Nicolas Picard

Nicolas Picard
GIP Ecofor

PhD

About

177
Publications
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Introduction
Biodiversity and functioning of forest ecosystems; Resilience to climate change; Bioeconomy and ecosystem services; Governance, societal perceptions of forests

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
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Marginal and peripheral populations are important for biodiversity conservation. Their original situation in a species’ geographic and ecological space often confers them genetic diversity and traits of high adaptive value. Yet theoretical hypotheses related to marginality are difficult to test because of confounding factors that influence marginal...
Article
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The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is one of the most recognized global patterns of species richness exhibited across a wide range of taxa. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed in the past two centuries to explain LDG, but rigorous tests of the drivers of LDGs have been limited by a lack of high-quality global species richness data. Here we...
Article
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Purpose of Review Recognizing that in the context of global change, tree genetic diversity represents a crucial resource for future forest adaptation, we review and highlight the major forest genetics research achievements of the past decades in biodiversity-rich countries of the Mediterranean region. For this, we conducted a bibliometric analysis...
Article
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One of the most fundamental questions in ecology is how many species inhabit the Earth. However, due to massive logistical and financial challenges and taxonomic difficulties connected to the species concept definition, the global numbers of species, including those of important and well-studied life forms such as trees, still remain largely unknow...
Article
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Significance Tree diversity is fundamental for forest ecosystem stability and services. However, because of limited available data, estimates of tree diversity at large geographic domains still rely heavily on published lists of species descriptions that are geographically uneven in coverage. These limitations have precluded efforts to generate a g...
Article
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Le plan France Relance lancé en septembre 2020 prévoit des mesures forestières sur 2 ans, avec un accent sur la reconstitution des peuplements forestiers sinistrés, affaiblis par les sécheresses ou attaqués par les scolytes. Cependant la crise forestière liée au changement climatique est partie pour durer et les efforts sur les connaissances à acqu...
Article
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When ordinating plots of tropical rain forests using stand-level structural attributes such as biomass, basal area and the number of trees in different size classes, two patterns often emerge: a gradient from poorly to highly stocked plots and high positive correlations between biomass, basal area and the number of large trees. These patterns are i...
Chapter
Several of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations are relevant for Mediterranean pine and mixed forests, especially those related to the restoration of degraded forest ecosystems and to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Because Mediterranean forests are an import...
Article
General patterns that are observed in forests irrespective of their ecological biome or species composition are indicators of general biological processes that drive forest dynamics. Modelling can be used to infer these processes by identifying the minimum set of rules that generate the observed patterns. The regular spatial pattern of the largest...
Article
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• Key message A recent paper by Ceccherini et al.( 2020a ) reported an abrupt increase of 30% in the French harvested forest area in 2016–2018 compared to 2004–2015. A re-analysis of their data rather led us to conclude that, when accounting for the singular effect of storm Klaus, the rate of change in harvested area depended on the change year use...
Article
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Mapping aboveground forest biomass is central for assessing the global carbon balance. However, current large-scale maps show strong disparities, despite good validation statistics of their underlying models. Here, we attribute this contradiction to a flaw in the validation methods, which ignore spatial autocorrelation (SAC) in data, leading to ove...
Technical Report
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La consommation par la France de produits agricoles importés est susceptible d'induire une demande de terres agricoles supplémentaires dans les pays producteurs, donc de la conversion de forêts en terres agricoles : c'est la déforestation importée. La mise en œuvre de la Stratégie nationale de lutte contre la déforestation importée (SNDI) mise en p...
Article
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The impacts of logging on the recovery of timber stocks are still largely unknown in Central Africa due to the lack of data on the dynamics of the tree populations concerned. This is particularly the case for Azobé, Lophira alata, a commercially valuable timber species. This study had a twofold aim: (i) to quantify the effects of the forest type an...
Article
Full-text available
The impacts of logging on the recovery of timber stocks are still largely unknown in Central Africa due to the lack of data on the dynamics of the tree populations concerned. This is particularly the case for Azobé, Lophira alata, a commercially valuable timber species. This study had a twofold aim: (i) to quantify the effects of the forest type an...
Article
Tropical rain forests worldwide are affected by anthropogenic disturbances, and secondary forests that develop afterwards are often dominated by pioneer tree species, but the consequences of different anthropogenic disturbances on nutrient cycling are poorly understood. Because most nutrient cycling in tropical rain forests occurs through litterfal...
