Nicola Carone

Nicola Carone
University of Pavia | UNIPV · Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences

PhD

About

80
Publications
45,739
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
952
Citations
Introduction
My research interests focus on parenting, attachment, and child development in diverse family forms, including LGBTQ+ parent families, ART families, and single parent families. I am also interested in the psychodynamic assessment of parenting skills and evidence-based parenting interventions. I have expertise in both qualitative and quantitative analytic techniques. In 2020, I joined the US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) team directed by Dr. Nanette K. Gartrell.
Additional affiliations
February 2016 - July 2016
University of Cambridge, Centre for Family Research
Position
  • Visiting Researcher
Education
November 2014 - October 2017
Sapienza University of Rome
Field of study
  • Social, Developmental and Educational Psychology
October 2010 - December 2012
Sapienza University of Rome
Field of study
  • Dynamic and Clinical Psychology of Infancy, Adolescence and Family

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Thirty-three Italian children born to gay fathers through surrogacy were compared with 37 Italian children born to lesbian mothers through donor insemination on their perceived attachment security and utilization of parents as safe havens and secure bases. Factors associated with attachment security were also examined. All children were aged 6 to 1...
Article
Objective: To study differences by sperm donor type in the psychological adjustment of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) offspring across three time periods from childhood to adulthood. Design: U.S.-based prospective cohort study. Setting: Paper and pencil questionnaires and protected online surveys. Patients: A cohort of...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of peer microaggressions and the child-teacher relationship on the social skills of children with sexual minority parents has received little attention. The current study used a mixed-method, multi-informant, two-wave longitudinal design to address this research gap. Thirty-seven children of lesbian mothers through donor insemination and...
Article
Full-text available
Parents tend to internalize the coparenting model they experienced during childhood and enact it in their coparenting relationships as adults. These interactive patterns may, in turn, shape their children's internal working models of attachment relationships. The present study recruited 31 gay and 28 heterosexual single-father families through surr...
Article
Helicopter parents are highly involved parents who hover over and around their child, applying developmentally inappropriate levels of control and tangible assistance. Previous research with different-sex parent families indicates that helicopter parenting is particularly problematic in emerging adulthood as it may indirectly affect the offspring’s...
Article
The present online questionnaire-based study compared 72 lesbian mothers by donor insemination (within 36 families), 78 gay fathers by gestational surrogacy (within 39 families), and 72 heterosexual parents by assisted reproduction (without donated eggs and/or sperm; within 36 families), on their desire to have more children and their ideal number...
Article
Full-text available
Fathers' involvement in childrearing has increased during the past several decades (Pattnaik, 2013; Livingston and Parker, 2019). Recent studies have suggested that fathers exert significant direct and indirect influences on child development and partner relationship quality via coparenting—how parents work with or against each other to care for th...
Article
Background: The transition to parenthood is a significant life event that has implications for health behaviors and health. Few studies have examined alcohol use and smoking by parenthood status (nonparent vs. parent) among women who identify as lesbian. Methods: This study used data from two longitudinal studies, the Chicago Health and Life Experi...
Article
Full-text available
This questionnaire-based study compared 36 Israeli lesbian mother families (n = 72 lesbian mothers) formed by donor insemination, 39 Israeli gay father families (n = 78 gay fathers) formed by gestational surrogacy, and 36 Israeli heterosexual parent families (n = 72 heterosexual parents) formed by assisted reproduction (without donated gametes), al...
Article
Full-text available
In the sixth wave of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study, the concerns of 76 (37 female and 39 male, all cisgender) 25-year-old donor-conceived offspring of lesbian parents were investigated through an open-ended question in an online survey and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. The number of concerns reported varied bet...
Article
The present study represents the first empirical investigation of the mechanisms—a Hostile-Helpless (HH) attachment and reflective functioning (RF)—through which childhood abuse and neglect (CA&N) experiences may impact a mother’s likelihood to commit filicide. The sample was comprised of 46 mentally ill mothers. Differences in attachment-derived r...
