Niels H. Gehring

Niels H. Gehring
University of Cologne | UOC · Institute for Genetics

Dr. rer. nat.

About

83
Publications
11,697
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4,588
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
1970 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
Additional affiliations
May 2010 - present
September 2008 - April 2010
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
March 2002 - April 2010
Universität Heidelberg
Education
October 1994 - September 1999
Freie Universität Berlin
Field of study
  • Biochemistry

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
The turnover of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is a key regulatory step of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Due to the complexity of the mammalian degradation machinery, the contribution of decay factors to the directionality of mRNA decay is poorly understood. Here we characterize a molecular tool to interrogate mRNA turnover via the detection of XRN1...
Article
The exon junction complex (EJC) is an RNA-binding protein complex that is assembled and deposited onto mRNAs during splicing. The EJC comprises four core components that bind to not only canonical sites upstream of exon-exon junctions, but also to noncanonical sites at other positions in exons. EJC-associated proteins are recruited by the EJC at di...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) degrades different classes of mRNAs, including transcripts with premature termination codons (PTCs). The NMD factor SMG6 initiates degradation of substrate mRNAs by endonucleolytic cleavage. Here, we aim to delineate the cascade of NMD-activating events that culminate in endocleavage. We report that long 3' UTRs e...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) eliminates different classes of mRNA substrates including transcripts with long 3' UTRs. Current models of NMD suggest that the long physical distance between the poly(A) tail and the termination codon reduces the interaction between cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC1) and the eukaryotic release factor 3a...
Article
Full-text available
The exon junction complex (EJC) is a key regulator of posttranscriptional mRNA fate and binds to mRNA during splicing. Although the composition of EJCs is well understood, the mechanism mediating splicing-dependent EJC assembly and the factor(s) recruiting the EJC remain elusive. Here, we identify CWC22 as an essential splicing factor that is requi...
Article
Full-text available
The exon junction complex (EJC) is an RNA-binding multi-protein complex with critical functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation. It is deposited on the mRNA during splicing and regulates diverse processes including pre-mRNA splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) via various interacting proteins. The peripheral EJC-binding protein R...
Article
Full-text available
The paralogous human proteins UPF3A and UPF3B are involved in recognizing mRNAs targeted by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). UPF3B has been demonstrated to support NMD, presumably by bridging an exon junction complex (EJC) to the NMD factor UPF2. The role of UPF3A has been described either as a weak NMD activator or an NMD inhibitor. Here, we pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alternative splicing is a tightly regulated co- and post-transcriptional process contributing to the transcriptome diversity observed in eukaryotes. Several methods for detecting differential junction usage (DJU) from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) datasets exist. Yet, efforts to integrate the results from DJU methods are lacking. Here, we present Baltic...
Preprint
Full-text available
The exon junction complex (EJC) is an RNA-binding multi-protein complex with critical functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation. It is deposited on the mRNA during splicing and regulates diverse processes including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, mRNA translation, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) via various interacting peripheral pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
The paralogous human proteins UPF3A and UPF3B are involved in recognizing mRNAs targeted by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). While UPF3B has been demonstrated to support NMD, contradicting reports describe UPF3A either as an NMD activator or inhibitor. Here, we present a comprehensive functional analysis of UPF3A and UPF3B in human cells using c...
Article
Full-text available
Eukaryotic gene expression is constantly controlled by the translation-coupled nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. Aberrant translation termination leads to NMD activation, resulting in phosphorylation of the central NMD factor UPF1 and robust clearance of NMD targets via two seemingly independent and redundant mRNA degradation branches. He...
Article
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The current ecosystem of single cell RNA-seq platforms is rapidly expanding, but robust solutions for single cell and single molecule full- length RNA sequencing are virtually absent. A high-throughput solution that covers all aspects is necessary to study the complex life of mRNA on the single cell level. The Nanopore platform offers long read seq...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-mRNA splicing catalyzed by the spliceosome represents a critical step in the regulation of gene expression contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversity. The spliceosome consists of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), the biogenesis of which remains only partially understood. Here we define the evolutionarily conserv...
Article
Full-text available
Splicing of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) is an important step during eukaryotic gene expression. The identification of the actual splice sites and the proper removal of introns are essential for the production of the desired mRNA isoforms and their encoded proteins. While the basic mechanisms of splicing regulation are well understood, recent work ha...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current ecosystem of single cell RNA-seq platforms is rapidly expanding, but robust solutions for single cell and single molecule full-length RNA sequencing are virtually absent. A high-throughput solution that covers all aspects is necessary to study the complex life of mRNA on the single cell level. The Nanopore platform offers long read sequ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eukaryotic gene expression is constantly regulated and controlled by the translation-coupled nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. Aberrant translation termination leads to NMD activation and robust clearance of NMD targets via two seemingly independent and redundant mRNA degradation branches. Here, we uncover that the loss of the first SMG5-...
