Nicos Makris

Nicos Makris
Southern Methodist University | SMU · Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy

About

265
Publications
107,128
Reads
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9,248
Citations
Introduction
The research interests of Nicos Makris include the design and protection of structures against natural and man-made hazards by employing base isolation, rocking isolation and other response modification strategies in association with soil-structure interaction. Makris has also research interests in mechanics, rheology, fractional calculus and historic structures; while, from 2003 to 2009 he directed the reconstruction of the 4th century BC Temple of Zeus in Nemea, Greece.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - August 2018
University of Central Florida
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Structural-Earthquake Engineering, Applied Mechanics-Dynamics, Structural Resilience and Sustainability, Seismic Protection and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, Energy Harvesting
October 2012 - present
Academy of Athens
Position
  • Member
April 2003 - September 2019
University of Patras
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor of Structures and Applied Mechanics
Education
January 1990 - February 1992
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Field of study
  • Structural-Eearthquake Engineering, Applied Mechanics-Dynamics

Publications

Publications (265)
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the seismic response analysis of the 9-story SAC building equipped with pressurized sand dampers, a new type of low-cost energy dissipation device where the material enclosed within the damper housing is pressurized sand. The strength of the pressurized sand damper is proportional to the externally exerted pressure on the sa...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated from the quadratic dependence of peak structural displacements to the pulse period, Tp$T_p$, of pulse‐like ground motions, this paper revisits the pulse‐period – moment‐magnitude (Tp$T_p$–Mw$M_{\text{w}}$) relations of ground motions generated from recorded near‐source ground motions with epicentral distances, D≤$D\le$ 20 km. A total of 1...
Article
Full-text available
When the density of the fluid surrounding suspended Brownian particles is appreciable, in addition to the forces appearing in the traditional Ornstein and Uhlenbeck theory of Brownian motion, additional forces emerge as the displaced fluid in the vicinity of the randomly moving Brownian particle acts back on the particle giving rise to long-range f...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated from a large number of transmission and distribution utility poles that experience excessive vibrations during wind storms, this paper presents the eigenvalue analysis of a partially embedded flexural, prismatic column with ' length, , and exposed length, , and accounts for the interaction with the soil of its embedded portion. The study...
Article
Full-text available
Given that the coupling of a framing structure to a strong, rocking wall enforces a first‐mode response, this paper investigates the dynamic response of a yielding single‐degree‐of‐freedom oscillator coupled to a stepping rocking wall with supplemental damping (either hysteretic or linear viscous) along its sides. The full nonlinear equations of mo...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated from studies on anomalous relaxation and diffusion, we show that the memory function M(t) of complex materials, that their creep compliance follows a power law, J(t)∼tq with q∈R+, is proportional to the fractional derivative of the Dirac delta function, dqδ(t−0)dtq with q∈R+. This leads to the finding that the inverse Laplace transform of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the development, testing, and characterization of an innovative low-cost fail-safe sustainable energy-dissipation device in which the material surrounding the moving piston and enclosed within the damper housing is pressurized sand. The proposed sand damper does not suffer from the challenge of viscous heating and failure of its...
Article
Full-text available
In view of the increasing attention to the time responses of complex fluids described by power-laws in association with the need to capture inertia effects that manifest in high-frequency microrheology, we compute the five basic time-response functions of in-series or in-parallel connections of two elementary fractional derivative elements known as...
Article
This paper investigates the seismic response of one-and two-degree-of-freedom yielding structures equipped with inerters at the first story. Inerters are mechanical devices that their resisting force is proportional to the relative acceleration at their end-nodes. This class of response modification devices complements the traditional supplemental...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates the seismic response of a two−degrees−of−freedom structure with supplemental rotational inertia at its first story. The proposed response−modification strategy uses an inerter-a mechanical device the resisting force of which is proportional to the relative acceleration between the first story and the ground. This arrangement...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the inelastic response of a yielding structure coupled with a damped rocking wall. The paper first derives the nonlinear equations of motion of a yielding oscillator coupled with a rocking wall when it is equipped with vertical energy dissipation devices, which offer either hysteretic or viscous damping. Then, the dependabil...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with the seismic response analysis of nonlinear secondary oscillators. Bilinear, sliding and rocking single‐degree‐of‐freedom dynamic systems are analysed as representative of a wide spectrum of secondary structures and nonstructural components. In the first stage, the equations governing their full dynamic interaction with linear m...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the classical expressions of the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function of Brownian particles either suspended in a Newtonian viscous fluid or trapped in a harmonic potential, we show that for all timescales the mean-square displacement of Brownian microspheres with mass m and radius R suspended in any linea...
