Nick Stauner

Nick Stauner
Case Western Reserve University | CWRU · Department of Psychological Sciences

PhD

About

35
Publications
37,158
Reads
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630
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - present
Case Western Reserve University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2011 - December 2011
University of California, Riverside
Position
  • Instructor
Description
  • Personality
September 2011 - December 2011
University of California, Riverside
Position
  • Instructor
Description
  • Personality
Education
September 2007 - March 2013
University of California, Riverside
Field of study
  • Social/personality psychology
June 2002 - June 2006
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
Full-text available
The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS) measures important psychological constructs in an underemphasized section of the overlap between religion and well-being. Are religious/spiritual struggles distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other? To test the RSS’ internal discriminant validity, we replicated the original six-factor me...
Article
Religious and spiritual (r/s) struggles are common experiences and robust predictors of poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study sought to examine the role of personality and self-concept in predicting r/s struggles both concurrently and longitudinally. Four samples were collected (total N = 5015), involving three cross-sectional...
Article
Full-text available
People struggle with religion and spirituality in several ways, including challenges in trusting God, confronting supernatural evil, tolerating other perspectives on religion, maintaining moral propriety, finding existential meaning, and managing religious doubt. These religious and spiritual (R/S) struggles relate to both physical and mental healt...
Article
In the United States, Internet pornography use is a common behavior that has risen in popularity in recent years. The present study sought to examine potential relationships between pornography use and well-being, with a particular focus on individual perceptions of pornography use and feelings of addiction. Using a large cross-sectional sample of...
Thesis
Full-text available
Does goal attainment relate to the development of meaning in life and psychological well-being? If so, do these relationships depend on the nature of the goal and why one pursues it? This study sought to generalize the relationship between goal attainment and subjective well-being to meaning in life and psychological well-being, and to test whether...
Article
We tested preregistered hypotheses (a) examining the structure of supernatural beliefs and perceived experiences and (b) predicting supernatural engagement from the Big Five and cognitive styles. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of self-report data in the U.S. undergraduates (Study 1: n = 1,401; Study 2: n = 1,939) showed that bel...
Article
How do people cope with spiritual struggles? For those who believe in a personal, relational God, some responses may focus on their perceived relationship with God: They might approach (draw close), disengage (turn away or exit), protest (complain, argue, or question), or suppress (avoid or minimize negative feelings). This paper presents initial v...
Chapter
The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS) measures important psychological constructs involved in the complex relationship between religion and well-being. Religious/spiritual struggles are distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other, but the RSS’ internal discriminant validity has not been tested longitudinally. Previously, we pu...
Preprint
What types of religious and spiritual struggles do people experience when they disengage from religion? We examined college students (N = 3,598) who had pulled back from religion, either by no longer identifying as religious or spiritual (Dones) or by disengaging from organized religion while maintaining an identity as religious (Disengaged but Rel...
Chapter
Theoretically, religions and spirituality (R/S) can help people maintain well-being and meaning in life, but these relationships are not simple or without conflict and ambivalence. This chapter first provides an overview of theories and research linking the psychology of religion to positive psychology. A theoretical reevaluation of supernaturalism...
Article
Theoretically, religion/spirituality may protect against alcohol problems or facilitate recovery. However, challenges can arise in religious/spiritual life that may contribute to or complicate alcohol problems. Emerging adults often experience difficult transitions from family environments to independent membership in academic communities straddlin...
Article
Full-text available
The current project measures personality across cultures, for the first time using a forced-choice (or idiographic) assessment instrument - the California Adult Q-set (CAQ). Correlations among the average personality profiles across 13 countries (total N = 2,370) ranged from r = .69 to r = .98. The most similar averaged personality profiles were be...
Chapter
Narcissism and narcissistic traits are known to affect various aspects of human functioning, with such traits often being associated with problematic outcomes in social, professional, and interpersonal domains. Another area in which narcissism seems to have some negative consequences is in spiritual functioning. Oftentimes, individuals, regardless...
Article
When coping with challenges in life, including religious−spiritual (R-S) struggles, those who believe in a relational deity (referred to here as God) may see themselves and God as active partners in engaging with the problem. We examined whether (a) attempts to engage with God via religious coping and (b) perceptions of receiving help from God were...
Article
Full-text available
Religious and spiritual struggles (R/S struggles)—tension or conflicts regarding religious or spiritual matters—have been robustly linked to greater psychological distress and lower well-being. Most research in this area has relied on samples consisting predominantly of participants who believe in god(s). Limited research has examined R/S struggles...
Article
Full-text available
