Niels J Korsgaard

Niels J Korsgaard
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland · Department of Glaciology and Climate

PhD Geology-Geoscience

About

64
Publications
22,433
Reads
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1,580
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2018 - present
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Position
  • Researcher
September 2017 - March 2018
University of Helsinki
Position
  • PostDoc Position
June 2016 - July 2017
University of Iceland
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) play a prominent role in glaciological studies for the mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets. By providing a time snapshot of glacier geometry, DEMs are crucial for most glacier evolution modelling studies, but are also important for cryospheric modelling in general. We present a historical medium-resolution DEM an...
Article
The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentie...
Article
Full-text available
Surging glaciers are potential analogues for land-terminating palaeo-ice streams and surging ice sheet lobes, and research on surge-type glaciers is important for understanding the causal mechanisms of modern and past ice sheet instabilities. The geomorphic signatures left by the Icelandic surge-type glaciers vary and range from glaciotectonic end...
Article
Full-text available
Time-series of digital elevation models (DEMs) of the forefield of the Brúarjökull surge-type glacier in Iceland were used to quantify the volume of material that was mobilized by the 1963-1964 surge. The DEMs were produced by stereophotogrammetry on aerial photographs from before the surge (1961) and after (1988 and 2003). The analysis was perform...
Article
Full-text available
The Greenland ice sheet has been one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise over the past 20 years, accounting for 0.5 mm yr−1 of a total of 3.2 mm yr−1. A significant portion of this contribution is associated with the speed-up of an increased number of glaciers in southeast and northwest Greenland. Here, we show that the northeast G...
Article
Full-text available
Marine-terminating outlet glacier terminus traces, mapped from satellite and aerial imagery, have been used extensively in understanding how outlet glaciers adjust to climate change variability over a range of timescales. Numerous studies have digitized termini manually, but this process is labor intensive, and no consistent approach exists. A lack...
Chapter
Full-text available
* Greenland ice sheet total mass change for 1 September 2020 to 31 August 2021 was -85 ± 16 Gt, 179 Gt less than the 2002-21 average of -264 ± 12 Gt yr –1. * High variability characterized 2021 surface melting with a two-week long August period of increased melt and bare ice exposure contrasting with low June and July melt conditions. An overall a...
Article
Full-text available
The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has been measuring climate and ice sheet properties since 2007. Currently, the PROMICE automatic weather station network includes 25 instrumented sites in Greenland. Accurate measurements of the surface and near-surface atmospheric conditions in a changing climate are important for r...
Article
Full-text available
We present the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) Ice Velocity product (https://doi.org/10.22008/promice/data/sentinel1icevelocity/greenlandicesheet, Solgaard and Kusk, 2021), which is a time series of Greenland Ice Sheet ice velocity mosaics spanning September 2016 through to the present. The product is based on Sentinel...
Article
Full-text available
The Greenland ice sheet has been one of the largest sources of sea-level rise since the early 2000s. However, basal melt has not been included explicitly in assessments of ice-sheet mass loss so far. Here, we present the first estimate of the total and regional basal melt produced by the ice sheet and the recent change in basal melt through time. W...
Article
Understanding the long-term difference in the response times of ice sheets, peripheral ice caps and glaciers may provide information about their respective sensitivities to climate change. However, there are only a few places where the history of local glaciers, ice caps (GICs) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have been recorded in the same area....
Preprint
Full-text available
The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has been measuring climate and ice sheetproperties since 2007. Currently the PROMICE automatic weather station network includes 25 instrumented sites in Greenland.Accurate measurements of the surface and near-surface atmospheric conditions in a changing climate is important for relia...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) ice velocity product (https://doi.org/10.22008/promice/data/sentinel1icevelocity/greenlandicesheet) (Solgaard and Kusk, 2021)) which is a September 2016 through present time series of Greenland Ice Sheet ice-velocity mosaics. The product is based on Sentinel-1 synthetic ap...
Article
Full-text available
The Greenland Ice Sheet is the largest land ice contributor to sea level rise. This will continue in the future but at an uncertain rate and observational estimates are limited to the last few decades. Understanding the long-term glacier response to external forcing is key to improving projections. Here we use historical photographs to calculate ic...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest sources of sea-level rise since the early 2000s. Basal melt has not been included explicitly in assessments of ice-sheet mass loss so far. Here, we present the first full-coverage estimate of the ice-sheet wide basal melt in Greenland and its recent change through time. We find that presently basal melt...