Article
Full-text available
In a randomized controlled trial with 25 Colombian rural low-SES mothers and their children (aged 1–3 years), the effectiveness of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in enhancing maternal sensitivity and food habits was tested pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a 6-month follow-...
Article
Research Question: Gay fathers through cross-border surrogacy are facing unprecedented challenges in their attempts to create a family during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study was the first to investigate the psychological implications of the pandemic for father–child bonding and mental health among Italian gay fathers pursuing surrogacy in...
Book
Full-text available
Le famiglie omogenitoriali possono comporsi in modi differenti, non tutti riconosciuti dal sistema giuridico italiano. Al variare delle geometrie familiari contemporanee, il coordinarsi degli aspetti tecnici, affettivi, corporei, legali, economici ed etici implicati nel “fare famiglia” diventa più complesso e, per qualcuno, anche perturbante, poich...
Article
Introduction: Secure attachment in adolescence, related to caregiving quality, is a robust predictor of positive behavioral adjustment in early adulthood and beyond. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to develop treatments to promote parent–adolescent attachment security. Methods: Using a longitudinal, multicenter, randomized controlled tria...
Article
Gay and heterosexual single fathers through surrogacy may be targets of microaggressions (i.e., subtle and implicit stigma-related stressors), as they present highly contested aspects of family formation: single parenthood, surrogacy conception, and, in the case of gay single fathers, non-heterosexual orientation. However, to date, no research has...
Article
Full-text available
The long-term impact of homophobic stigmatization on adolescents with lesbian parents has not been explored. This longitudinal study investigated the effects of homophobia experienced during adolescence on problem behavior among emerging adult offspring of lesbian parents. The 72 offspring (37 females and 35 males; all cisgender and 25 years old) w...
Article
Thirty-one children of gay single fathers and 28 children of heterosexual single fathers, all born through surrogacy, were compared with 31 children of gay partnered fathers through surrogacy and 30 children of heterosexual partnered fathers through in-vitro fertilization on their perceptions of self-worth and their father- and caregiver-reported i...
Article
Nonrepresentative estimates indicate that 25%–50% of transgender people are parents. Yet very little is known about their demographic characteristics and health outcomes. The present study compared the quality of life and several mental health (i.e., psychological distress, life satisfaction, happiness, social well-being) and health (i.e., physical...
Article
Objective To study differences by sperm donor type in the psychological adjustment of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) offspring across three time periods from childhood to adulthood. Design U.S.-based prospective cohort study. Setting Paper-and-pencil questionnaires and protected online surveys. Patient(s) A cohort of...
Article
The long experience in surrogate pregnancies in Western countries, such as the United Kingdom, Canada and several states in the USA, has provided insight into how to ensure the PSYCHOLOGICAL WELFARE of the people involved. Generally, in Western countries (UK, Canada and USA), the experience of surrogacy is psychologically positive for the surrogate...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The present study examined father-child relationships, parenting quality, and child psychological adjustment in 35 gay single father surrogacy families, 30 heterosexual single father surrogacy families, 45 gay two-father surrogacy families, and 45 heterosexual two-parent IVF families, when children were aged 3-10 years. Methods: In ea...
Article
The present study investigated the antecedents of cyberbullying victimization and addressed the commonalities and differences between visual and written forms of cyberbullying victimization among 3172 Italian adolescents (51.6% male, Mage = 13.74 years, SD = 1.70) who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC, 2014) survey....
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents' challenges could be effectively addressed by treating their parents. Prior evaluations of CONNECT, an attachment-based program intervention for parents of adolescents at risk, indicated that improving parenting skills and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship may result in decrease of adolescents' behavioural problems. The pres...