Presentation
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New IUFRO Task Force presentation at the Iufro Board Enlarged Meeting, held in Curitiba (Brasil) on 26-27 September 2019.
Article
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In this Letter, a middle initial and additional affiliation have been added for author G. J. Nabuurs; two statements have been added to the Supplementary Acknowledgements; and a citation to the French National Institute has been added to the Methods; see accompanying Author Correction for further details.
Article
Forests bear the historical legacies of human activities over thousands of years, including agriculture, trade, disease and resource extraction. Many of these activities may represent indices of the proposed geological epoch of the Anthropocene. Modifications to soil, topography and vegetation evidence anthropogenic influences. Yet studies of veget...
Article
Questions We examined the spatial patterns of dominant canopy species in a tropical forest to investigate: 1) what is the niche occupancy of canopy species with respect to topographic gradients? 2) what are the dominant ecological processes that explain their distribution? 3) what are the interactions among the most prevalent canopy species? and 4)...
Article
The architecture (here, the size distribution combined with the spatial pattern of individuals) of natural forest at demographic equilibrium can be used to infer the demographic processes that drive the forest dynamics. In particular, a constant growth rate and a constant mortality rate for all trees would generate an exponential distribution of th...
Article
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2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. In this Letter, the middle initial of author G. J. Nabuurs was omitted, and he should have been associated with an additional affiliation: ‘Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands’ (now added as affiliation 18...
Article
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A spatially explicit global map of tree symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi reveals that climate variables are the primary drivers of the distribution of different types of symbiosis.
Article
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Impacts of climate change on the future dynamics of Central African forests are still largely unknown, despite the acuteness of the expected changes and the extent of these forests. The high diversity of species and the potentially equivalent diversity of responses to climate modifications are major difficulties encountered when using predictive mo...
Article
The spatial distribution of biomass is key to optimize forest inventory designs to estimate forest aboveground biomass. Point process theory sets an appropriate mathematical framework to model the spatial distribution of trees, then to derive analytical expressions for the relationship between the variance of biomass in plots and the characteristic...
Article
The estimation and monitoring of the huge amount of carbon contained in tropical forests, and specifically in the above-ground biomass (AGB) of trees, is needed for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation strategies. Its accuracy depends on the availability of reliable allometric equations to convert forest inventory data into AG...
Chapter
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This chapter aims to demonstrate the particular relevance of Mediterranean forests to the global agenda and how they can contribute, in view of their particularities, to fulfilling international commitments on the environment.
Book
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The State of Mediterranean Forests 2018 analyzes the circum-Mediterranean region, a territory encompassing thirty-one countries and a wide range of political, economic, social and environmental contexts. The region has an extremely rich natural and cultural heritage. Here, human and economic development is largely dependent on at times scarce natur...
Preprint
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Species distribution maps are often lacking for scientific investigation and strategic management planning at international level. Here, we present the range-wide, natural distribution maps of twenty-four Mediterranean and European forest-tree species of key ecological and economic importance in the Mediterranean. Dataset access: https://doi.org/10...
Article
Tree allometric equations that are used to predict the biomass of a tree from its dendrometrical characteristics are key elements for the estimation of forest carbon stocks. Few equations compared to the diversity of forest ecosystems are currently available for the tropical forests of the Congo Basin. Pantropical equations are available but a pend...
Article
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The Mediterranean region includes 13 countries among Europe, Near Orient, and Africa. This area is a huge "hot spot" of cultures, religions, socio-economical situations, and of habitats and biodiversity. The report illustrates the geographical and ecological features of the region. Forest ecosystems and vegetation traits, with particular focus on f...
Article
Details on how the maps were produced are given in a published report: N. Wazen, B. Fady (2016) Geographic distribution of 24 major tree species in the Mediterranean and their genetic resources, FAO and Plan Bleu, ISBN 978-92-5-109469-3 This data set received financial support from the French Facility for Global Environment (FFEM) under the regiona...
Article
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Griffith et al. do not question the quality of our analysis, but they question our results with respect to the definition of forest we employed. In our response, we explain why the differences we report result from a difference of technique and not of definition, and how anyone can adapt-as we did-our data set to any forest definition and tree cove...
Article
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De la Cruz et al. question the reliability of our results, claiming that we do not refer to the most appropriate spatial extent of drylands. In our response, we explain why we chose an existing and internationally recognized delineation of drylands among several options, and why our findings are due to a difference of remote sensing technique and n...
