Nigel J Cook

Nigel J Cook
University of Adelaide · School of Civil, Environmental & Mining Engineering

PhD 1988 (University of London, U.K.)

About

338
Publications
143,745
Reads
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9,427
Citations
Citations since 2016
156 Research Items
6652 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
Introduction
My principal research interests are: Ore forming processes/ore deposits; Sulphide mineralogy and solid state chemistry; Trace element deportment in ore minerals; Uranium and REE mineralogy and geochemistry Linking textures with chemical variation: nano- to micron-scale of observations. Mineralogy of minor elements (bismuth, tellurium, indium, germanium etc.) Processing of complex ores
Additional affiliations
March 2020 - present
University of Adelaide
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Research Professor
January 2015 - February 2020
University of Adelaide
Position
  • Professor
August 2009 - December 2014
University of Adelaide
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
August 1982 - December 1987
University of London
Field of study
  • Mineral deposits

Publications

Publications (338)
Article
’Invisible gold’ in pyrite refers to gold occurring either within the sulfide lattice or as discrete nanoparticles (NPs, <100 nm-diameter). The physical form of invisible gold is widely considered to be controlled by the As concentration, with stability fields for lattice-bound versus Au-NPs defined by an empirical Au-As solubility curve. We undert...
Article
The first U-Pb hematite dates are reported for the Mantoverde and Carmen de Cobre iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits in the northern segment of the Coastal Cordillera, Chile. Samples contain low U, low radiogenic Pb, and relatively high common Pb components. Nevertheless, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) d...
Article
Multivariate statistical analysis encompasses a range of methods that can fingerprint mineralization, alteration, and host-rock signatures within an ore system, thus assisting in interpretation of ore deposit models and supporting exploration programs. We utilize numeric interpolation of metals (Fe, Cu, and U), principal component analysis (PCA), a...
Article
Full-text available
The accelerated pace of transition to green energy technologies has led to increased demand for rare-earth elements (REEs). Fluorocarbonates from the bastnäsite [REE(CO 3 )F]—synchysite [CaREE(CO 3 ) 2 F] group are abundant in nature and the dominant REE minerals in the >10 billion ton Olympic Dam Cu–U–Au–Ag deposit, South Australia. Intergrowths o...
Article
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Hematite (α-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) readily accommodate a wide range of minor and trace elements from across the periodic table at up to wt.% concentrations. This prompts the question of whether these common minerals can also host rare earth elements (lanthanides, Y and Sc; REEs)? If so, what is the chemical and physical nature of the elements...
Article
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Garnet is a key and defining mineral of skarns and associated metalliferous deposits. Variation in garnet composition, commonly expressed by the proportions of different endmembers, is widely used to determine the physical‐chemical features of hydrothermal fluids. Skarn garnets from the Fujiashan W‐Cu‐Mo deposit, eastern China, were investigated by...
Article
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New mineralogical, geochemical, and geochronological data are presented for the Island Dam prospect, Olympic Cu-Au Province, South Australia. Skarn assemblages comprising actinolite/phlogopite + K-feldspar + magnetite suggest the presence of calcareous protoliths at Island Dam and indicate high-temperature alkali-calcic alteration in the early stag...
Article
Accurately resolving the timing of formation of Au-Sb-W deposits hosted in metasedimentary rocks has been the aim of extensive research but has also led to controversy. In this study, we present high-precision laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb dating of hydrothermal apatite and wolframite from the Woxi Au-...
Article
Characterizing the chemical state and physical disposition of uranium that has persisted over geologic time scales is key for modeling the long-term geologic sequestration of nuclear waste, accurate uranium-lead dating, and the use of uranium isotopes as paleo redox proxies. X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with molecular dynamics modeling dem...
Article
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Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electron-probe microanalysis were used to investigate the trace-element contents of sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite from the Plaka Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Using petrographic observations, the analytical results could be linked to the temporal evolution of the Plaka ore-forming system. Sp...
Article
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Breccia-hosted Sr-(Pb-Zn) mineralization from the Shizilishan deposit (Edong district, eastern China) is located at the contact between a Lower Cretaceous (∼139 Ma) quartz diorite porphyry stock and Triassic evaporite-bearing limestone/dolomite sequences. Backscatter electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis, and laser ablation (multicollector...