Article
Full-text available
The exon junction complex (EJC) is an essential constituent and regulator of spliced messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in metazoans. As a core component of the EJC, CASC3 was described to be pivotal for EJC-dependent nuclear and cytoplasmic processes. However, recent evidence suggests that CASC3 functions differently from other EJC core...
Article
Full-text available
The exon junction complex (EJC) is an abundant messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) component that is assembled during splicing and binds to mRNAs upstream of exon-exon junctions. EJCs accompany the mRNA during its entire life in the nucleus and the cytoplasm and communicate the information about the splicing process and the position of introns. Spec...
Preprint
Full-text available
The exon junction complex (EJC) is an essential constituent and regulator of spliced messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in metazoans. As a core component of the EJC, CASC3 was described to be pivotal for EJC-dependent nuclear and cytoplasmic processes. However, recent evidence suggests that CASC3 functions differently from other EJC core...
Article
Full-text available
Modification with SUMO regulates many eukaryotic proteins. Down-regulation of sumoylated forms of proteins involves either their desumoylation, and hence recycling of the unmodified form, or their proteolytic targeting by ubiquitin ligases that recognize their SUMO modification (termed STUbL or ULS). STUbL enzymes such as Uls1 and Slx5-Slx8 in budd...
Article
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UBR5 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in distinct processes such as transcriptional regulation and development. UBR5 is highly upregulated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), whereas its expression decreases with differentiation, suggesting a role for UBR5 in ESC function. However, little is known about how UBR5 regulates ESC identity. Here, we defin...
Article
RNA degradation ensures appropriate levels of mRNA transcripts within cells and eliminates aberrant RNAs. Detailed studies of RNA degradation dynamics have been heretofore infeasible because of the inherent instability of degradation intermediates due to the high processivity of the enzymes involved. To visualize decay intermediates and to characte...
Article
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Productive splicing of human precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) requires the correct selection of authentic splice sites (SS) from the large pool of potential SS. Although SS consensus sequence and splicing regulatory proteins are known to influence SS usage, the mechanisms ensuring the effective suppression of cryptic SS are insufficiently explo...
Article
During splicing, the exon junction complex (EJC) is deposited upstream of exon-exon boundaries. The EJC and its peripheral bound proteins play an essential role in mediating mRNA export, translation and turnover. However, the exact sequence of EJC assembly and the involved factors during splicing remain elusive. Recently published structures of the...
Article
Full-text available
Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover is a crucial and highly regulated step of gene expression in mammalian cells. This includes mRNA surveillance pathways such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which assesses the fidelity of transcripts and eliminates mRNAs containing a premature translation termination codon (PTC). When studying mRNA degradation pa...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) controls gene expression by eliminating mRNAs with premature or aberrant translation termination. Degradation of NMD substrates is initiated by the central NMD factor UPF1, which recruits the endonuclease SMG6 and the deadenylation-promoting SMG5/7 complex. The extent to which SMG5/7 and SMG6 contribute to the deg...
Article
Eukaryotic cells determine the final protein output of their genetic program not only by controlling transcription but also by regulating the localization, translation and turnover rates of their mRNAs. Ultimately, the fate of any given mRNA is determined by the ensemble of all associated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), non-coding RNAs and metabolites...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a cellular process that eliminates messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates with premature translation termination codons (PTCs). In addition, NMD regulates the expression of a number of physiological mRNAs, for example transcripts containing long 3′ UTRs. Current models implicate the interaction between cytoplasmic pol...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsense-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) decay (NMD) is a quality control mechanism that degrades irregular or faulty mRNAs. NMD mainly degrades mRNAs, which contain a premature termination codon (PTC) and therefore encode a truncated protein. Furthermore, NMD alters the expression of different types of cellular mRNAs, the so-called endogenous NMD su...
Article
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The export of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is the final of several nuclear posttranscriptional steps of gene expression. The formation of export-competent mRNPs involves the recruitment of export factors that are assumed to facilitate transport of the mature mRNAs. Using in vitro splicing assays, we show that a core set of export factors, including ALYRE...
Article
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Unspliced, genomic HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) is a component of several ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) during the viral replication cycle. In earlier work, we demonstrated that the host upframeshift protein 1 (UPF1), a key factor in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), colocalized and associated to the viral structural protein Gag during viral egress. In t...