Article
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In the Congo Basin where nearly 20 million ha of concessions are exploited according to management plans, improved forest management (IFM) has become a strategy of prime importance when setting up the REDD+ mechanism. For logging companies, REDD+ projects provide the opportunity to compensate a voluntary reduction of the logging intensity by valuin...
Article
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Schepaschenko et al. question our findings, claiming that we did not refer to all existing maps and that we did not account for all sources of uncertainty. In our response, we detail our selection criteria for reference maps, which clarify why the work of Schepaschenko et al. was not used, and we explain why our uncertainty assessment is complete a...
Article
Drivers of forest structure in central African rain forests are largely unknown. Using forest inventory data (3024 0.4-ha plots) in a forest concession of 154 456 ha in north-eastern Gabon covering an altitudinal gradient (from 485 to 1009 m asl), relationships between above-ground plot biomass and environmental variables (soil type, altitude, slop...
Article
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In order to circumscribe the breeding sites of stomoxes in the Makokou region, eight potentially favorable environments were sampled from January to June 2007 in three habitats: primary and secondary forest (natural environments) and the anthropic environment (artificial or disturbed areas). In the primary forest, three types of substrates were col...
Article
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Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth’s land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution an...
Article
Patterns in above-ground biomass of tropical forests over short altitudinal gradients are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of above-ground biomass with altitude in old-growth forests and determine the importance of changes in floristic composition as a cause of this variation. We used a dataset from 15 1-ha perma...
Article
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INTRODUCTIONThe biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR; the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem productivity) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on the functioning of natural ecosystems. The BPR has been a prominent research topic within ecology in recent decades, but it is only recently that w...
Article
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Tropical forests in Africa store large amounts of carbon and there is an urgent need for accurate methods to estimate this important carbon stock. One method to achieve this is by allometric equations but in many forest ecosystems in Africa these have not been developed. This study combined biomass data of 896 trees from five tropical countries in...
Article
Key message Liocourt’s legacy for the law on steady-state uneven-aged forests has been questioned. We propose a new interpretation of his results published in 1898 and refer to a manuscript dated 1900 to clarify that he established this law. Context Liocourt’s law states that in steady-state uneven-aged forests, the number of trees in successive di...
Article
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The implementation of forest-based projects to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions requires the estimation of emission factors (here the difference in biomass stocks between two forest types). The estimation of these quantities using forest inventory data and allometric models implies different sources of errors that need to be prioritized to improve...
Conference Paper
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The choice of biomass and volume models is one of the main sources of uncertainty in forest biomass assessment. The quality of the dataset used to develop the equations, the statistical procedures used for modelling and the accuracy in reporting the results vary greatly among the models. Recent studies highlighted that about 25% of the published eq...
Conference Paper
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Estimating tree and forest biomass is a cornerstone of forest resource assessment. In addition to its application in forest-related commerce, forest resource assessment is becoming increasingly crucial in light of continued global deforestation and climate change. The most frequently used methods for estimating forest biomass involve allometric equ...
Article
Key message Improving the precision of forest biomass estimates requires prioritizing the different sources of errors. In a tropical moist forest in central Africa, the choice of the allometric equation was found to be the main source of error. Context When estimating the forest biomass at the landscape level using forest inventory data and allo...
Article
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Motivated by the analysis of the impact of ecological processes on spatial distribution of tree species, we introduce in this paper a novel approach to detect spatial cluster of points. Our procedure is based on an iterative transformation of the distance between points into a measure of closeness. Our measure has the advantage of being independent...
Article
While attention on logging in the tropics has been increasing, studies on the long-term effects of silviculture on forest dynamics and ecology remain scare and spatially limited. Indeed, most of our knowledge on tropical forests arises from studies carried out in undisturbed tropical forests. This bias is problematic given that logged and disturbed...
Article
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Many forest growth models use plot-level variables, such as stem density or basal area, as predictors. Even if these variables are area-based, so that their expectations do not change with plot size when expressed per unit of area, a change in plot size may induce a prediction bias if the growth model is nonlinear with respect to these variables. I...