Nick J Cave

Nick J Cave
Massey University · Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences

BVSc MVSc PhD DipACVN

About

84
Publications
35,404
Reads
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1,328
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - October 2017
Massey University
Position
  • Professor
December 2004 - present
Massey University
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Small Animal Medicine and Nutrition
November 2000 - December 2004
University of California, Davis
Position
  • PhD student, and resident in clinical nutrition

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Aims The aim of this study was to identify viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease syndrome (CIRDS) among a population of New Zealand dogs. Methods : Convenience samples of oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 116 dogs, including 56 CIRDS-affected and 60 healthy dogs from various locations in New Zealand between March 2014...
Article
Infections with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common in New Zealand, although the impact of those infections on the health status of the cats remains unclear. Although many cats are vaccinated yearly with a commercial FIV vaccine containing FIV subtypes A and D, the effectiveness of this vaccine in protection against infection with field...
Article
AIMS: To determine the seroprevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) in New Zealand dogs, and to explore associations with age, sex, breed, month and geographical region of sampling and reported presence of clinical signs suggestive of respiratory disease. METHODS: A total of 1,015 canine serum samples were randomly selected from submiss...
Article
AIMS: To determine which of the common canine respiratory pathogens circulate among selected populations of healthy and diseased dogs in New Zealand. METHODS: Coagulated blood samples for serology and oropharyngeal swabs for virology were collected from healthy dogs (n=47) and from dogs with acute respiratory disease (n=49). For diseased dogs a con...
Article
Full-text available
In humans, aging is associated with changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota; these changes may contribute to the age-related increase in incidence of many chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. The life expectancies of cats are increasing, and they are also exhibiting the same types of diseases. While there are some studies investigating t...
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Background: Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration is increased in dogs with myocardial dysfunction, and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) increases in numerous disease states. In humans, both of these biomarkers can be altered after endurance exercise. Objective: To investigate the effect of prolonged strenuous exercise...
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The diet of the domestic dog has changed significantly from that of its wolf ancestor, with to date only two studies having examined macronutrient self-selection in dogs. Whilst the first focused solely on protein intake, determining an intake of 30% metabolisable energy (ME), the second investigated dietary protein, fat and carbohydrate (PFC), ind...
Article
Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess owner perceptions of their cat’s quality of life during treatment for lymphoma with a doxorubicin-containing multi-agent chemotherapy protocol, whether various health-related parameters correlated with quality of life scores, and to assess owner satisfaction with the protocol. Methods A postal...
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Background: The ACTH stimulation has low sensitivity for the diagnosis of hypercortisolism possibly as a result of biological and analytical variability. Hypothesis/objectives: To report the components of biological and analytical variability in serum cortisol concentration post-ACTH stimulation ([cortisol]) in healthy dogs. Animals: Fourteen...
Article
Objectives Multiple feline diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver and biliary tract are known to cause abnormal serum cobalamin and folate concentrations. Measuring the serum concentration of these vitamins can therefore be a helpful diagnostic tool. However, factors other than disease, in particular age, have also been sugg...
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Background Much of the recent research in companion animal nutrition has focussed on understanding the role of diet on faecal microbiota composition. To date, diet-induced changes in faecal microbiota observed in humans and rodents have been extrapolated to pets in spite of their very different dietary and metabolic requirements. This lack of direc...
Data
A network plot of the first two canonical dimensions of regularised canonical correlation analysis of faecal 16S genomic DNA amplicon genus data Includes physical measurement and metabolomics data (0.6 cutoff) revealing Clostridiaceae as a central node in dogs fed both the meat and kibbled diets.
Data
Correlation heat map Correlation heat map describing the associations between Clostridiaceae (Clostridium and Unclassified Clostridiaceae), Erysipelotrichaceae (Allobaculum, Catenibacterium, Holdemania, Turicibacter and Unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae) and Bacteriodaceae (Bacteroides) levels in dogs and physiological markers of intestinal function...
Data
Schematic showing the study design, samples taken and statistical analysis
Data
Variate plots of the first two canonical dimensions of canonical correlation analysis of faecal 16S genomic DNA amplicon data with physical measurement using shrinkage The first dimension separates diet well. The time points are not separated well in either dimension. Red text indicates dogs fed the kibble diet at 3, 6 or 9 weeks and black text ind...
Data
Supplementary tables for key bacterial families ( Clostridiaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Bacteroidaceae) are related to the digestion of protein and energy in dogs
Data
Screenplot of canonical correlation analysis of faecal 16S genomic DNA amplicon data with physical measurement using shrinkage The first dimension has the highest canonical correlation.
Data
The correlation circle plot of the first two canonical dimensions of canonical correlation analysis of faecal 16S genomic DNA amplicon data Includes physical measurement and metabolomics data using shrinkage showing a number of highly correlated parameters including positive correlation between Clostridiaceae and physical measurement data.
Article
Full-text available
Scientific Reports 6 : Article number: 34668 10.1038/srep34668 ; published online: 23 November 2016 ; updated: 24 January 2017 The original version of this Article contained a typographical error in the title, where: “Pre- and post-weaning diet alters the faecal metagenome in the cat with differences vitamin and carbohydrate metabolism gene abundan...
Data
