Nick Jenkins

Nick Jenkins
Cardiff University | CU · Institute of Energy

About

338
Publications
144,224
Reads
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25,038
Citations
Citations since 2016
62 Research Items
13424 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (338)
Article
Several sources of revenue are available for battery storage systems that can be stacked to further increase revenue. Typically, price arbitrage is used to gain revenue from battery storage. However, additional revenue can be gained from participation in ancillary services such as frequency response. This study presents a linear optimisation approa...
Article
Full-text available
The development of accurate dynamic models of thermal energy storage (TES) units is important for their effective operation within cooling systems. This paper presents a one‐dimensional discretised dynamic model of an ice‐based TES tank. Simplicity and portability are key attributes of the presented model as they enable its implementation in any pr...
Article
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A conventional unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) can provide power flow control and voltage regulation in medium voltage (MV) distribution networks using partially rated converters. However, one of the main challenges of using the conventional UPFC is the unique design of the series interfacing transformer. This paper investigates a modified t...
Article
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The decarbonisation of residential heating is crucial if the net-zero target in the United Kingdom is going to be achieved. This paper describes methods to produce data to quantify the impacts of residential heat decarbonisation on the energy supply infrastructure across England and Wales. For the year 2018, annual heat demand for a range of dwelli...
Article
Battery storage provides flexibility to the power system and supports the increased integration of renewable energy sources. Distributed battery storage systems that are behind the meter are operated by their local owners, whose objectives may not align with those of the national power system. This paper presents a Bilevel optimisation approach to...
Article
Full-text available
Decarbonisation of heating and road transport are regarded as necessary but very challenging steps on the pathway to net zero carbon emissions. Assessing the most efficient routes to decarbonise these sectors requires an integrated view of energy and road transport systems. Here we describe how a national gas and electricity transmission network mo...
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Electric power systems are transitioning towards a decentralized paradigm with the engagement of active prosumers (both producers and consumers) through using distributed multi-energy sources. This paper proposes a novel Blockchain based peer-to-peer trading architecture which integrates negotiation-based auction and pricing mechanisms in local ele...
Conference Paper
There is an increasing interest in obtaining reactive power services for the transmission system from distributed energy resources. This involves coordination between the transmission and distribution companies, and the distributed generators. This paper presents a methodology to quantify the extent of reactive power provided by distributed generat...
Article
Full-text available
The energy supply system is undergoing enormous change to deliver against cost, security of supply and decarbonisation objectives. Robust decisions on the provision of infrastructure requires integrated models to perform analytics across the entire energy supply chain. A national level combined gas and electricity transmission network model was upg...
Article
A method for estimating the heat demand of different types of dwellings is described. Furthermore, an optimal heat supply mix for a local area was determined considering gas and electricity prices and the unique characteristics of the local area in terms of the heat demand and potential heat supply options. These methods were demonstrated on the lo...
Article
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Due to the increasing use of intermittent renewable generation, the power grid requires more flexible resources to balance supply and demand of electricity. Steam systems with turbine‐generators, which are widely used in industries, can be operated flexibly to support the power grid. Yet, the available amount of flexibility of industrial steam syst...
Article
This paper investigates the potential role of the electricity interconnectors in improving the security of supply in Great Britain (GB) in 2030. Real electricity demand and price data for GB and France in 2016 were used to understand the relationship between power exchange between the two countries and their wholesale electricity prices. A linear p...
Article
The electrification of heat supply is a widely discussed strategy for decarbonizing the heat sector in the Great Britain (GB). This impacts the electricity load duration curve and affects the optimal mix of power generation technologies. Additionally, the price of electricity and the emission from the grid determine whether the electrified heat is...
Chapter
Natural gas is a fossil fuel that was formed over millions of years from decomposing organic matter, which was subject to intense heat and pressure as successive layers of sand and rock were laid down. It is a mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases and is usually found in porous material underneath an impervious rock layer that prevents t...
Chapter
The global drive towards a low carbon and sustainable energy supply system has led to an increase in research and development of low carbon alternatives to fossil based natural gas in the gas grids.
Chapter
The decarbonisation of heat is a key reason for the future decrease of the consumption of gas in European countries. In this chapter, Great Britain is used as an example to demonstrate how decarbonisation of a gas dominated heat sector could affect the demand for natural gas. Partial electrification of heat through large scale use of heat pumps is...
Chapter
The growing use of renewable energy for generating electricity in those countries that have relied on gas-fired power stations to meet the bulk of their electricity demand is affecting gas consumption. In this Chapter, the impacts of a substantial capacity of wind generation on gas demand and consequently on the operation of gas networks are discus...
Conference Paper
In this paper, the performance of the moving average and moving median load estimation techniques is investigated using aggregated measurements of domestic smart meters. The load estimation techniques were tested using forward and backward walk approaches. Forward walk aims to estimate future load measurements using past measurements while backward...