Article
Though there are currently no statistics offering a global overview of online hate speech, both social networking platforms and organisations that combat hate speech have recognised that prevention strategies are needed to address this negative online phenomenon. While most cases of online hate speech target individuals on the basis of ethnicity an...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to adapt and validate the Prejudice Against Immigrants Scale (PAIS) in the Italian context, based on the Prejudice Against Asylum Seekers Scale (PAAS) by Anderson (2018). The validity, reliability, and measurement invariance across gender, age, and educational levels of the scale were assessed through three sources...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers and educators represent meaningful relationships for children, and their attitudes can have a major influence on a child’s development. This research examined the role of background characteristics, contact experiences, and sexual prejudice in determining beliefs about children’s adjustment in same-sex parent families. The sample consisted...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Most studies suggest that immigrant youth are more likely to be victimized than their non-immigrant counterparts. In Italy, a country in which the number of foreign migrants has grown exponentially over recent decades, this line of research is particularly interesting. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to examine the rel...
Article
Obiettivo del presente studio esplorativo è indagare il ruolo dell’orientamento sessuale e della percezione della sordità come disabilità nell’influenzare il benessere delle persone sorde. Hanno partecipato allo studio 47 adulti sordi (28 donne e 19 uomini) di cui 21 si dichiarano lesbiche oppure gay. Per lo studio sono stati prodotti video di trad...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the differences among 327 lesbian, gay, and/or bisexual (LGB) individuals on the dimensions of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Positive Identity Measure (LGB-PIM), a recently developed instrument to assess positive facets of LGB identity. We evaluated the relationship between the dimensions of LGB-PIM and self-relating processes (self-cr...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence is lacking about the factors that are pivotal in enhancing the exploration of surrogacy origins in children of gay fathers during middle childhood. The present study examined the separate and combined influences of child attachment security and parental scaffolding (i.e., fathers’ attempts to accept, encourage, and emotionally support thei...
Article
Objective: To examine whether the gender development of 120 Italian children (40 born to gay fathers [GFs] through surrogacy, 40 born to lesbian mothers [LMs] through sperm donation, and 40 born to heterosexual parents [HPs] through sexual intercourse) aged 3 to 9 years differed as a function of family type and/or child gender. Methods: Children t...
Article
T he present study aimed at investigating whether the effects of intergroup contact on support for discriminatory behaviours against immigrants was mediated by perceived threat from immigrants and positive beliefs toward immigrants. Using data from the Italian national survey on "Discrimination by Gender, Sexual Orientation and Ethnic Origin," whic...
Article
Parental control and family dinners attendance may constitute protective factors against alcohol consumption during adolescence, with different patterns for boys and girls, though evidence thus far have produced mixed findings. The present study analyzed Health Behaviour in Schoolaged Children (HBSC, 2014) data from 906 adolescents living in Northe...
Article
Socio-cultural changes and advancements in assisted reproduction over the past 40 years have led to a rise in new family forms, including same-sex parent families formed through donor insemination or surrogacy, wherein the loving couple does not coincide with the generative couple and the parents do not embody sexual difference. Can we still unders...
Article
Full-text available
Lo scopo di questo lavoro è contribuire alla validazione italiana della Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Positive Identity Measure (LGB-PIM) sviluppata da Riggle e colleghi (2014). La LGB-PIM è una misura d’identità positiva in persone lesbiche, gay e bisessuali, definita attraverso cinque dimensioni: consapevolezza, autenticità, comunità, intimità e giu...
Chapter
Full-text available
- L’ingresso del “birth other” nel romanzo familiare - Il padre nella madre, la madre nel padre - Dal complesso alla complessità
Article
Forty Italian gay father families formed by surrogacy were compared with 40 Italian lesbian mother families formed by donor insemination, all with a child aged 3 to 9 years. Standardized interview, observational, and questionnaire measures of parenting quality, parent–child relationships, stigmatization, and children’s adjustment were administered...
Article
Objective: Seventy gay fathers through surrogacy, 125 lesbian mothers through donor insemination, and 195 heterosexual parents through spontaneous conception, all with children aged 3 to 11 years and living in Italy, were compared on children's psychological adjustment and prosocial behavior, as well as parental self-efficacy, dyadic adjustment, fa...
