Nicksy Gumede

Nicksy Gumede
World Health Organization (WHO) Region of Africa · Immunization, Vaccines and Emergency

PhD

About

84
Publications
2,154
Reads
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470
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Full-text available
Enteroviruses (EVs) are RNA viruses that can cause many clinical syndromes including acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Within the global polio laboratory network, EVs are categorized either as polioviruses or non‐polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Specific NPEVs have been described in polio‐like residual paralytic events in AFP patients. Retrospective analy...
Article
Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988, the number of polio cases worldwide has declined approximately 99.99%; only two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) have never interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission (1). The primary means of detecting poliovirus circulation is through surveillance for acute flaccid...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This article summarises the progress made since the introduction of environmental surveillance in the African Region. Method Country selection was based on the poor AFP performance indicators i.e. Non polio AFP rate and stool adequacy. It was recommended that any country not meeting the required indicators should consider environmental s...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV or Sabin) is genetically unstable and may mutate to form vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Methods In 2014, two VDPVs type 2 were identified during routine surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Consequently, a retrospective VDPV survey was conducted to ensure that there was no circulating VD...
Article
We followed the dynamics of capsid amino acid replacement among 403 Nigerian outbreak isolates of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) from 2005 through 2011. Four different functional domains were analyzed: (i) neutralizing antigenic (NAg) sites, (ii) residues binding the poliovirus receptor (PVR), (iii) VP1 residues 1 to 32, and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance...
Article
Background: Efficient implementation of the global eradication strategies consisting of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance and mass immunization campaigns led to interruption of indigenous wild poliovirus transmission in Cameroon in 1999. Objectives: This study describes type 1 and type 3 wild poliovirus (WPV) importation, incidence, geo...
Article
The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nig...
Article
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in Liberia on March 31st 2014. A response comprising of diverse expertise was mobilized and deployed to the country to contain transmission of Ebola and give relief to a people already impoverished from protracted civil war. This paper describes the epidemiological and surveillance response to the EV...
Article
A retrospective study to identify VAPP cases from the entire Uganda was conducted between January 2003 and December 2011. Eleven of the 106 AFP cases were VAPPs. The VAPP rate ranged from 0 to 3.39 cases per 1,000,000 birth cohorts and the peak was in 2009 when there was scaling up of OPV immunization activities following an importation of wild pol...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The last case of polio associated with wild poliovirus (WPV) indigenous to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was reported in 2001, marking a major milestone toward polio eradication in Africa. However, during 2006-2011, outbreaks associated with WPV type 1 (WPV1) were widespread in the DRC, with >250 reported cases. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
A paralytic poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in Namibia in 2006, almost exclusively among adults. Nineteen cases were virologically confirmed as due to wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), and 26 were classified as polio compatible. Eleven deaths occurred among confirmed and compatible cases (24%). Of the confirmed cases, 97% were aged 15–45 years, 89% we...
Article
Full-text available
Polioviruses isolated from 70 acute flaccid paralysis patients from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) during 2004-2011 were characterized and found to be vaccine-derived type 2 polioviruses (VDPV2s). Partial genomic sequencing of the isolates revealed nucleotide sequence divergence of up to 3.5% in the viral protein 1 capsid region of the vira...
Data
Vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004– 2011.
Article
Full-text available
Since 2005, a large poliomyelitis outbreak associated with type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) has occurred in northern Nigeria, where immunization coverage with trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) has been low. Phylogenetic analysis of P1/capsid region sequences of isolates from each of the 403 cases reported in 2005-2011 r...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with primary immunodeficiency are prone to persistently excrete Sabin-like virus after administration of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine and have an increased risk for vaccine-derived paralytic polio. We report a case of type 3 immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus in a child in South Africa who was born with X-linked i...
Article
Full-text available
Virological surveillance is an important element in the Polio Eradication Initiative to provide information rapidly about circulating wild polioviruses. Molecular tools have been developed to identify the serotype of the poliovirus strains and whether they are of vaccine or wild origin (intratypic differentiation) and to perform the molecular epide...
Article
A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), differing from Sabin 2 at 2.5% (22/903) of VP1 nucleotide (nt) positions, was isolated from an incompletely immunized 21-month-old Nigerian child who developed acute flaccid paralysis in 2002. Sequences upstream of nt position 620 (within the 5'-untranslated region [5'-UTR]) and downstream of nt position...
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On or before Dec 31, 2011 this sequence version replaced gi:157266346, gi:157267091, gi:157004035, gi:157267111, gi:157267069.
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On or before Dec 31, 2011 this sequence version replaced gi:157266345, gi:157267067, gi:157004033, gi:157267089.
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On or before Dec 31, 2011 this sequence version replaced gi:157266358, gi:157004059, gi:157267135, gi:157267223.