Research exploring nonbelievers’ reasons for not believing in the existence of god(s) has focused on theory development. Such efforts are valuable, but may not capture the lived experiences of nonbelievers. The current two studies quantitatively examined nonbelievers’ self-reported reasons for nonbelief through developing the Reasons of Atheists an...
Preprint
Full-text available
As a supplement to the submitted manuscript, "The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale: Stability Over One Year", this document describes: (1) a statistical anomaly in the cross-lagged restricted bifactor model of the Religious and Spiritual Struggles scale, and (2) omitted results on latent mean changes in interpersonal and moral struggles. It...
Article
Full-text available
Many people experience religious/spiritual (R/S) struggles following specific stressful life events (SLE). However, SLE may aggregate, gradually undermining individuals’ orienting systems. Does SLE accumulation predict greater R/S struggles? Might general religiousness buffer cumulative effects of SLE on R/S struggles? We tested these hypotheses us...
Article
Full-text available
Religious and spiritual (r/s) struggles entail tension and conflict regarding religious and spiritual aspects of life. R/s struggles relate to distress, but may also relate to growth. Growth from struggles is prominent in Islamic spirituality and is sometimes referred to as spiritual jihad. This work's main hypothesis was that in the context of mor...
Preprint
Research exploring nonbelievers’ reasons for not believing in the existence of god(s) has focused on theory development. Such efforts are valuable, but may not capture the lived experiences of nonbelievers. The current two studies quantitatively examined nonbelievers’ self-reported reasons for nonbelief through developing the Reasons of Atheists an...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Valproic acid (VPA)-induced hyperammonemia poses several clinical challenges in psychiatric medicine. The reported incidence of this adverse effect varies widely across the literature. Furthermore, practitioners treat hyperammonemia in asymptomatic patients although studies suggest this practice is unnecessary. The purpose of this st...
Article
Many people report occasional feelings of anger toward God. However, most evidence pertains to western, predominantly Christian populations. In this study, Indian university students (N = 139; 78% Hindu) completed a survey about anger toward God(s). Polytheists (45%) chose one god to focus on. Measurement invariance tests supported comparisons of a...
Chapter
Although religion and spirituality often bring comfort and hope, people can also experience religious/spiritual (r/s) struggles in multiple domains: divine, demonic, moral, interpersonal, doubt-related, and ultimate meaning. This chapter explores how these types of r/s struggles could relate to challenges and opportunities associated with various a...
Article
John Shook's article "Are People Born to be Believers, or are Gods Born to be Believed?" (this volume) critiques research findings and writings by Justin Barrett suggesting that god beliefs may be innate among human beings. In response to points raised by Shook, we first discuss several complications that need to be balanced when defining and asses...
Article
Struggle with ultimate meaning reflects concerns about whether one’s life has a deeper meaning or purpose. We examined whether this construct could be distinguished from presence of meaning in life and search for meaning. In two US samples – a web-based sample (N = 1047) and an undergraduate sample (N = 3978) – confirmatory factor analyses showed t...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent might religious and spiritual struggle (RSS) arise from personality and environmental stress? We hypothesized that neuroticism and stressful life events predict RSS independently. Regression analyses of factor scores from 2,719 undergraduates in USA revealed independent effects of neuroticism and stressful past experiences on six kin...
Article
Full-text available
College students report a variety of personal goals. Based on an open-ended listing, Kaiser & Ozer (1997) developed a taxonomy of undergraduates' goals. From this taxonomy, Howell et al. (2001) wrote 65 items to cover the broad range of college students' personal goals. The breadth and variety of goal content included in this 65-item measure incorp...
Article
Full-text available
Religious traditions are considered to provide their members with a way to integrate their experiences into a coherent, comprehensible whole; functioning as a meaning system. Given that religious traditions vary in certain ways, the meaning systems they provide to their members might also differ from one another. The present study was concerned wit...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Archived project
Religious and spiritual (R/S) aspects of life present a variety of challenges. The recently developed Religious and Spiritual Struggles (RSS) scale reveals a coherent, multidimensional structure in these domain-specific challenges that applies to religious and nonreligious people alike. Initial evidence indicates mixed relationships between R/S struggles and religiousness, depending on the population and type of struggle. R/S struggles and negative emotionality correlate positively and more consistently, and negative religious coping with stressful life events (SLE) predicts worse outcomes. Do SLE predict R/S struggle in general, independently of religiousness? Might SLE give rise to fewer R/S struggles among religious people? We tested this moderation hypothesis across four large samples from three universities and the Internet (total N = 4,675). Each sample included the RSS and measures of SLE and religiousness. Latent interaction factors for religiousness and SLE failed to predict additional variance in RSS factors, yielding no support for the moderation hypothesis. However, SLE independently predicted greater R/S struggle of all kinds in all samples equally. These results suggest that any causal contributions to R/S struggle from religiousness or SLE would usually occur separately and additively without interacting. If stressful experiences foster R/S struggles, religiousness neither buffers nor exacerbates these effects in general.