Chapter
European countries intend to reduce their emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) up to 100% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels [1] and many other countries around the world have similar ambitions. Achieving these targets requires a substantial transformation of the energy systems in those countries that are reliant on fossil fuels to meet their energy ne...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems capture the power available in the water flowing in waterways. An electrical interface for the power take‐off of a hydrokinetic energy conversion system was designed and a control strategy for the maximum power extraction was investigated. A laboratory prototype was used for the experimental characterisation o...
Article
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Large and reliable volumes of water are required to cool thermal power plants. Yet across the world growing demands from society, environmental regulation and climate change impacts are reducing the availability of reliable water supplies. This in turn constrains the capacity and locations of thermal power plants that can be developed. The authors...
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Smart contract platforms have the potential to allow shared automatic control of energy transfer within networks in a replicable, secure, verifiable and trustworthy way. Here we present a general form of smart contract which captures the elements needed for shared control that will help formalize decentralization. Two mechanisms were defined for ag...
Article
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Thermal energy storage (TES) is a critical element in district heating systems and having a good understanding of its dynamic behaviour is necessary for effective energy management. TES supports heat sources in achieving a steady power supply. Achieving heat and electric load demand translates into a discharging and charging control problem in term...
Article
The outdoor dependence of module orientation and diurnal climatic conditions on the performance of Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs) configured for Building Integrated PV (BIPV) arrays is reported. The study focuses upon a Northern European climate and the significance of module orientation upon energy yield across diurnal, seasonal change and climatic...
Article
The increasing decarbonisation of the power and heat sectors in Great Britain poses numerous uncertainties about the future of the gas network. An optimisation model was developed for investigating the operation of future low carbon electricity, gas and heat supply systems. The model was employed to quantify the impacts on the operation of the gas...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the model of aggregated heat pumps as a source of the flexible load in Great Britain. A thermal model of a domestic heat pump was presented. A decentralised temperature control algorithm was proposed to control the building temperature, and heat pump’s ON and OFF cycles. Seven case studies were used to identify the suitable...
Article
With the reduction of Feed-in Tariff support in many countries, self-consumption of distributed energy resources (DERs) is encouraged and energy sharing between neighbouring prosumers is becoming more attractive than the conventional peer-to-grid (P2G) trading. This work investigated a peer-to-peer (P2P) energy sharing method, allowing the surplus...
Article
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Increasing amounts of distributed generation (DG) connected to distribution networks may lead to the violation of voltage and thermal limits. This paper proposes a virtual energy storage system (VESS) to provide voltage control in distribution networks in order to accommodate more DG. A VESS control scheme coordinating the demand response and the e...
Article
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Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy sharing allows the surplus energy from distributed energy resources (DERs) to trade between prosumers in a community Microgrid. P2P energy sharing is being becoming more attractive than the conventional peer-to-grid (P2G) trading. However, intensive sensing and communication infrastructures are required either for informat...
Article
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1 Abstract-The capability of domestic heat pumps to provide dynamic frequency response to an electric power system was investigated. A thermal model was developed to represent a population of domestic heat pumps. A decentralised dynamic control algorithm was developed, enabling the heat pumps to alter their power consumption in response to a syste...
Conference Paper
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Wind power integration has been increasing over the recent years. Although a significant number of wind turbines (WTs) are AC connected to the grid either as fixed-speed induction generators or doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), the use of permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) is being considered. As variable-speed WTs displace foss...
Article
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Many efforts are recently being dedicated to developing models that seek to provide insights into the techno-economic benefits of battery storage coupled to photovoltaic (PV) generation system. However, not all models consider the operation of the PV – battery storage system with a feed-in tariff (FiT) incentive, different electricity rates and bat...
Article
Full-text available
Optimisation models have been extensively used for finding optimal configuration and operation of distributed energy technologies. The main objective in most of these models is to find the optimal configuration of distributed energy technologies that will meet a certain energy demand with the least cost and emissions. Local grid constraints are not...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading describes flexible energy trades between peers, where the excess energy from many small-scale Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is traded among local customers. The feasibility of applying P2P energy trading to reduce costs for energy consumers, and to increase income for DER producers in a community microgrid wa...
Conference Paper
Voltage source converter (VSC) based HVDC links have been deployed to increase crosscountry exchange capabilities and to transmit power from remote offshore wind farms. The delivery of smooth and reliable power to onshore AC grids may be further facilitated by connecting additional VSCs to form a multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid. It is expected that...
Article
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Electrical resonances may compromise the stability of HVDC-connected Offshore Wind Power Plants (OWPPs). In particular, an offshore HVDC converter can reduce the damping of an OWPP at low frequency series resonances, leading to system instability. The interaction between offshore HVDC converter control and electrical resonances of offshore grids is...
