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Cognitive NeuroscienceNeuroscienceMemoryCognitive NeuropsychologyExecutive FunctionAlzheimer's DiseaseCognitive PsychologyEEGNeuropsychologyVisual AttentionVisual PerceptionEye TrackingVisuospatial AttentionInformation ProcessingSpatial CognitionPerception and ActionEye MovementsVisual ProcessingEmbodied CognitionSaccadesEye-TrackerGaze TrackingPupillometryVisual MaskingEye Movement Measurements
Research Items (13)
One of the most basic and person-specific affective responses to music is liking. The present investigation sought to determine whether liking was preserved during spontaneous auditory imagery. To this purpose, we inserted two-second silent intervals into liked and disliked songs, a method known to automatically recreate a mental image of these songs. Neural correlates of musical preference were measured by high-density electroencephalography in twenty subjects who had to listen to a set of five pre-selected unknown songs the same number of times for two weeks. Time frequency analysis of the two most liked and the two most disliked songs confirmed the presence of neural responses related to liking. At the beginning of silent intervals (400-900 ms and 1000-1300 ms), significant differences in theta activity were originating from the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyrus. These two brain structures are known to work together to process various aspects of music and are also activated when measuring liking while listening to music. At the end of silent intervals (1400-1900 ms), significant alpha activity differences originating from the insula were observed, whose exact role remains to be explored. Although exposure was controlled for liked and disliked songs, liked songs were rated as more familiar, underlying the strong relationship that exists between liking, exposure, and familiarity.
Depression researchers have long considered depressive disorders to be associated with specific cognitive processes. In the current chapter, we examine the relationship between depressive disorders (especially major depressive disorder [MDD]) and perceptual-cognitive processing of emotional contents. We describe some characteristics of depressive patients’ Umwelts (i.e., unique perceptual-cognitive worlds) and causal mechanisms contributing to depressive symptom severity. Emotion processing in depression has usually been regarded as biased (regarding interpretation, memory, “attention”) toward specific “negative” emotional stimulations. This robust finding generally concerns adults as well as adolescents and children. Some “attentional biases,” however, cannot be easily described based on the classical “omnibus” mood-congruent information processing hypothesis, especially in children and elderly patients with MDD. In our view, both theoretical and practical breakthroughs could occur in the near future in the field of depression and perceptual-cognitive processing. First, a lifespan developmental approach to cognition–depression interactions could exert major influence on research designs, because most of the cognitive biases identified in adult depression are already present in child and adolescent depression. Second, combined cognitive bias (CCB) models, integrating various implications of depressive disorders for perception and cognition, will help us understand and inform the mutual influences between interpretation, memory, and “attentional” biases. Third, behavioral epigenetics, the primary outputs of which have begun to inform us about the role of gene x environment interactions in “attention” distribution, represents a promising epistemological framework for a complexity-oriented approach to depression. Such a framework is highly needed given the number of factors interacting in the development of depression.
Objective. Several studies have demonstrated saccadic eye movement (SEM) abnormalities in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) when patients performed prosaccade (PS) and antisaccade (AS) tasks. Some studies have also showed that SEM abnormalities were correlated with dementia rating tests such as the MMSE. Therefore, it has been suggested that SEMs could provide useful information for diagnosis. However, little is known about predictive saccades (PreS) – saccades triggered before or very quickly after stimuli appearance – and their relationships with cognition in AD. Here, we aimed to examine the relationships between our usual dementia screening tests and SEM parameters in PS, AS, and also PreS task. Method. We compared SEMs in 20 patients suffering from AD and in 35 healthy older adults (OA) in PS, AS and PreS task. All participants also completed a neuropsychological evaluation. Results. We showed that AD patients had higher latency and latency variability regardless the tasks, and also higher AS cost, in comparison with OA. Moreover, AD patients made more uncorrected AS and took more time to correct incorrect AS. In PreS task, AD patients showed higher gain and gain variability than OA when they made anticipated saccades. Close relationships were found between the majority of SEM variables in PS, AS and PreS tasks and dementia screening tests, especially the MMSE and episodic memory measures. Conclusion. Our findings, in agreement with previous studies, demonstrated that AD affects several SEM parameters. SEM abnormalities may reflect selective and executive attention impairments in AD. Keywords: Dementia; Attention; Executive functions; Eye movement
- Dec 2016
Although the relationship between age-related cognitive decline and saccadic eye movement (SEM) deficits has been outlined, specific cognitive alterations underlying age-related changes in saccadic performance remain unclear. This study attempted to better understand the nature of aging effects on SEMs. We compared SEMs in younger and older adults in prosaccade (PS) and antisaccade (AS) tasks under gap, step and overlap conditions. We also examined relationships between these performances and several neuropsychological scores. Twenty-eight younger adults (YA), 24 older adults under 65 years (OA<65) and 24 over 65 years (OA>65) of age completed a neuropsychological evaluation, PS and AS tasks. Our results showed that latencies, AS cost, time-to-correct AS errors and uncorrected AS, increase with aging. YA showed higher overlap effects than OA>65 and OA<65. Importantly, correlations and regressions revealed close relationships not only between latencies and processing speed measures but also between the AS cost and the inhibition process measures. Correct saccades and the time to correct AS errors were closely related to inhibition process and cognitive flexibility measures. These findings suggest that the progressive age-related decline of processing speed and executive attention are associated with, and can be highlighted though SEMs in PS and AS tasks.
