Niels Bosma

Niels Bosma
Utrecht University | UU · School of Economics (USE)

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113
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Publications

Publications (113)
Book
Full-text available
levels of entrepreneurial activity across the lobe
Article
The International Labor Organization (ILO) states that most agricultural work carried out by children occurs within the family unit, is generally unpaid and often hazardous in its nature and/or in the circumstances in which it is carried out. At the same time, some scholars nuance this view by positing that children who work in agriculture in the s...
Book
Full-text available
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Global Report 2020/21 spells out how levels of entrepreneurial activity vary across the world, reporting detailed findings of extensive population surveys in 43 economies across the globe, supplemented by the carefully conducted survey of national experts in each economy.
Book
Full-text available
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is a consortium of national country teams, primarily associated with top academic institutions, that carries out survey-based research on entrepreneurship around the world. GEM is the only global research source that collects data on entrepreneurship directly from individual entrepreneurs. GEM’s Adult Populatio...
Book
Full-text available
This Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2019/2020 Global Report summarises the results of over 150,000 individual interviews conducted over 50 economies, enquiring about attitudes towards entrepreneurship, the motivations of those starting businesses and the level of entrepreneurial activity in each economy, as well as the relationship between t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Electronic health (eHealth) tools are increasingly being applied in health care. They are expected to improve access to health care, quality of health care, and health outcomes. Although the advantages of using these tools in health care are well described, it is unknown to what extent eHealth tools are effective when used by vulnerable...
Article
Full-text available
A latent class model is applied to allow entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs) to influence the effect of entrepreneurial activity on growth in European Union regions. Using this methodology, clusters of regions that differ significantly in their relationship between entrepreneurial activity and growth are identified. This is consistent with the hypothe...
Book
Full-text available
As the governments of Asia and the Pacific and the UN look toward the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, it has become clear that one of the greatest challenges in the region's development is how to engage the youth population in their own governance and development. Central to this effort is nurturing entrepreneurial skills, whic...
Book
Full-text available
The Asia-Pacific region includes some of the wealthiest as well as some of the least developed countries in the world. Despite its wealth, there are growing disparities that have implications for achieving the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including efforts to promote social cohesion and the overarching pledge to “leave no...
Article
Full-text available
Institutions have a decisive impact on the prevalence and nature of entrepreneurship. To date, the impact of institutions on (productive) entrepreneurship and the effects of entrepreneurship on economic growth have largely been investigated in isolation. In this paper, we bring together institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth using a pa...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a method by which the entrepreneurial ecosystem, if present, reveals itself in the data. We first follow the literature and define the entrepreneurial ecosystem as a multidimensional set of interacting factors that moderate the effect of entrepreneurial activity on economic growth. The quality of such an ecosystem, by its...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s (GEM) social entrepreneurship activity research is based on interviews with 167,793 adults in 58 economies in 2015, and is thus the largest comparative study of social entrepreneurship in the world. This report presents a broad measure of social entrepreneurship activity as well as a narrow measure. The broad m...
Article
Full-text available
Findings from a large and growing body of entrepreneurship research offer insights for public policy and public officials and managers. We first define entrepreneurship policy as measures undertaken to stimulate entrepreneurship in a region or country. We discuss generalizations from empirical research on three types of entrepreneurship activity th...
Book
Full-text available
Research in entrepreneurship has been booming, with perspectives from a range of disciplines and numerous developing schools of thought. It can be difficult for young scholars and even long-time researchers to find their way through the lush garden of ideas we see before us. The purpose of this book is to map the research terrain of entrepreneursh...
Article
Entrepreneurship within established organizations is largely neglected in internationally comparative research on entrepreneurship. In this paper, we argue that institutions affect the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations. We link institutional theory to the entrepreneurial theory of economic organization, to come...
Article
This paper explores entrepreneurs’ reactions to the global economic crises, examining both firm and country characteristics associated with entrepreneurs’ ability to perceive additional entrepreneurial opportunities in a crisis. Harmonized data collected in 2009-10 reveals extensive national differences in entrepreneurial attitudes, activity, and a...
Article
Bosma N. and Sternberg R. Entrepreneurship as an urban event? Empirical evidence from European cities, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether urban areas are more entrepreneurial than other parts of countries and to what extent the observed differences between cities are caused by individual characteristics and context effects. Using Glo...
Article
Full-text available
En este articulo adoptamos el punto de vista de que no sólo es relevante el tamaño de los eslabonamientos sectoriales, sino también la distancia económica entre los sectores. Para medir esta distancia, definimos la longitud media de propagación como una representación en promedio del número de pasos necesarios para que un cambio exógeno en un secto...