Article
Low-temperature polymetallic melts can scavenge gold from aqueous fluids and may be instrumental in the formation of some hydrothermal lode gold deposits. However, this process is yet to be fully appreciated, because of the difficulty in recognizing textural evidence for preexisting melts and a lack of awareness that metallic melts can persist in h...
Article
Critical minerals are those containing elements, typically metals, and element allotropes such as graphite, which have an irreplaceable role in the ongoing revolution in technology and manufacturing needed to progress...
Conference Paper
New critical metal (CM) resources can be identified by improved knowledge of products obtained during processing of complex copper ores. Olympic Dam, South Australia, is a giant (>10 bill. tonne) IOCG deposit. On-site mining-smelting-refining operations produce copper cathodes, U3O8 concentrate, and gold and silver bullion. The deposit is also a gl...
Article
Ancient metamorphic processes are recorded by the formation of metallic-Pb nanospheres in zircon, a product of internal Pb mobilisation and thermally driven concentration. Here, metallic-Pb nanospheres formed within an ore deposit are characterised for the first time using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and...
Conference Paper
Lead-Bi-Sb-sulfosalts are some of the largest 2D structures known from nature that have been explored in terms of their suitability as a new class of semiconductors for photovoltaic applications. Their structures are built by simple PbS-or SnS-derived modules sliced along different crystallographic directions. The modules are combined within blocks...
Conference Paper
Lead-Bi chalcogenides of the aleksite homologous series occur as trace constituents of many Au-bearing ore deposits and are defined chemically by the formula Pb n Bi 4 Te 4 S n+2. Their synthetic analogs show considerable potential as topological insulators and in thermoelectric energy conversion. These mixed-layer compounds can be built from odd-n...
Article
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Bi8Te3 is a member of the tetradymite homologous series, previously shown to be compositionally and structurally distinct from hedleyite, Bi7Te3, yet inadequately characterized structurally. The phase is identified in a sample from the Hedley district, British Columbia, Canada. Compositions are documented by electron probe microanalysis and structu...
Article
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We used high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) to image the crystal structures of four minerals in the Bi4X3 isoseries (X = Te, Se, S), a subgroup of the tetradymite homologous series: ikunolite (Bi4S3), laitakarite (Bi4Se2S), joséite-B (Bi4Te2S), and joséite-A (Bi4TeS2). The four minerals are isostruct...
Article
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The Pefka Cu-Au-Te-In-Se and nearby St Philippos Pb-Zn-Bi-Sn-Ge-Ga-In vein- and breccia-type deposits in western Thrace, Greece, display strong similarities, but also differences in terms of mineralization style, ore mineralogy, and chemistry, and host rock compositions. The Pefka mineralization consists of two crosscutting vein systems with high s...
Article
Yuhengtang is a representative slate-hosted Au deposit in the Jiangnan orogenic belt, South China, with a reserve of ca. 55 t Au and an average grade of ~3.9 g/t. Gold mineralization is characterized by veinlet and disseminated ores comprising native gold, auriferous pyrite and arsenopyrite. Paragenesis of the Yuhengtang deposit can be divided into...
Article
Silician magnetite within ~1.85 Ga lithologies hosting the ~1.6 Ga Wirrda Well iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) prospect, South Australia, was examined at the nanoscale. The magnetite is oscillatory-zoned with respect to the density and orientation of nanometer-scale inclusions, among which Si-Fe-nanorods and Al-rich amphibole (as much as hundreds of...
Article
Trace/minor element variation in pyrite is a feature that has proved invaluable for reconstructing a wide range of geological processes. Routine reflectance observations commonly fail to constrain this variation due to the typically subtle and barely perceptible change in reflectance brought about by deviation from ideal stoichiometry. Such differe...
Article
In both nature and synthetic experiments, the common iron oxide haematite (a-Fe2O3) can incorporate significant amounts of U into its crystal structure and retain radiogenic Pb over geological time. Haematite is a ubiquitous component of many ore deposit types and, therefore, represents a valuable hydrothermal mineral geochronometer, allowing direc...
