforts to...
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A better understanding of common property resource management systems and institutions is important for conservation and development, as fortress-based approaches towards conservation are increasingly questioned. This paper examines how an indigenous resource management system has operated and supported the protection of an Afro-alpine area in the...
Article
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The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is a very rare, endangered, endemic species surviving in isolated mountain pockets in the Ethiopian highlands, with nearly 50% of the global population living outside protected areas. In this paper we compare the ecology and behaviour of an Ethiopian wolf population living in Guassa, a communally managed area in...
Article
A key issue for the success of international conventions regulating biodiversity conservation is to understand the different philosophical positions of each party for initially acceding to that convention, and for the measures each party takes to implement that convention. This paper documents policies for wildlife trade regulation in Mexico from t...