Book
Full-text available
Entrepreneurship is often expected to have a positive effect on economic progress through its stimulating influence on innovation, competition and industry dynamics. At the same time, entrepreneurship is a multi-dimensional concept, involving many different actors and several levels of analysis. One important distinction contrasts independent (earl...
Article
In economic agglomeration studies, the distinction of various externalities circumstances related to knowledge spillovers remains largely unclear. This paper introduces human capital, innovation and several types of entrepreneurship as potential drivers of regional economic performance with an impact of agglomeration economies. We use measures of s...
Article
Full-text available
In its first ten years, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) has had three main aims: to measure differences in the level of entrepreneurial activity between countries, to uncover factors determining national levels of entrepreneurial activity and to identify policies that would stimulate entrepreneurship. This paper reviews the theoretical an...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a high level of practi-tioner, policymaker, and scholar interest in social entrepreneurship, most research is based on case studies and success stories of successful social entrepreneurs in a single country. We develop a methodology to measure population-based social entrepreneurship activity (SEA) prevalence rates and test it in...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is a project carried out by a research consortium dedicated to understanding the relationship between entrepreneurship and national economic development. Since 1999 GEM reports have been a key source of comparable data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship, start-up and es...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the first large scale international comparative study of entrepreneurial employee activity (intrapreneurship). Intrapreneurship is a more wide-spread phenomenon in high income countries than in low income countries. At the organizational level, intrapreneurs have relatively high job growth expectations for their n...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial attitude are substantial and persistent across nations and regions. However, studies on entrepreneurship that encompass regions and countries at the same time are lacking. This paper explains both national and regional differences in entrepreneurial attitude and activity for 127 regions in...
Chapter
Entrepreneurs are of key importance in translating creativity into economic output. Consequently the urban dimension of entrepreneurship is a subject of great interest. This chapter sets out a framework encompassing the process between entrepreneurial perceptions and entrepreneurial activity at the individual level and demonstrate how an urban envi...
Article
Agency and altruism theory are combined to develop a framework explaining expected returns on informal investments in fifty-four countries that participated in GEM in either 2007 or 2008 or both. The chapter finds evidence that altruism affects expected returns. Also, the chapter finds that as the relationship between investor and entrepreneur beco...
Article
Full-text available
In the media role models are increasingly being acknowledged as an influential factor in explaining the reasons for the choice of occupation and career. Various conceptual studies have proposed links between role models and entrepreneurial intentions. However, empirical research aimed at establishing the importance of role models for (nascent) entr...
Article
Full-text available
In the media role models are increasingly being acknowledged as an influential factor in explaining the reasons for the choice of occupation and career. Various conceptual studies have proposed links between role models and entrepreneurial intentions. However, empirical research aimed at establishing the importance of role models for (nascent) entr...
Article
Full-text available
With this report, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) has completed 12 annual surveys of the entrepreneurial attitudes, activities and aspirations of individuals around the world. Starting with just 10 developed countries in 1999, GEM has grown to include over 80 economies during the course of these 12 years. In 2010, over 175,000 people were...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the first international comparative study of intrapreneurship and independent entrepreneurship. The prevalence of intrapreneurship is about twice as high in high income countries as in low income countries. We find that at the individual level, intrapreneurs are much more likely to have the intention to start a ne...
Article
Full-text available
The decision to become an entrepreneur is in essence an individual decision. But even when the endowments of inhabitants are taken into account, some regions have persistently higher entrepreneurship rates than others. Proposed explanations for this regional variation are numerous: market potential, unemployment rates, knowledge spillovers and aggl...
Article
Nederland scoort goed in de internationale rankings als het gaat om het aantal zelfstandige ondernemers en het aantal starters, terwijl het aantal snelgroeiende bedrijven achterblijft. Informatie over ondernemend gedrag op de werkvloer is schaars, maar een eerste meting toont aan dat er relatief veel ondernemende werknemers zijn in Nederland.
Article
Full-text available
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is the world’s leading research consortium dedicated to understanding the relationship between entrepreneurship and national economic development. For the past ten years GEM reports have been the only source of comparable data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship, start-u...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a novel international study of intrapreneurship ( i.e., employees developing new business activities for their employer), carried out in eleven countries in the framework of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. At the individual level, it is found that intrapreneurs are much more likely to have intentions to start...
Chapter
Policy makers’ interest in stimulating entrepreneurship suggests a general consensus about their beneficiary economic effects that exist. For example, the goal of the EU 2000 Lisbon Agenda to become the world’s most innovative area by 2010 relies on the entrepreneurial power of regions. The European Commission , in its Green paper on Entrepreneursh...