Article
This article describes two interrelated studies that investigated beliefs and stereotypes on two-father parenting and two-mother parenting through the development and validation of the Beliefs on Same-Sex Parenting (BOSSP) scale. The BOSSP captures two beliefs: (1) prejudices toward same-sex couples’ inherent inability to parent and (2) concerns ab...
Chapter
Sommario: 1. Famiglie tradizionali, famiglie non tradizionali e famiglie moderne. – 2. Funzioni genitoriali e benessere dei bambini e delle bambine. – 3. Una sintesi ragionata sulla ricerca sull’omogenitorialità. – 3.1. I position statement internazionali e nazionali sull’omogenitorialità. – 3.2. Le ricerche internazionali sull’omogenitorialità. –...
Article
STUDY QUESTION: How do gay father families experience surrogacy in terms of their relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers’ disclosure decisions and children’s views on their surrogacy origins? SUMMARY ANSWER: More families had a relationship with the surrogate than the egg donor, and almost all had started to disclose to their childr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite growing attention to the general therapist effects in a wide range of clinical settings, little is known about the individual, cross-situational, and therapy–nonspecific variables that impact on the differential effectiveness of clinicians. The current study is a systematic review of the evidence relating to the influence of ther...
Chapter
Full-text available
Questo volume viene pubblicato quando molte cose sono state già dette e scritte sul tema dell’“utero in affitto” o della “gravidanza per altri”. In altri paesi e a livello transnazionale il dibattito va avanti da decenni. Anche in Italia, dove è arrivata con un certo ritardo, la questione è da tempo oggetto di attenti studi e di infuocate polemiche...
Article
STUDY QUESTION: Why do men decide to have a child by surrogacy as a single parent? SUMMARY ANSWER: Reasons included feeling that it was the right time (i.e. having ‘worked through’ concerns about single parenthood; career and financial stability; a fear of getting older; no longer wanting to wait for the ‘right’ relationship), external encouragemen...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explored the experiences of having a child through surrogacy and the various decisions involved in following this path in 33 Italian single fathers by choice. Fathers’ feelings about this decision and how families of origin and friends supported the men’s path toward fatherhood through surrogacy were also examined.
Book
Full-text available
Il volume raccoglie i diversi contributi, clinici e di ricerca, presentati al convegno internazionale "La famiglia da concepire: il benessere dei bambini e delle bambine con genitori gay e lesbiche" che si è svolto il 23-24 giugno 2016 presso la Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia della Sapienza Università di Roma. Tra i relatori è intervenuta la prof...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes in Italy against same-sex parent families are still strong: Italy is one of the few European Union countries where same-sex parent families are not legally recognized. This study compares 60 gay parents, 125 lesbian parents, and 160 heterosexual parents matched on their children’s demographic characteristics (Mage = 3.6, SDage = 2.5; gi...
Article
Full-text available
STUDY QUESTION: Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Little is known of gay fathers’ motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other f...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To compare attitudes toward homosexual and transgender individuals between Gender Dysphoric individuals (GD), healthy controls (HC), and health care providers (HCP). Methods: A total of 304 subjects of similar age (p¼0.12) were considered, including 116 GD (59 transwomen and 57 transmen), 53 heterosexual HCP (26 males and 27 females) and...
Article
Full-text available
\textbf{STUDY QUESTION}$ Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? $\textbf{SUMMARY ANSWER}$ Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. $\textbf{WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY}$ Little is known of gay fathers’ motivations to use surrogacy as a path to pare...
Article
Even though Italy is still struggling to establish equal rights and access to assisted reproduction techniques for sexual minorities, an increasing number of lesbian women and gay men are now becoming parents. There are only a few studies that have evaluated coparenting in same-sex couples. However, these addressed adoptive couples and not the lesb...
Article
Purpose: To date, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, little is known about health care providers' (HCP) attitudes toward sexual minorities. The aim of the present study is to compare attitudes toward homosexual and transgender individuals between gender dysphoric individuals (GDs), general population...