Fig S1. Dogs’ body weight during the study period. (A) Graphical presentation of the distribution of body weight per dog per week. (B) Mean (±SD) dogs’ body weight per week.
Data
Fig S2. Study design. Dogs were prospectively randomized to five levels of treatment via Latin Square design. Each of the five dosing periods was followed by a 14‐day washout period. In each treatment period, the dogs were dosed orally between 0800 and 1,000 for 7 days. The ACTH stimulation test was performed 24 hour after the last dosing for each...
Data
Fig S3. Summary of the results of serum cortisol concentration (mean ± SD) 1 h after intravenous administration of 5 μg/kg ACTH for each of the five levels of treatment. Groups with different letters are statistically significantly different (P < 0.05).
Article
Full-text available
Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that l...
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Dietary format, and its role in pet nutrition, is of interest to pet food manufacturers and pet owners alike. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post-weaning diets (kibbled or canned) on the composition and function of faecal microbiota in the domestic cat by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and gene taxonomic and...
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Background: Bacterial urinary tract infections are uncommon in cats in general but the prevalence increases to 29% in older cats with comorbidities (Veterinary Clinical Pathology 2008, 37, 317; Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 2007, 9, 124; Veterinary Microbiology 2009, 136, 130). Frequently, the infections are subclinical. The clinical releva...
Article
Background: DNA is released from dying cells during apoptosis and necrosis. This cell-free DNA (cfDNA) diffuses into the plasma where it can be measured. In humans an increase in cfDNA correlates with disease severity and prognosis. Objective: It was hypothesized that when DNA in canine plasma was measured by emission fluorometry without prior D...
Article
Tritrichomonas foetus is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonizes the feline colon causing colitis and chronic foul smelling diarrhea. Despite the efficacy of Ronidazole in the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus, Ronidazole has been reported to cause neurotoxicity in some cats due to rapid absorption in the small intestine. A novel amphoteri...
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Aims: To determine current practices and attitudes towards vaccination of dogs and cats of veterinarians in New Zealand; the methods used for informing clients on which vaccines to use, and the preferred site for vaccination of cats. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all 483 listed veterinary practices in New Zealand during February 20...
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Electrochemical approach to the assessment of acid-base states should provide a better mechanistic explanation of the metabolic component than methods that consider only pH and carbon dioxide. Simplified strong ion equation (SSIE), using published dog-specific values, would predict the measured serum pH of diseased dogs. Ten dogs, hospitalized for...
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A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance ener...
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Objective: To evaluate the effects of various concentrations of l-lysine on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Sample: Cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Procedures: CRFK cells were inoculated with FHV-1 and maintained in media with 20 combinations of l-arginine and l-lysine concentrations. Changes in cell...
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To evaluate the serological response in dogs to a commercial vaccine for use in cattle containing cultured strains of Leptospira interrogans serovars Copenhageni and Pomona, and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. Blood samples were obtained from 67 working farm dogs on 12 farms, and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used to measure titres...
Chapter
The long-term management of dogs with suspected food hypersensitivity will be for dogs that range from those that have simply improved on an elimination diet, to those in which the specific allergen has been defined and an immunological basis has been demonstrated. Despite this range of diagnostic certainty, the two primary concerns for the long-te...
Article
Objective: To develop an in vivo CT method to measure inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in dogs of performance breeds. Animals: 10 German Shepherd Dogs and 12 Greyhounds without signs of lumbosacral region pain or neurologic problems. Procedures: CT of the ilium and sacrum was performed in flexed, neutral, and extended hin...
Article
The ongoing evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has resulted in the existence of a diverse continuum of viruses. FIV isolates differ with regards to their mutation and replication rates, plasma viral loads, cell tropism and the ability to induce apoptosis. Clinical disease in FIV-infected cats is also inconsistent. Genomic sequence var...
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Some felid diets contain isoflavones but the metabolic capacity of cats towards isoflavones is relatively unknown, despite the understanding that isoflavones have divergent biological potential according to their metabolite end-products. The objective of this study was to determine the plasma metabolites detectable in domestic cats after exposure t...
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Dietary isoflavones have been hypothesised to play a role in hepatic veno-occlusive disease in captive exotic felids, although empirical evidence is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the effect of long-term (>1 year) dietary genistein and daidzein exposure on the hepatic biochemistry and histology of domestic cats. Individual cats were asses...
Article
Genistein and daidzein are isoflavones which are reported to influence the reproductive system in a variety of mammalian species. This pilot study aimed to determine if dietary isoflavones could potentially influence reproductive tract histology or morphology in domestic cats, when consumed during the postnatal development period. Cats were maintai...
Article
Genistein and daidzein are isoflavones which are reported to influence the reproductive system in a variety of mammalian species. This pilot study aimed to determine if dietary isoflavones could potentially influence reproductive parameters in domestic cats, when consumed during the postnatal development period. Cats (n = 12) were maintained on eit...
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Background: Periodontal disease in cats is a local disease that may have systemic consequences that are affected by treatment. Objective: To test the hypotheses that systemic health indices would be correlated with the severity of periodontitis, and would improve with treatment. Animals and methods: Apparently otherwise healthy cats from an in...