Article
Full-text available
The Greenland ice sheet has been losing mass in response to increased surface melting (Khan et al. 2015; van den Broeke et al. 2017) as well as discharge of ice from marine terminating outlet glaciers (van den Broeke et al. 2009; Box et al. 2018). Marine terminating outlet glaciers flow to the ocean where they lose mass by e.g. iceberg calving. Cur...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment cores from Kløverbladvatna, a threshold lake in Wahlenbergfjorden, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard were used to reconstruct Holocene glacier fluctuations. Meltwater from Etonbreen spills over a threshold to the lake, only when the glacier is significantly larger than at present. Lithological logging, loss-on-ignition, ITRAX scanning and radiocarb...
Article
Full-text available
Glaciers and ice caps peripheral to the main Greenland Ice Sheet contribute markedly to sea-level rise1–3. Their changes and variability, however, have been difficult to quantify on multi-decadal timescales due to an absence of long-term data⁴. Here, using historical aerial surveys, expedition photographs, spy satellite imagery and new remote-sensi...
Article
Full-text available
The transition from the last ice age to the present-day interglacial was interrupted by the Younger Dryas (YD) cold period. While many studies exist on this climate event, only few include high-resolution marine records that span the YD. In order to better understand the interactions between ocean, atmosphere and ice sheet stability during the YD,...
Poster
Full-text available
This project aims to shed light on explosive volcanic activity and environmental dynamics in the southern central highlands of Iceland. The project relies on tephrostratigraphy and –chronology involving the documentation of core stratigraphy as well as sampling and chemical analysis of tephra layers supplemented with radiocarbon dating and pollen a...
Article
Greenland’s contribution to future sea-level rise remains uncertain and a wide range of upper and lower bounds has been proposed. These predictions depend strongly on how mass loss—which is focused at the termini of marine-terminating outlet glaciers—can penetrate inland to the ice-sheet interior. Previous studies have shown that, at regional scale...
Article
Full-text available
We assess ice loss and velocity changes between 1985 and 2014 of three tidewater and five-land terminating glaciers in Godthåbsfjord (Nuup Kangerlua), Greenland. Glacier thinning accounted for 43.8 ± 0.2 km3 of ice loss, equivalent to 0.10 mm eustatic sea-level rise. An additional 3.5 ± 0.3 km3 was lost to the calving retreats of Kangiata Nunaata S...
Article
• Digital Elevation Models produced to quantify glacier surges of Drangajökull ice cap. • The surges of Drangajökull are in contrast to the bigger ice caps in Iceland. • Development of Drangajökull surges resemble Svalbard surge-type. • Environmental conditions might explain proceeding of Drangajökull surges. Surface elevation and volume changes o...
Data
Here, we present a medium-resolution DEM and orthophotographs that consistently cover the entire surroundings and margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet 1978-1987. About 3,500 aerial photographs of Greenland are combined with field surveyed geodetic ground control to produce a 25 m gridded DEM and a 2 m black-and-white digital orthophotograph. Supporti...
Poster
Here we present a DEM of Greenland covering all ice-free terrain and the margins of the GrIS and local glaciers and ice caps. The DEM is based on the 3534 photos used in the aero-triangulation which were recorded by the Danish Geodata Agency (then the Geodetic Institute) in survey campaigns spanning the period 1978-1987. The GrIS is covered tens of...
Article
Full-text available
Observations over the past decade show significant ice loss associated with the speed-up of glaciers in southeast Greenland from 2003, followed by a deceleration from 2006. These short-term, episodic, dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance on the decadal scale. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term d...
Data
Full-text available
1.0 Ice Sheet Wide Elevation Changes, 2.0 GPS data, 3.0 NEGIS regional analysis, 4.0 Climate data, 5.0 References.
Article
Full-text available
Observations over the past decade show significant ice loss associated with the speed-up of glaciers in southeast Greenland from 2003, followed by a deceleration from 2006. These short-term, episodic, dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance on the decadal scale. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term d...
Conference Paper
Observations over the past decade show huge ice loss associated with speeding up of glaciers in southeast Greenland in 2003, followed by a deceleration in 2006. These short-term episodic dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance at decadal scale. However, to improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data recor...
Conference Paper
Situated on the southeast coast of Greenland, the Helheim glacier is a major contributor of ice discharge and a milestone glacier in regards to understanding ice sheet dynamics to climate forcing. Within the last decade, the glacier has responded rapidly with retreat and increased calving to rising temperatures and inflow of warm oceanic water. Evi...