Article
This study aims to explore the experience of transnational surrogacy and the relationship with the surrogate pre- and post-birth in Italian gay father families. Couple and individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 Italian gay partnered fathers with at least one child born through gestational surrogacy in California or Canada. N...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To study the nature and quality of relationships between gay father families and their surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Family homes. Patient(s): Parents in 40 gay father families with 3–9-year-old children born through surrogacy. Intervention(s): Administrat...
Article
Full-text available
Research on homoparental families showed that the most important risks for the child's development are homophobic experiences, whose effects can be moderated by family and peer relationships. Thus, the whole family, and in particular coparenting and family alliance, can be considered as an important resource for children's development. We suggest a...
Book
Full-text available
Negli ultimi quarant'anni il panorama della genitorialità si è declinato in combinazioni sempre più complesse e la riproduzione (etero)sessuale è diventata una tra le molte possibilità per avere figli. Questo cambiamento, già sancito dal sistema delle adozioni, è stato reso ancora più manifesto dagli sviluppi delle biotecnologie e dall'omogenitoria...
Article
How do female-partnered mothers deal with the third-party involved in their reproductive arrangement? The aim of this study is to identify the meaning-making of the sperm donor, exploring different patterns between genetic and non-genetic mothers, as well as between open-identity and anonymous donation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted wit...
Article
Full-text available
Study question: How do gay couples deal with gestational surrogacy overseas? Summary answer: Feelings of impotence due to the distance, the importance of a close relationship with the gestational carrier, and gratitude for pregnancy emerged. What is known already: In the last two decades an increasing number of gay men has entered into surrogacy...
Article
L'obiezione «ai bambini servono entrambe le figure» è costantemente invocata di fronte al desiderio provato da molte persone omosessuali di avere figli e costruire una famiglia. Dopo aver presentato i risultati delle ricerche sul benessere psicologico e sociale dei bambini e delle bambine con genitori gay o lesbiche, gli autori interrogano il mito...
Article
L'articolo presenta una risposta ai commenti all'articolo target "Madri lesbiche, padri gay: genitori degenerati?", concentrandosi in particolare su tre obiezioni rivolte agli autori: l’approccio comparativo e l’atteggiamento politically correct allo studio dell'omogenitorialità, i risultati delle ricerche sulla gestazione per altri, il rischio che...
Poster
Full-text available
The aims of the study were: 1) to examine the psychometric properties of the Coparenting Scale-Revised (McHale, 1999) in a sample of same-sex parent families; 2) to analyze the influence of parental status (biological vs. non-biological) and gender on coparenting dimensions (Chan et al., 1998; Kurdek, 2006); 3) to study the relationship of the copa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: The efforts to capture the complexity of family relationships and their influences on family members have led to a variety of assessment strategies, without, however, a multi-method approach. Additionally, research has begun to converge on the results that lesbians and gays’ parental experiences and competencies are similar than those...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Italy it is impossible for same-sex couples or single lesbians and gay men to adopt a child, become married, or get civil partnerships. Despite the legal vacuum and homophobic stigma, many lesbians and gay men are parents. International studies on children psychological well-being with same-sex parents found no significant effect of sexual orien...
Article
Full-text available
Le relazioni omosessuali esistono da quando esiste il mondo. Non le idee di pari diritti, doveri, opportunità, cittadinanza, regolamentazione sociale e giuridica nelle vite di persone omosessuali. Queste idee, e la loro applicazione, hanno avuto importanti ripercussioni sull’identità psicologica e la fisionomia delle relazioni di lesbiche e gay. Il...
Article
Full-text available
Sebbene importanti studi abbiano dimostrato che lo sviluppo dei bambini cresciuti da genitori omosessuali sia del tutto paragonabile a quello dei bambini cresciuti da genitori eterosessuali, il fatto che lesbiche e gay possano essere (buoni) genitori desta ancora accesi dibattiti. In questo contributo, necessariamente sintetico, ci chiediamo: l’ess...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I need evidence about the relationship between hate speech (including online insults) and crime/violence. Do you know research that have studied the previous relationship towards a specif group of people?
Many thanks!

Network