Article
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a translation-dependent, multistep process that degrades irregular or faulty messenger RNAs (mRNAs). NMD mainly targets mRNAs with a truncated open reading frame (ORF) due to premature termination codons (PTCs). In addition, NMD also regulates the expression of different types of endogenous mRNA substrates. A m...
Article
To serve as templates for translation eukaryotic mRNAs undergo an elaborate processing and maturation pathway. In eukaryotes this process comprises the synthesis of mRNA precursors, their processing and transport to the site of translation and eventually their decay. During the entire life cycle, mRNAs interact with distinct sets of trans-acting fa...
Article
Full-text available
In metazoan cells, spliced mRNAs are marked by the exon junction complex (EJC), a multi-protein complex that serves as a key regulator of post-transcriptional mRNA metabolism. Deposition of EJCs on mRNA is intimately linked to the splicing process. The spliceosomal protein CWC22 directly binds the core EJC-protein eIF4A3, guides it to the spliceoso...
Article
The interaction between thrombopoietin (THPO) and its receptor c-Mpl regulates downstream cytokine signaling and platelet homeostasis. Hereditary mutations of c-Mpl can either result in loss-of-function and thrombocytopenia or in gain-of-function and thrombocythemia and are important models to analyze the mechanism of c-Mpl activity. We have analyz...
Article
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NKAP is a highly conserved protein with roles in transcriptional repression, T-cell development, maturation and acquisition of functional competency and maintenance and survival of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Here we report the novel role of NKAP in splicing. With NKAP-specific antibodies we found that NKAP localizes to nuclear speckles. NKAP h...
Article
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Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control pathway, involving conserved proteins UPF1, UPF2 and UPF3b, which detects and degrades mRNAs with premature stop codons. Human UPF2 comprises three tandem MIF4G domains and a C-terminal UPF1 binding region. MIF4G-3 binds UPF3b, but the specific functions of MIF4G-1 and MIF4G-2 are unknow...
Article
The correct processing and faithful decoding of mRNAs during gene expression depends on the interaction with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The association of RBPs with pre-mRNAs starts during transcription by RNA polymerase II and undergoes constant remodeling during pre-mRNA processing and later steps of genes expression. Recently developed high th...
Article
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The exon junction complex (EJC) participates in the regulation of many post-transcriptional steps of gene expression. EJCs are deposited on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during splicing and their core consists of eIF4A3, MLN51, Y14, and MAGOH. Here, we show that two genes encoding MAGOH paralogs (referred to as MAGOH and MAGOHB) are expressed in mammals....
Article
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Synapsins are a family of neuronal phosphoproteins associated with the cytosolic surface of synaptic vesicles. Experimental evidence suggests a role for synapsins in synaptic vesicle clustering and recycling at the presynaptic terminal, as well as in neuronal development and synaptogenesis. Synapsin knock-out (Syn1(-/-) ) mice display an epileptic...
Article
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The degradation of nonsense-mutated β-globin mRNA by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) limits the synthesis of C-terminally truncated dominant negative β-globin chains and thus protects the majority of heterozygotes from symptomatic β-thalassemia. β-globin mRNAs with nonsense mutations in the first exon are known to bypass NMD, although current me...
Article
Full-text available
Efficient gene expression requires that, during their lifetime, mRNAs associate with different sets of RNA binding proteins to form messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). The protein components of mRNPs are essential for the correct post-transcriptional function and regulation of mRNAs. mRNPs are constitutively remodeled during the maturati...
Article
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Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in mammalian cells is a key mechanism for the removal of mRNA containing premature stop codons and is mediated by the coordinated function of numerous proteins that dynamically associate with the exon junction complex. The information communicated by these interactions and the functional consequences from a mechan...
Article
Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control mechanism that degrades mRNAs carrying premature stop codons. In mammalian cells, NMD is triggered when UPF2 bound to UPF3 on a downstream exon junction complex interacts with UPF1 bound to a stalled ribosome. We report structural studies on the interaction between the C-terminal region...
Article
Exon junction complexes (EJCs) are deposited onto mRNAs during splicing, serve as positional landmarks for the intron exon structure of genes, and direct posttranscriptional processes in the cytoplasm. EJC removal and recycling by translation are ill understood and have been attributed to ribosomal passage. This work identifies the ribosome-associa...
Article
Full-text available
Author Summary The first step in the expression of eukaryotic protein-coding genes is transcription into a messenger RNA (mRNA) precursor in the nucleus. These precursor mRNAs then undergo maturation through the removal of introns in a process termed splicing. During splicing, the splicing machinery or “spliceosome” deposits a complex of proteins o...