Article
Full-text available
This paper revisits the physical meaning of linear, time-domain constitutive models with complex parameters that have been presented in the literature and concludes that such models are not physically realizable. While complex-parameter phenomenolog-ical models (including those with complex-order time derivatives) may be efficient in capturing in t...
Preprint
In view of the increasing attention to the time responses of complex fluids described by power-laws in association with the need to capture inertia effects that manifest in high-frequency microrheology, we compute the five basic time-response functions of in-series or in-parallel connections of two elementary fractional derivative elements known as...
Preprint
This paper revisits the physical meaning of linear, time-domain constitutive models with complex parameters that have been presented in the literature and concludes that such models are not physically realizable. While complex-parameter phenomenological models (including those with complex-order time derivatives) may be efficient in capturing in th...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper investigates the inelastic response of a yielding structure coupled with a rocking wall which can be vertically restrained. The paper first derives the nonlinear equations of motion of a yielding oscillator coupled with a vertically restrained rocking wall and the dependability of the one-degree of freedom idealization is validated again...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates the seismic response of a two-degree-of-freedom structure with an inerter at the first story-a mechanical device that its resisting force is proportional to the relative acceleration between the first story and the ground. This arrangement complements the traditional supplemental damping strategies, also examined in this wor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The uplifting and rocking of slender, free-standing structures when subjected to ground shaking may limit appreciably the seismic moments and shears that develop at their base. This high-performance seismic behavior is inherent in the design of ancient temples that consist of slender, free-standing columns which support freely heavy epistyles toget...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigated the nonlinear, rocking seismic response of slender, free-standing columns when equipped along their sides (or at their pivoting points) with vertical energy dissipation devices which offer either hysteretic or viscous (linear or nonlinear) dissipation. The paper derived the nonlinear equations of motion and then revisited th...
Preprint
Motivated from the need to convert time-dependent rheometry data into complex frequency response functions, this paper studies the frequency response function of the creep compliance that is coined the complex creep function. While for any physically realizable viscoelastic model the Fourier transform of the creep compliance diverges in the classic...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated from the need to convert time-dependent rheometry data into complex frequency response functions, this paper studies the frequency response function of the creep compliance that is coined the complex creep function. While for any physically realizable viscoelastic model the Fourier transform of the creep compliance diverges in the classic...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the seismic response of a two-degrees-of-freedom structure with supplemental rotational inertia at its first story. The proposed response-modification strategy uses an inerter-a mechanical device the resisting force of which is proportional to the relative acceleration between the first story and the ground. This arrangement...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines and compares the minimum horizontal acceleration that is needed to initiate uplift of the single-nave barrel vault and of the rocking frame which are the two most common masonry structural systems used to bridge a span. The paper concludes that regardless of the direction of the rupture of the buttresses, the single-nave barrel...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic isolation or “aseismic base isolation” is an earthquake protection strategy that aims to uncouple the motion of a structure from the ground shaking and thereby reduce structural forces. A most effective and successful seismic protection technology, seismic isolation, is by now a mature and viable alternative to traditional capacity design a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the inelastic response of a yielding structure coupled with a vertically restrained rocking wall. The paper first derives the nonlinear equations of motion of a yielding oscillator coupled with a vertically restrained rocking wall, and the dependability of the one‐degree of freedom idealization is validated against the nonli...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper derives the causal time-response functions of three-parameter mechanical networks that have been reported in the literature and involve the inerter—a two-node element in which the force-output is proportional to the relative acceleration of its end-nodes. It is shown that all frequency-response functions that exhibit singularities along...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the inelastic response of a yielding structure coupled with a vertically restrained rocking wall. The paper first derives the nonlinear equations of motion of a yielding oscillator coupled with a vertically restrained rocking wall and the dependability of the one-degree of freedom idealization is validated against the nonlin...
Chapter
Full-text available
The uplifting and rocking of slender, free-standing structures when subjected to ground shaking may limit appreciably the seismic moments and shears that develop at their base. This high-performance seismic behavior is inherent in the design of ancient temples that consist of slender, free-standing columns which support freely heavy epistyles toget...