Les mouvements oculaires font partie de ces activités motrices réalisées quotidiennement et, généralement, sans en avoir conscience. Ils peuvent cependant être le reflet du fonctionnement cognitif et émotionnel, les rendant ainsi particulièrement intéressants pour l’étude des pathologies psychiatriques comme la dépression. Débutée il y a plusieurs siècles, ce n’est pourtant que depuis quelques décennies que l’investigation systématique des processus oculomoteurs s’est véritablement développée. Le développement de ces recherches, adossé à l’évolution des techniques d’enregistrement, permet d’améliorer la compréhension des relations entre dépression et oculomotricité. À travers l’examen des principales mesures de mouvement et de position de l’oeil, nous aborderons les paradigmes expérimentaux les plus couramment utilisés, ainsi que les différents modèles explicatifs (comportementaux et neuropsychologiques) de l’impact de la dépression sur les processus oculomoteurs. Nous terminerons ce chapitre en proposant des perspectives liées à l’utilisation de ces outils pour la compréhension, le diagnostic, et la thérapeutique de la dépression. http://www.deboecksuperieur.com/ouvrage/9782353273546-de-lhumeur-normale-la-depression-en-psychologie-cognitive-neurosciences-et
A study was conducted in order to examine the emotional effects of content and hue interacting in the same image. To achieve this goal, self-reported (based on Self-Assessment Manikin [SAM] scale), physiological (pupil diameter and skin conductance response), and behavioral (eye movement) measures were used in response to a set of photographs selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Each of them was a combination of one type of content (natural or urban) and one type of image version (original, grayscale, green, or red). The results revealed that participants’ emotions were dependent on specific contents, hues, and content × hue interactions. The natural content elicited more positive and less arousing emotions compared to the urban one. Green images were less arousing compared to red ones, and original images elicited the most pleasant emotions. Moreover, green was the only hue for which valence effects of content were observed – the natural content-green color combination elicited more positive emotions compared to the urban content-green color combination. Results emerging from the different measures are connected to each other and interpreted in the framework of cognitive fluency. Pupil dilation on the one hand, and eye movements and fixations on the other hand, which respectively provided data on vegetative responses and visual search strategies, were often found to embody the emerging emotional experience.
- Jul 2016
The vast majority of people experience musical imagery, the sensation of reliving a song in absence of any external stimulation. Internal perception of a song can be deliberate and effortful, but also may occur involuntarily and spontaneously. Moreover, musical imagery is also involuntarily used for automatically completing missing parts of music or lyrics from a familiar song. The aim of our study was to explore the onset of musical imagery dynamics that leads to the automatic completion of missing lyrics. High-density electroencephalography was used to record the cerebral activity of twenty healthy volunteers while they were passively listening to unfamiliar songs, very familiar songs, and songs previously listened to for two weeks. Silent gaps inserted into these songs elicited a series of neural activations encompassing perceptual, attentional and cognitive mechanisms (range 100-500 ms). Familiarity and learning effects emerged as early as 100 ms and lasted 400 ms after silence occurred. Although participants reported more easily mentally imagining lyrics in familiar rather than passively learnt songs, the onset of neural mechanisms and the power spectrum underlying musical imagery were similar for both types of songs. This study offers new insights into the musical imagery dynamics evoked by gaps of silence and on the role of familiarity and learning processes in the generation of these dynamics. The automatic and effortless method presented here is a potentially useful tool to understand failure in the familiarity and learning processes of pathological populations.
Background: The analysis of eye movements (EM) by eye-tracking has been carried out for several decades to investigate mood regulation, emotional information processing, and psychomotor disturbances in depressive disorders. Method: A systematic review of all English language PubMed articles using the terms “saccadic eye movements” OR “eye-tracking” AND “depression” OR “bipolar disorders” was conducted using PRISMA guidelines. The aim of this review was to identify the specific alterations of EM in unipolar and bipolar disorders. Results: Unipolar depression has been characterized by an increase in reaction time in prosaccade and antisaccade tasks, and a specific attraction for negative pictures. Bipolar disorders have been associated with an increase in reaction time in prosaccade and antisaccade tasks, and an attraction for threatening images. Methodological limitations include mixed samples sometimes undifferentiating unipolar and bipolar patients, or an absence of specification regarding the polarity of the episode in bipolar disorders. Moreover, we found no study explicitly comparing EM in both unipolar depression and bipolar disorders. Conclusion: Unipolar depression and bipolar disorders can be characterized by different psychomotor alterations and affective regulation strategies. Eye movement analysis could be a useful tool as a potential biomarker to distinguish between the two diseases. However, further research is needed to directly and systematically compare eye movement data in both diseases under strictly identical experimental conditions.