Article
Aim: To investigate the prevalence of titres to four endemic leptospiral serovars in dog sera from the lower half of the North Island, and the South Island of New Zealand submitted to diagnostic laboratories, and to explore the association between the prevalence of seropositive samples to leptospirosis and breed group, age group and sex. Methods:...
Article
It has been suggested that the prevalence of feline obesity has increased recently in parallel with the prevalence of obesity in the human population. We had previously determined the prevalence of obesity in an urban New Zealand population of cats in 1993. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of obesity in the same...
Article
An 8-month-old crossbred dog was evaluated because of an oronasal fistula following 2 previous attempts to surgically correct a secondary palate defect. Three months after initial evaluation and successful closure of the soft palate section of the secondary palate defect via 2 surgeries, an oronasal fistula was present. The oronasal fistula was pre...
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To present findings from a case series of gastric dilatation (GD) or gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in working farm dogs in New Zealand that were examined at veterinary clinics, and to identify possible risk factors for GD or GDV in working farm dogs in New Zealand using a case-control study. This retrospective study included a case-series a...
Article
To determine whether left-to-right asymmetry of the central tarsal bone (CTB) of racing greyhounds was detectable using computed tomography (CT) in live dogs; to quantify the asymmetry in terms of average bone volume, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and dorsal cortical shape, and to determine if age, gender, bodyweight, number of starts or...
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Dietary isoflavones, capable of influencing reproductive parameters in domestic cats (Felis catus), have been detected in commercial diets fed to captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). However, the absorptive and metabolic capacity of cheetahs towards isoflavones has not yet been studied. Experiments were designed to describe the plasma concentration...
Article
A 5-year-old entire female Huntaway from a sheep and beef farm was one of four dogs that developed clinical signs including hypersalivation, depression, blindness and ataxia after the death of another dog. A 4-year-old female Huntaway farm dog from a second farm was observed to be sitting down more often than usual on the day after being fed part o...
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Aim: To determine whether there is a seasonal variation in the phenotypic hip score of dogs born in New Zealand as assessed by the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) canine hip dysplasia (CHD) scheme. Methods: Data from dogs born in New Zealand between 1988 and 2009 that have been scored for CHD were retrospectively evaluated for the effe...
Article
A 5-year-old male neutered Labrador Retriever Afghan crossbred dog was examined after collapsing. The dog was recumbent, dyspnoeic and mildly tachypnoeic. There was a tachyarrhythmia (300 beats per minute) and subcutaneous oedema of the ventral neck and right forelimb. The dog had a sustained ventricular tachycardia originating in the right ventric...
Article
Objectives Careful assessment of the nutritional needs of cats and dogs must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximize the quality of life in all animals. The goal of these World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Guidelines is that a nutritional ass...
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Full-text available
Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation...
Article
High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diet...
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Full-text available
To establish the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus, to investigate the prevalence of co-infection with Giardia spp., and determine risk factors for T. foetus infection in pedigree show cats in New Zealand. Freshly voided faecal samples were collected from cats attending two regional pedigree cat shows in the North Island during 2006. The samples we...
Article
To record the incidence of specific diseases affecting working farm dogs; identify any apparent breed predispositions; determine the most important causes of loss from death, euthanasia, or retirement of the dog; and identify potential interventions that could reduce the incidence of disease. A national questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was...
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Full-text available
The prevalence of obesity in domestic cats is increasing worldwide, and is strongly associated with gonadectomy. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of oestradiol in reducing food intake in both male and female neutered cats. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that oestradiol or genistein would prevent the increase in...
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A high concentration of dietary carbohydrate is suggested to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes mellitus in domestic cats. To evaluate this, food intake, body weight, fat mass and circulating adiposity-related factors were determined in twenty-four sexually mature (9-12 months) cats assigned to four six-cat dietary groups balanced for body w...
Article
The absorption and disposition kinetics of the soy isoflavone genistein were determined in cats (n = 6). An oral dose of 100 mg/kg was administered, which has previously been demonstrated to be the minimum oral estrogenic dose, and was administered intravenously at a dose of 20 mg/kg, being the largest practical dose that could be safely administer...
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To determine if exogenous oestradiol or the phyto-oestrogen genistein could reduce food intake in male and female cats fed ad libitum that had been allowed to accrue excessive bodyfat following neutering. Sixteen adult (eight female, eight male) cats were neutered and allowed to increase their bodyweight (BW) through feeding ad libitum of a complet...
Article
Dietary genistein has potential as a surrogate estrogen to restore normal control of food intake in cats following gonadectomy. However, since genistein affects immunological responses in other species it is important to determine if there is any immunological effect of genistein in cats, before long-term feeding of it could be considered. It was h...
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Full-text available
The primary aim of a hydrolyzed protein diet is to disrupt the proteins within the diet sufficiently to remove existing allergens. Published assessment of hydrolyzed protein diets includes physiochemical and immunologic assays as well as nutritional and clinical feeding trials. Potential problems include poor palatability, hypoosmotic diarrhea, and...