Article
Full-text available
This paper derives the causal time-response functions of three-parameter mechanical networks that have been reported in the literature and involve the inerter-a two-node element in which the force-output is proportional to the relative acceleration of its end-nodes. This two-terminal device is the mechanical analogue of the capacitor in a force-cur...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the inelastic response of a yielding single-degree-of-freedom oscillator coupled with a rocking wall. Configurations of both a stepping rocking wall and a pinned rocking wall that have been reported in the literature are examined. The full nonlinear equations of motions are derived, and the paper shows that a stepping wall s...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the growing interest in suppressing vibrations with supplemental rotational inertia, this paper examines and constructs the basic frequency-response functions and subsequently derives the corresponding causal time-response functions of elementary mechanical networks that involve the inerter, a two-node element in which the force-output...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the limit states of a circular masonry arch supported on rectangular buttresses when subjected to lateral inertial loading in addition to gravity loading by employing the principle of stationary potential energy. Depending on the slenderness of the arch compared to the slenderness of the buttresses, the study identifies two...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the dynamic response of an elastic single-degree-of-freedom oscillator coupled with a rocking wall. Both configurations of a stepping rocking wall and a pinned rocking wall that have been reported in the literature are examined. The full nonlinear equations of motions are derived, and the paper shows through a comprehensive...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the alternative strategy of suppressing ground-induced vibrations with supplemental rotational inertia. The proposed concept employs a rack-pinion-flywheel system where its resisting force is proportional to the relative acceleration between the vibrating mass and the support of the flywheels. This arrangement, known in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we revisit the fracturing of masonry towers and buttresses when subjected to lateral loading. At their limit state, tall, slender masonry towers and buttresses collapse by pivoting about their base corner; whereas, less slender configurations may collapse by developing a shear failure. Because of the unilateral behavior of masonry, at...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates how the two competing parameters of size and slenderness affect the rocking stability of tall, free-standing columns when subjected to horizontal and vertical ground shaking. The paper shows that the outcome of this competition is sensitive to local details of the ground shaking and the dominant frequency of a possible coher...
Chapter
This chapter revisits the limit equilibrium analysis of masonry arches when subjected to gravity and lateral loads. Firstly, the major contributions during the last three centuries either with geometric or energy formulations are discussed, and subsequently, the performance of the distinct element method (DEM) is examined against rigorous solutions...
Article
Full-text available
When a free-standing column with a given base becomes taller and taller, there is a competition between the increase in its size (more stable) and the increase in its slenderness (less stable). This article investigates how these two competing phenomena affect the stability of tall, slender, free-standing columns when subjected to horizontal and ve...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper investigates the planar rocking response of an array of freestanding columns capped with a freely supported rigid beam in an effort to explain the appreciable seismic stability of ancient free-standing columns which support heavy epistyles together with the even heavier frieze atop. Following a variational formulation the paper concludes...
Article
Full-text available
This paper revisits the fracturing of masonry buttresses and towers when subjected either to a concentrated oblique force at their head or to lateral inertial loading due to ground shaking and presents the corresponding failure criteria in elongation and shear. The loading configurations examined result either from the thrust that an elevated arch...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the rocking response of a slender column that is vertically restrained with an elastic tendon that passes through its centerline. Following a variational formulation, the nonlinear equation of motion is derived, in which the stiffness and the prestressing force of the tendon are treated separately. In this way, the post-upli...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we compute the minimum thickness and the location of the imminent intrados hinge of symmetric elliptical masonry arches when subjected to their weight. The paper explains that the problem of determining the minimum thickness of a masonry arch capable to support its own weight has multiple solutions. The infinite many neighboring solut...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper investigates the planar rocking response and stability analysis of an array of free-standing columns capped with a freely supported rigid beam. Part of the motivation for this study is the emerging seismic design concept of allowing framing systems to uplift and rock along their plane in order to limit bending moments and shear forces. F...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the modal identification of seismically isolated bridges when the localised nonlinear behaviour from the isolation bearing initiates at different times due to the uneven height of the bridge piers. More specifically, a three-span bridge supported on spherical sliding bearings is examined. Three different states of the same s...
Article
Full-text available
The uplifting and rocking of slender, free-standing structures when subjected to ground shaking may limit appreciably the seismic moments and shears that develop at their base. This high-performance seismic behavior is inherent in the design of ancient temples with emblematic peristyles that consist of slender, free-standing columns which support f...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we revisit the limit equilibrium analysis of masonry arches. Firstly, the major contributions during the last three centuries associated with geometric and energy formulations are discussed, and subsequently, the paper explains that the problem of determining the minimum thickness of a masonry arch capable to support its own weight h...
Article
Full-text available
A half century ago, Housner (1963) explained that there is a safety margin between uplifting and overturning of slender, free-standing columns and that as the size of the column or the frequency of the excitation increases, this safety margin increases appreciably to the extent that large, free-standing columns enjoy ample seismic stability. This p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More than a century ago Milankovitch presented for the first time the correct and complete solution for the theoretical minimum thickness, t, of a semicircular masonry arch with radius, R (t/R=0.1075). This paper uses a variational formulation approach and shows that this solution is not unique and that it depends on the stereotomy exercised.