- Jun 2015
Emotional pictures are commonly used as visual stimuli in a number of research fields. Choosing relevant visual stimuli to induce emotion is fundamental in attachment and affective research. Attachment theory provides a theoretical basis for the understanding of emotional and relational problems, and is especially related to two specific emotions: distress and comfort. The lack of normalized visual stimuli soliciting these attachment-related emotions has led us to create and validate a new photographic database: the Besançon Affective Picture Set-Adolescents. This novel stimulus set is composed of 93 photographs, divided into four categories: distress, comfort, joy-complicity and neutral. A group of 140 adolescents rated the pictures with the Self-Assessment Manikin system, yielding three dimensions: valence, emotional arousal, and dominance. The pictures were also assessed, using a continuous scale, for different emotions (distress, hate, horror, comfort, complicity and joy). The ANOVAs for arousal and the Kruskal–Wallis tests for valence and dominance showed strong effects for category. However, for comfort and complicity, the dimensions of valence and dominance were not significantly different, while results for arousal showed no significant difference between complicity and distress. Our study provides a tool that allows researchers to select visual stimuli to investigate attachment-related emotion processing in adolescence.
The primary aim of this study was to characterize oculomotor performances in elderly depressed patients. The second aim was to investigate whether cognitive inhibition measured by the antisaccade task was associated with a psychomotor retardation or rather with a more specific cognitive-motor inhibition deficit. Twenty patients with a major depressive disorder and forty-seven healthy subjects performed two eye movement tasks. Saccadic reaction time and error rates were analyzed in the prosaccade task to obtain basic parameters of eye movements. Saccade latency, error rates and correction rates were evaluated in the antisaccade task to investigate inhibition capacities. Performances were impaired in patients, who exhibited a higher reaction time and error rates compared to controls. The higher time cost of inhibition suggested that the reaction time was not related to global psychomotor retardation alone. The higher time cost of inhibition could be explained by a specific alteration of inhibition processes evaluated by the antisaccade task. These changes were associated with the severity of depression. These findings provide a new perspective on cognitive inhibition in elderly depressed patients and could have important clinical implications for our understanding of critical behaviors involving deficits in inhibitory processes in the elderly.
Objectives: Although several reported studies have suggested that younger adults with depression display depression-related biases during the processing of emotional faces, there remains a lack of data concerning these biases in older adults. The aim of our study was to assess scanning behavior during the processing of emotional faces in depressed older adults. Method: Older adults with and without depression viewed happy, neutral or sad portraits during an eye movement recording. Results: Depressed older adults spent less time with fewer fixations on emotional features than healthy older adults, but only for sad and neutral portraits, with no significant difference for happy portraits. Conclusion: These results suggest disengagement from sad and neutral faces in depressed older adults, which is not consistent with standard theoretical proposals on congruence biases in depression. Also aging and associated emotional regulation change may explain the expression of depression-related biases. Our preliminary results suggest that information processing in depression consists of a more complex phenomenon than merely a general searching for mood-congruent stimuli or general disengagement from all kinds of stimuli. These findings underline that care must be used when evaluating potential variables, such as aging, which interact with depression and selectively influence the choice of relevant stimulus dimensions.
- Apr 2013
- 21th European Congress of Psychiatry
Background Depression in people aged 65 and more appears to be a major public health problem. Efficient mechanisms of inhibition are important to communicate with other people and to interact with the environment but seem to be deficient in young depressed patients. This function needs to be evaluated in late life depression which has specific features. Method Twenty inpatients (mean age = 70.4) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were compared to forty seven healthy controls. They performed a neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments and two eye movement tasks: a prosaccades task to obtain basic parameters of eye movements and an antisaccade task to evaluate the inhibition capacities. Results In comparison with healthy subjects, depressed patients showed impaired performances in both oculomotor tasks. Concerning the prosaccade trial, depressed patients had higher reaction times and error rates than healthy controls. In both populations, hypometric saccades are the main kind of error. In the antisaccade task, reaction times and error rates were also higher in depressed patients than healthy subjects. However, the two populations showed similar correction rates. Conclusion The results of this study offer new insight on the inhibition impairment of aged major depressive patients by two simple eye movement tasks. The findings indicate psychomotor retardation and inhibition impairment, consistent with the findings obtained in young depressed subjects.