Article
The energy system is a complex network of physical infrastructure and markets interacting closely with one another. Within this network, the gas and electricity systems have become the backbone of modern energy production. Both systems are closely interconnected due to the vast deployment of efficient combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) over the fi...
Article
Distributed generation and low carbon loads are already leading to some restrictions in the operation of distribution networks and higher penetrations of e.g. PV generation, heat pumps and electric vehicles will exacerbate such problems. In order to manage the distribution network effectively in this new situation, increased real-time monitoring an...
Article
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This paper analyses the frequency support characteristics of multi-terminal VSC-HVDC (MTDC) schemes using the energy transferred from wind turbine rotating mass and other AC systems. An alternative coordinated control (ACC) scheme, which gives priority to a frequency versus active power droop fitted to onshore VSCs is proposed to: (i) transfer wind...
Article
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A soft open point (SOP) is a power electronic device, usually using back-to-back voltage source converters (VSCs), installed at a previously normally open point of a distribution network. Due to its flexible and accurate control of power flows, an SOP is versatile, and increasingly being considered to mitigate voltage and thermal constraints in med...
Article
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The UK government has committed to the rollout of smart meters for both electricity and gas in all homes and most small businesses by the end of 2020. Outage management of distribution networks is a critical power system application which can get benefits immediately from the large-scale roll-out of smart meters. An outage area identification metho...
Article
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Active demand side response (DSR) will provide a significant opportunity to enhance the power system flexibility in the Great Britain (GB). Although electricity peak shaving has a clear reduction on required investments in the power system, the benefits on the gas supply network have not been examined. Using a Combined Gas and Electricity Networks...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate information regarding the uncertainty of short-term forecast for aggregate wind power is a key to efficient and cost effective integration of wind farms into power systems. This paper presents a methodology for producing wind power forecast scenarios. Using historical wind power time series data and the Kernel Density Estimator (KDE), prob...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The developments of large-scale renewable energy cause significant challenges for the operation of power system. Demand Side Response (DSR) based Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) may offer a broad range of potential benefits on system operation and reliability. This paper investigates the modelling of aggregated small loads, such as Heat Pu...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an algorithm that calculates the nonconcurrent per-node demand and generation hosting capacity of a distribution network. The algorithm is used to appraise the increase in hosting capacity that would result from adding a Soft Open Point (SOP) to link two networks. To visualise non-concurrent per-node hosting capacity, a stress m...
Conference Paper
The stability of an HVDC-connected Offshore Wind Power Plant (OWPP) is compromised if there are interactions between the power converters and the resonances of the offshore grid. This paper analyses the voltage stability of the offshore HVDC converter due to low frequency electrical resonances. An impedance-based representation is used to identify...
Article
Full-text available
A load estimation algorithm based on k-means cluster analysis was developed. The algorithm applies cluster centres – of previously clustered load profiles – and distance functions to estimate missing and future measurements. Canberra, Manhattan, Euclidean, and Pearson correlation distances were investigated. Several case studies were implemented us...
Conference Paper
Electric power systems will need to accommodate large amounts of renewables and a growing number of DC loads with reduced costs and losses. Medium-voltage DC distribution lines can play a key role. Moreover, a higher availability and reliability of the power supply can be achieved with energy storage systems (ESSs). In this paper, a hybrid configur...
Article
Full-text available
Soft Open Points (SOPs) are power electronic devices installed in place of normally-open points in electrical power distribution networks. They are able to provide active power flow control, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation under normal network operating conditions, as well as fast fault isolation and supply restoration under abno...
Article
Full-text available
Soft Open Points (SOPs) are power electronic devices installed in place of normally-open points in electrical power distribution networks. They are able to provide active power flow control, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation under normal network operating conditions, as well as fast fault isolation and supply restoration under abno...
Chapter
Introduction: Planning infrastructure investment has historically been done in each infrastructure sector in isolation. However, infrastructure sectors are becoming increasingly interdependent due to technological advancements, climate policy and increasing cross-sector demands. Infrastructure interdependencies introduce layers of complexity, uncer...
Article
The rooftops of Cardiff City Hall were surveyed to establish potential areas for commercial-scale photovoltaic (PV) system design. The orientation and tilt angles of suitable unshaded roof areas were measured for accurate PV system simulation. The performance of two PV technologies, polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and heterojunction with intrinsic t...
Article
Full-text available
As the number of electric vehicles increases, the impact of their charging on distribution networks is being investigated using different load profiles. Due to the lack of real charging data, the majority of these load impact studies are making assumptions for the electric vehicle charging demand profiles. In this paper a two-step modelling framewo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an overview of the current status of the development of the smart grid in Great Britain (GB). The definition, policy and technical drivers, incentive mechanisms, technological focus, and the industry’s progress in developing the smart grid are described. In particular, the Low Carbon Networks Fund and Electricity Network Innovat...