Data
Splicing-independent BTZ binding to minimal EJC cores consisting of eIF4A3 and MAGOH-Y14, (A) Splicing reactions using MINX as substrate RNA were supplemented with recombinant, Strep-tagged EJC proteins as indicated. Pulldowns were performed with StrepTactin spin columns. Positions of the unspliced transcript and the spliced product are displayed s...
Data
MAGOH mutants used in this study. The table summarizes the names and respective mutations of the MAGOH mutants used in this study. Previously published mutations are indicated. (0.03 MB DOC)
Data
Comparison of immunoprecipitation conditions with or without crosslinking. Splicing reactions using MINX GG as substrate RNAs were supplemented with FLAG-eIF4A3, FLAG-Y14, or FLAG-expressing extracts. Reactions were divided into two parts: one was not treated (lanes 7–9) the other was UV-crosslinked (lanes 4–6). Immunoprecipitations were done with...
Data
Crosslinking does not stabilize interactions between the pre-EJC and the short 5′ splicing substrate. Splicing reactions using MINX, MINX GG, or MINX GG (15) as substrate RNAs were supplemented with FLAG-eIF4A3, FLAG-Y14, or FLAG-expressing extracts as described in Figure 4. Reactions were UV-crosslinked and immunoprecipitations were done with FLAG...
Data
Establishing the knockdown of BTZ. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) measurement of BTZ mRNA levels after transfection of siRNA targeting Luciferase (Luc) or BTZ (1; 2; 3). (0.08 MB TIF)
Article
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Distal spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (DSMA1) is an autosomal recessive disease that is clinically characterized by distal limb weakness and respiratory distress. In this disease, the degeneration of alpha-motoneurons is caused by mutations in the immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 (IGHMBP2). This protein has been implicated in DNA replication, pr...
Article
Thrombopoiesis is tightly regulated by the interaction between thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor c-Mpl. Ligand binding results in dimerization of the receptor, internalization of the complex, and activation of downstream signaling. This activation pathway also leads to the clearance of TPO from the plasma thus establishing a negative feedback l...
Article
Full-text available
The HIV-1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) contains the major structural protein, pr55(Gag), viral genomic RNA, as well as the host protein, Staufen1. In this report, we show that the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) factor UPF1 is also a component of the HIV-1 RNP. We investigated the role of UPF1 in HIV-1-expressing cells. Depletion of UPF1 by siRNA resulted...
Article
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) represents a key mechanism to control the expression of wild-type and aberrant mRNAs. Phosphorylation of the protein UPF1 in the context of translation termination contributes to committing mRNAs to NMD. We report that translation termination is inhibited by UPF1 and stimulated by cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding prote...
Article
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is activated by exon-junction complexes (EJCs) that are located downstream of the termination codon of the substrate mRNAs. This situation can be imitated by tethering components of the EJC to the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of a reporter mRNA. Here we describe the detailed use of two analogous tethering syste...
Article
NMD is a cellular surveillance mechanism that eliminates faulty and errorfree mRNAs containing premature termination codons.
Article
Full-text available
The prothrombin (F2) 3' end formation signal is highly susceptible to thrombophilia-associated gain-of-function mutations. In its unusual architecture, the F2 3' UTR contains an upstream sequence element (USE) that compensates for weak activities of the non-canonical cleavage site and the downstream U-rich element. Here, we address the mechanism of...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a molecular pathway of mRNA surveillance that ensures rapid degradation of mRNAs containing premature translation termination codons (PTCs) in eukaryotes. NMD has been shown to also regulate normal gene expression and thus emerged as one of the key post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation. Recently, N...
Article
The functional analysis of the common prothrombin (F2) 20210*A allele has recently revealed gain-of-function of 3′end processing as a novel genetic mechanism predisposing to human disease. The general susceptibility of the F2 mRNA for gain-of-function is further exemplified by F2 20209*T and F2 20221*T, and can be explained by an unusual architectu...
Article
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance pathway that mediates rapid degradation of transcripts bearing premature translation termination codons (PTCs) and thereby limits the expression of unproductively processed mRNAs and the synthesis of C-terminally truncated peptides. Both its importance as a means to control gene expression and in...
Article
Full-text available
In eukaryotes, a surveillance pathway known as nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) regulates the abundance of messenger RNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs). In mammalian cells, it has been asserted that the NMD-relevant first round of translation is special and involves initiation by a specific protein heterodimer, the nuclear cap-binding...
Article
Full-text available
The exon-junction complex (EJC) components hUpf3a and hUpf3b serve a dual function: They promote nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), and they also regulate translation efficiency. Whether these two functions are interdependent or independent of each other is unknown. We characterized the function of the hUpf3 proteins in a lambdaN/boxB-based tether...