Article
We present petrographic and microthermometric evidence for precipitation of Au-Ag-Te-rich melt directly from hydrothermal fluids and subsequent entrapment as primary melt inclusions within pyrite from quartz veins of the Xiaoqinling lode gold district, southern margin of the North China craton. We propose the formation of Au-Ag-Te-rich melt through...
Article
Understanding the movement of radionuclides (RNs) between different mineral hosts during processing of base metal ores is critical for accurate modelling of RN deportment and optimisation of processes designed to reduce or eliminate RNs. Here, we demonstrate that spatially resolving quantitative alpha particle autoradiography combined with backscat...
Article
Full-text available
Economic interest in indium (In) and other critical metals has accelerated efforts to understand how such elements occur in nature and the controls on their mineralogy. In this contribution, the distribution of In and other trace elements in the Dulong Zn–Sn–In deposit, China, is described, using a holistic approach which targets not only sulfides...
Article
Micrometer- to submicrometer-scale indium-rich domains are preserved within sphalerite included in hornfels-hosted pyrrhotite from the Dulong polymetallic skarn, Yunnan, China. The nano-mineralogy of the ZnS-bearing blebs was investigated using scanning transmission electron microscopy on thinned foils extracted in situ from pyrrhotite. Indium inco...
Article
Texturally complex minerals can provide critical information on dynamic hydrothermal processes. This study combines cathodoluminescence (CL), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS), and high-resolution femtosecond laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (fs–LA–MC–ICP–MS) analyses,...
Article
The ability of aluminium-phosphate-sulfate (APS) phases to preferentially sorb lead and its radionuclides, particularly ²¹⁰Pb, from metallurgical processing streams has been recently recognised empirically. This suggests that APS minerals may be suitable for the removal of lead from environmental and anthropogenic processes. We investigated the Pb...
Article
Knowledge of the behavior of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials derived through the decay of U and its daughter products, and their subsequent fractionation, mobilization and retention, is essential to develop effective mitigation strategies and long-term radiological risk prediction. In the present study, multiple s...
Article
The supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit in South Australia is a type example of the iron-oxide copper–gold (IOCG) deposit family. Hosted entirely within heterogeneous breccia in 1.59 Ga granite, the deposit contains a volumetrically substantial and mineralogically diverse component of carbonate minerals. Carbonate minerals are always associat...
Article
Magnetite is the dominant Fe-oxide at the Acropolis IOCG prospect, Olympic Dam district, South Australia. Complementary microbeam techniques, including scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), are used to characterize titanomagnetite from veins in volcanic rocks and Ti-poor magnetite from a granite body with uplifted position in the volcan...
Article
Pyrite commonly incorporates a wide range of trace and minor elements, which in turn may modify some of the mineral’s physical and chemical properties. Published band position data for the Raman spectra of pyrite show a wide variation, and the relationship between band position and the trace/minor element incorporation in pyrite is poorly constrain...
Article
Zircon from three distinct granites within the Samphire Pluton, South Australia, are characterised at the micron- to nanoscale. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon dating generated 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages of 1586 ± 9.3 Ma, 1583.2 ± 8.5 Ma and 1578 ± 9.5 Ma, respectively. Although zircons from all three granites d...
Article
Preferential removal of W relative to other trace elements from zoned, W–Sn–U–Pb-bearing hematite coupled with disturbance of U–Pb isotope systematics is attributed to pseudomorphic replacement via coupled dissolution reprecipitation reaction (CDRR). This hematite has been studied down to the nanoscale to understand the mechanisms leading to compos...
Article
Establishing timescales for iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposit formation and the temporal relationships between ores and the magmatic rocks from which hydrothermal, metal-rich fluids are sourced is often dependent on low-precision data, particularly for deposits that formed during the Proterozoic. Unlike accessory minerals routinely used to trac...
Article
The halogens Cl and Br are sensitive indicators for the origin of ore-forming fluids. Here, we use a combination of microchemical and microscopic methods to show that measurable concentrations of these elements commonly occur as atomic-scale substitutions in hydrothermal sphalerite. Furthermore, the Cl/Br ratios of halogen-rich sphalerites are indi...
Article
Full-text available
Proximal and distal garnets from skarns at Jiaduobule, Tibet, are used to demonstrate how variation in the fluid composition and parameters such as salinity, pH, fO2, and \({\text{X}}_{{\rm CO}_{2}}\) will impact on rare earth element (REE) distribution in garnets, and also to constrain skarn evolution across the orefield from proximal (Fe minerali...