Conference Paper
The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice sheet (GrIS) on the 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to immense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest SLR of 15-20 cm computing the input constituents is of great concern - in particular for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of...
Poster
Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used as a signal for ice-free terrain being overridden by...
Article
Full-text available
Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coasts of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. In this article, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrøm (UI), West Greenland, during 2003to 2009 using high-resolution ice, cloud and land elevation satellite laser altimeter data supplemente...
Article
Full-text available
[1] We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with alti...
Article
We estimate the mass loss rate of Upernavik Isstrøm (UI) using surface elevation changes between a SPOT 5 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from 2008 and NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) data from 2010. To assess the validity of our mass loss estimate, we analyze GPS data between 2007 and 2011 from two continuous receivers, UPVK and SRMP which...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet and its contribution to global sea-level rise. Recent mass loss in the northwest of Greenland has been substantial. Using aerial photographs, we produced digital elevation models and extended the time record of recent observed marginal dynamic thinning back to the mid-...
Poster
Studies have been carried out using various methods to estimate the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Remote sensing techniques used to determine the ice sheet volume includes airborne and satellite radar and laser methods and measurements of ice flow of outlet glaciers use InSAR satellite radar interferometry. Direct mass changes of the Greenland...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread retreat of glaciers has been observed along the southeastern margin of Greenland. This retreat has been associated with increased air and ocean temperatures. However, most observations are from the satellite era; presatellite observations of Greenlandic glaciers are rare. Here we present a unique record that documents the frontal positio...
Poster
Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet’s (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supp...
Data
Full-text available
1. Data, 2. Methods, 3. Additional climate data, 4. Results, 5. SI references.
Article
Full-text available
The forefield of the Sólheimajökull outlet glacier, South Iceland, has a variety of glacial landforms and sediments that are products of late Holocene and modern glacier oscillations. Several sets of moraine ridges reflect past ice front positions and river-cut sedimentary sections provide information about past environments. Here, we describe sedi...
Conference Paper
The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) is undergoing massive changes in its frontal positions, velocity structure, and overall mass balance. Since 2000, marine and terrestrial terminating glaciers in southeast Greenland have experienced dramatic frontal retreat and dynamic thinning in response to increased sea surface and air temperatures. However, little i...
Conference Paper
Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrøm (UI), West Greenland, during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data supplemented wit...
Poster
Currently available Digital Elevation Models(DEMs) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were originally derived from radar altimetry data, e.g. Bamber (Bamber et al., 2001) and later improved by photoclinometry to fill the regions between orbits (Scambos and Haran, 2002). The elevation error of these DEMs is a few meters in the higher part (above 2000...
Poster
Ice mass changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet have been estimated since the early 1990s from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite gravity mission, of ice sheet thinning from satellite radar altimetry and airborne laser altimetry, and of increased velocities of outlet glaciers from radar interferometric surveys. Prior to 2000...
Article
Full-text available
We present a sea-ice record from northern Greenland covering the past 10,000 years. Multiyear sea ice reached a minimum between ~8500 and 6000 years ago, when the limit of year-round sea ice at the coast of Greenland was located ~1000 kilometers to the north of its present position. The subsequent increase in multiyear sea ice culminated during the...
Conference Paper
Past analogues to future change require long term records for ice marginal behavior around the entire Greenland Ice Sheet. Repeated surveys by satellite and airborne radar and laser altimetry have since the 1980s together with gravitational satellite estimates over the last decade shown a significant thinning at lower altitudes of the Greenland Ice...
Conference Paper
Recent research has shown that meltwater discharge from supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet increase the lubrication at the bottom and enhance the ice velocity. Supraglacial lakes are considered a positive feedback to the Greenland Ice Sheet as Arctic warming continues. In this context, we want to know how the Inter-annual and inter-regio...
Conference Paper
Multi-temporal DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of glaciers and ice streams have successfully been used for extraction of changes in ice volume over time. In this study, we analysed DEMs of the Brúarjökull glacier forefield (Iceland) for 1945, prior to the last surge in 1964, and for 2003 in order to assess the effect of the surge on the sediment ar...
Article
Full-text available
Please click here to download the map associated with this article.Simultaneously with geological field investigations at the surge-type glacier Brúarjökull in August 2003, aerial photographs covering the central part of the glacier including the Kringilsárrani area were recorded with the purpose of mapping glacial landforms. A glacial geomorpholog...