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the rocking response and stability analysis of an array of slender columns caped with a rigid beam which are vertically restrained with elastic prestressed tendons that pass through the centerline of the columns while anchored at the foundation and the cap-beam. Following a variational formulation, the nonlinear equation of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More than a century ago Milankovitch presented a remarkable formulation for the thrust-line of arches that do not sustain tension, and by taking radial cuts he published for the first time the correct and complete solution for the theoretical minimum thickness, t, of a semicircular arch with radius, R. This paper shows that Milankovitch's solution,...
Article
Full-text available
Four idealised dynamic systems, which are used as analogues in earthquake and geotechnical engineering, are studied: an elastic single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) oscillator; an elastic–perfectly-plastic sdof oscillator; a rigid block resting in simple frictional contact on a horizontal base; and a rigid block resting on a sloping plane. They are subj...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we compute the location of the imminent hinges and the minimum thickness, t, of a circular masonry arch with mid-thickness radius, R, and embracing angle, β, which can just sustain its own weight together with a given level of a horizontal ground acceleration, ε g. Motivated from the recent growing interest in identifying the limit e...
Article
Full-text available
This technical note investigates the dynamic response and stability of a rocking frame that consists of two identical free-standing slender columns capped with a freely supported rigid beam. Part of the motivation for this study is the emerging seismic design concept of allowing framing systems to uplift and rock along their plane in order to limit...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the problem of estimating in situ the force output of fluid dampers when installed in structures for vibration reduction due to seismic and wind excitations. The paper first presents results from a comprehensive experimental program on medium and large-size fluid dampers in an effort to extract their force output during cyclic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents results from a comprehensive experimental program on medium-size and large-size fluid dampers in an effort to extract their force output during cyclic loading by simply measuring the strain on the damper housing and the end-spacer. The paper first discusses the stress path within the damper and subsequently via the use of linear...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we compute the minimum thickness and the location of the imminent intrados hinge of symmetric elliptical masonry arches when subjected to their weight. While this problem (Couplet’s problem) was solved rigorously for semicircular arches more than a century ago, no results have been available for elliptical arches. Motivated from the...
Article
Full-text available
More than a century ago, the Serbian engineer and astronomer Milutin Milankovitch presented a remarkable formulation for the thrust-line of arches that do not sustain tension, and by taking radial cuts and a polar coordinate system, he published for the first time the correct and complete solution for the theoretical minimum thickness, t, of a mono...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the planar rocking response of an array of free-standing columns capped with a freely supported rigid beam in an effort to explain the appreciable seismic stability of ancient free-standing columns which support heavy epistyles together with the even heavier frieze atop. Following a variational formulation the paper conclude...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More than a century ago the Serbian engineer and astronomer Milutin Milankovitch presented a remarkable formulation for the thrust-line of arches that do not sustain tension, and using polar coordinates he published for the first time the correct and complete solution for the theoretical minimum thickness, t, of a semicircular arch with radius R. T...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with a widely studied problem—that of the identification of the modal characteristics of freeway overcrossings and other bridges, which response is interacting with their approaching embankments and their foundation. The study implements a sophisticated parameter estimation method known as the prediction error method and exa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the planar rocking response of an array of free‐standing columns capped with a freely supported rigid beam in an effort to explain the appreciable seismic stability of ancient free‐standing columns that support heavy epistyles together with the even heavier frieze atop. Following a variational formulation, the paper conclude...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines whether the "effective period" of bilinear isolation systems, as defined invariably in most current design codes, expresses in reality the period of vibration that appears in the horizontal axis of the design response spectrum. Starting with the free vibration response, the study proceeds with a comprehensive parametric analysis...
Data
This paper presents results from a comprehensive experimental program on medium-size and large-size fluid dampers in an effort to extract their force output during cyclic loading by simply measuring the strain on the damper housing and the end-spacer of the damper. The paper first discusses the stress path within the damper and, subsequently via th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the problem of sizing the width of tall free-standing columns with a given height which are intended to rock, yet shall remain stable during the maximum expected earthquake shaking. The motivation for this study is the emerging seismic design concept of allowing tall rigid structures to uplift and rock in order to limit base...
Technical Report
Full-text available
More than a century ago the Serbian engineer and astronomer Milutin Milankovitch presented a remarkable formulation for the thrust-line of arches that do not sustain tension, and using polar coordinates he presented for the first time the correct and complete solution for the theoretical minimum thickness, t, of a semicircular arch with radius R. T...