Article
Full-text available
The IOCG deposit at Olympic Dam (South Australia) is hosted within the Roxby Downs Granite, which displays a weakly mineralised contact to the orebody (hereafter ‘outer shell’). In a mineralogical-geochemical characterisation of Fe-oxides from the outer shell, we show silician magnetite (Si-magnetite) and HFSE-bearing hematite define the early stag...
Article
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The Blackbush uranium prospect (~12,580 tonnes U at 85 ppm cut-off) is located on the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia. Blackbush was discovered in 2007 and is currently the single example of sediment-hosted uranium mineralisation investigated in any detail in the Gawler Craton. Uranium is hosted within Eocene sandstones of the Kanaka Beds and, su...
Article
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The nature of couple substitutions of minor and trace element chemistry of expitaxial intergrowths of wurtzite and sphalerite are reported. EPMA and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses display significant differences in the bulk chemistries of the two epitaxial intergrowth samples studied. The sample fro...
Article
Uranium- and thorium-bearing base metal mineral deposits contain daughter radionuclides which must be monitored and preferably removed or reduced during the process of generating base metal sulfide concentrates. Understanding the behavior of these radionuclides (focusing on ²²⁶Ra in this study) is critical for minimizing their concentrations in fin...
Article
Spatial associations between banded iron formation and iron-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) style mineralization are well documented in the Gawler Craton (South Australia), but the possible genetic relationships between these two distinct types of mineralization are hitherto unclear. A texturally conspicuous generation of coarse-grained silician magnetite, inte...
Article
Full-text available
Pyrite is the most common sulphide in a wide range of ore deposits and well known to host numerous trace elements, with implications for recovery of valuable metals and for generation of clean concentrates. Trace element signatures of pyrite are also widely used to understand ore-forming processes. Pyrite is an important component of the Olympic Da...
Article
Some iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits contain variable amounts of uranium. Developing mineral deportment models for the radiogenic isotopes resulting from decay of ²³⁸U presents a singular technical challenge, as concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²¹⁰Pb, and ²¹⁰Po fall far below the detection limits achievable for most in situ analytical methodologies....
Article
The classification of the tetrahedrite group minerals in keeping with the current IMA-accepted nomenclature rules is discussed. Tetrahedrite isotypes are cubic, with space group symmetry I43m. The general structural formula of minerals belonging to this group can be written as M(2)A6M(1)(B4C2)X(3) D4S(1)Y12S(2)Z, where A = Cu+, Ag+, ☐ (vacancy), an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metallic-Pb nanospheres (M-PbNs) are documented within zircon from Archean ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic terranes (UHT; [1,2]). Radiogenic Pb mobilized from radiation-damaged domains in zircon predating the metamorphic event is trapped as M-PbNs. Dating using nanoSIMS, shows the M-PbNs record the UHT event [3]. Here we report M-PbNs in zircon f...
Article
Full-text available
Aluminum-phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals of the alunite supergroup are minor components of uranium-bearing copper ores from the Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia. They typically represent a family of paragenetically late replacement phases after pre-existing REE-bearing phosphates (fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime). Characterization with re...
Article
Full-text available
The Acropolis prospect is a vein-style magnetite (±apatite ±hematite) system located ~20 km southwest from the giant Olympic Dam iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposit, South Australia. A whole rock dataset comprising 4,864 core samples from fourteen drillholes was analysed using multivariate statistics to understand and identify geochemical signatu...
Article
Banded iron formation (BIF)-derived iron ore deposits of the Middleback Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, are hosted within Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement in the southeastern Gawler Craton. Mafic sills and dikes are associated with the orebodies throughout the belt and although described previously, have never been studied in detail. T...
Article
Full-text available
Bi-Pb-chalcogenides of the aleksite series represent homologous mixed-layer compounds derived from tetradymite (Bi2Te2S). Considering tetradymite as composed of five-atom (Bi2Te2S) layers, the named minerals of the aleksite homologous series, aleksite (PbBi2Te2S2) and saddlebackite, (Pb2Bi2Te2S3) have been considered as phases formed by regular sta...