Article
Full-text available
Do firm entry and exit improve the competitiveness of regions? If so, is this a universal mechanism or is it contingent on the type of industry or region in which creative destruction takes place? This paper analyses the effect of firm entry and exit on the competitiveness of regions, measured by total factor productivity (TFP) growth. Based on a s...
Article
Full-text available
Countries and regions are committed to stimulating entrepreneurship by opening doors to (potential) entrepreneurs. The commonly held belief is that a variety of entrepreneurs would lead to an enriched dynamic environment and as such lies at the root of economic prosperity. Over the past 25 years, entrepreneurship literature has established that ent...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing attention on the attitudes towards entrepreneurship as an important predictor of entrepreneurial activity. So far, the focus has mainly been on the individual or national levels. This paper describes, based on the existing literature, the link between the entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial activity at the regional lev...
Article
Full-text available
Recent discussions in the Economic Geography literature increasingly focus on creative cities and the importance of creativity for achieving economic growth. Considering the increased attention on urban areas it is not surprising that the regional dimension of entrepreneurship is a subject of great interest. We set out a framework encompassing the...
Article
This exploratory study addresses two research questions: What factors are related to firms’ decision to internationalize, and after they internationalize, What factors relate to firms’ choice of high-risk versus low-risk foreign entry modes? We contribute to the literature by examining these questions with two separate sets of entrepreneurial firms...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews ten years of theoretical and empirical contributions by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor consortium. The evolution of GEM measures of entrepreneurship is tracked, and the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed scholarship based on GEM data and models is assessed. Prospects for the future are noted, as GEM continues to expand an...
Article
Full-text available
Exxon Mobil and ConocoPhillips stock price has been predicted using the difference between core and headline CPI in the United States. Linear trends in the CPI difference allow accurate prediction of the prices at a five to ten-year horizon.
Article
Full-text available
Recent discussions in the Economic Geography literature increasingly focus on creative cities and the importance of creativity for achieving economic growth. Considering the increased attention on urban areas it is not surprising that the regional dimension of entrepreneurship is a subject of great interest. We set out a framework encompassing the...
Article
There is much attention for the role of entrepreneurship in enhancing regional or national growth. However, an absence of empirical entrepreneurship studies (i) including both national and regional measures of entrepreneurship and (ii) acknowledging the variation in types of entrepreneurship causes a gap in understanding the determinants and conseq...
Article
In various studies it is found that regional variation in entrepreneurship is significant and persistent (see e.g. Parker, 2005; Fritsch and Mueller 2006). This means that regional conditions may represent incentives or obstacles for potential entrepreneurs, thus affecting (i) their intention to start a firm and (ii) their entrepreneurial behavior...
Chapter
To identify the determinants of entrepreneurshipin the Netherlands, the recent history of entrepreneurship is divided intothree periods.Between 1960 and 1982, entrepreneurship levels dropped as aresult of the demand for mass-produced products, the introduction of welfareand social security policies discouraging self-employment, and the Dutchpeople'...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates to what extent determinants of the rate of independent startups and the rate of new subsidiaries are different. Using a regional data base for the Netherlands over the period 1988-2002, we investigate the impact of two types of agglomeration effects, localisation and urbanisation, while controlling for a range of economic va...
Article
Full-text available
Why does one person actually succeed in starting a business, while a second person gives up? In order to answer this question, a sample of 517 nascent entrepreneurs (people in the process of setting up a business) was followed over a 3-year period. After this period, it was established that 195 efforts were successful and that 115 start up efforts...
Article
Full-text available
Market selection and competition mechanisms predict that high entry rates in the region will stimulate new activities in new and successful incumbent firms, while less efficient firms are forced to exit. The sum of these processes should lead to economic growth, reflected by increasing employment and/or productivity. However, if entry and employmen...
Article
Full-text available
Does creative destruction improve the competitiveness of regions? If yes, is this a universal mechanism, or is it contingent on the type of industry or region in which creative destruction takes place? In the paper we analyse the effect of turbulence on regional competitiveness (measured both as total factor productivity growth and as employment gr...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT : This paper looks at how well Finland performs in high growth entrepreneurship and uses data from the Global Entrepreneurship monitor to benchmark Finland against other European countries. It is found that Finland’s prevalence rate of high growth entrepreneurial activity lags significantly behind most of its European and all of its Scandi...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor research program was designed as a comprehensive assessment of the role of entrepreneurship in national economic growth. The conceptual model reflected in a wide range of factors associated with national variations in entrepreneurial activity and the major contextual features. Empirical tests of the many relation...