Nick Bailey

Nick Bailey
University of Glasgow | UofG · Division of Urban Studies

BA (Cantab), MPhil (Glasgow)
Director, Urban Big Data Centre, University of Glasgow & Associate Director, Scottish Centre for Admin Data Research

About

101
Publications
20,423
Reads
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2,247
Citations
Citations since 2017
46 Research Items
1337 Citations
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Introduction
Professor of Urban Studies | Director, Urban Big Data Centre (www.ubdc.ac.uk) | Associate Director, Scottish Centre for Administrative Data Research (www.scadr.ac.uk)
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
University of Glasgow
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Professor of Urban Studies; Director of the Urban Big Data Centre; Associate Director of the Scottish Centre for Administrative Data Research
October 1998 - July 2014
University of Glasgow
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 1992 - September 1998
University of Stirling
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
October 1988 - September 1990
University of Glasgow
Field of study
  • Urban Policy & Practice
October 1984 - June 1987
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Social and Political Sciences

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We aim to estimate occupational differences in COVID-19 hospital admission and mortality by sex. Occupations vary with respect to environmental factors that influence exposure to COVID-19 such as ventilation, social contact and protective equipment. Variations between women and men may arise because they occupy different roles within an...
Preprint
New forms of mobile phone data offer enormous potential for the advancement of our understanding of human activity and mobility. However, uncertainty in the representativeness of data creates ethical risks that underlying biases could impact results and mislead policy recommendations, limiting their usefulness. This paper assesses the spatial and s...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018, EU Member States adopted a 17-item scale to measure child deprivation and monitor progress in their fight against child poverty. This indicator will be collected in future every three years via an ad hoc module of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). Previous research has shown how deprivation measures c...
Article
This fascinating book provides a detailed national picture of poverty and social exclusion. Chapters consider a range of dimensions of exclusion and explores relationships between these in the first truly multi-dimensional analysis.
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, the use of conditionality backed by benefit sanctions for those claiming unemployment and related benefits has become widespread in the social security systems of high-income countries. Critics argue that sanctions may be ineffective in bringing people back to employment or indeed harmful in a range of ways. Existing reviews larg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Engagement with natural areas has increased during the Covid-19 pandemic, and this may well form one of the enduring legacies of this time. A better understanding of human interactions with urban greenspace, and how patterns of use have changed, including inequalities of use, will be crucial for decision makers to adequately manage and direct resou...
Preprint
In 2018, EU Member States adopted a 17-item scale to measure child deprivation and monitor progress in their fight against child poverty. This indicator will be collected in future each three years via an ad hoc module of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). Previous research has shown how deprivation measures ca...
Chapter
Mobility restrictions have been imposed by many countries in order to curb the spread the novel coronavirus disease. These vary in overall severity but also in the details of which kinds of activity and hence mobility has been permitted or restricted. This study uses the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker to measure the severity of restric...
Preprint
[Published version (Open Access) available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279421001069] In recent decades, the use of conditionality backed by benefit sanctions for those claiming unemployment and related benefits has become widespread in the social security systems of high-income countries. Critics argue that sanctions may be ineffective in br...
Article
Full-text available
Reviews of official statistics for UK housing have noted that developments have not kept pace with real‐world change, particularly the rapid growth of private renting. This paper examines the potential value of big data in this context. We report on the construction of a dataset from the on‐line adverts of one national lettings agency, describing t...
Article
Introduction Many high-income countries are reorganising and integrating health and social care (long-term care) services. However, little evidence exists showing how these services interact. Demographic changes and austerity measures have led to increased demand for social care services at the same time as the availability of formal and informal s...
Article
Background: little is known about the relationship between multimorbidity and social care use (also known as long-term care). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between receipt of formal social care services and multimorbidity. Methods: this retrospective data linkage, observational study included all individuals over the age o...
Article
Full-text available
Deprivation scales are becoming increasingly familiar in research and official statistics on poverty. Taking advantage of the basis of these scales in Item Response Theory, this paper proposes a more efficient approach to implementation using adaptive testing. This maximises information collected for a given amount of survey time by screening respo...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last two decades, private renting has undergone a major revival in the UK, more than doubling its share within the housing system. Young adults increasingly remain in the sector into their 30s, giving rise to the term ‘Generation Rent’. Using data from the UK’s Family Resources Survey, this article shows how reliance on the sector varies b...
Article
Full-text available
Administrative data are widely used to construct indicators of social disadvantage, such as Free School Meals eligibility and Indices of Multiple Deprivation, for policy purposes. For research these indicators are often a compromise between accuracy and simplicity, because they rely on cross-sectional data. The growing availability of longitudinal...
Article
Full-text available
Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more long-term conditions, is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Little is known, however, about the relationship between multimorbidity and social care use (also known as long-term care). This is important as many developed countries seek to integrate health and social care services as a means of imp...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionLinked health care datasets have been used effectively in Scotland for some time. Use of social care data has been much more limited, partly because responsibility for these services is distributed across multiple local authorities. However, there are substantial interactions between health and social care (also known internationally as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reviews of official statistics for UK housing have noted that developments have not kept pace with real-world change, particularly the rapid growth of private renting. This paper examines the potential value of big data in this context. We report on the construction of a dataset from the on-line adverts of one national lettings agency, describing t...
Article
Full-text available
The suburbanisation of poverty has been noted in the cities of a large number of countries, including the UK. The main drivers are labour market restructuring on the one hand, and market-driven change in the housing system on the other although social and housing policies are also factors. This paper explores the possible consequences for the welfa...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Integration of health and social care services is a potential solution to improving care despite budgetary constraints and increased demand for services. Little is known about how having two-or-more long-term conditions (multimorbidity) and socioeconomic status affect social care use, or how all these factors affect unscheduled health...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Social Care Survey (SCS) is collected annually by the Scottish Government (SG) from all of Scotland’s 32 local authorities. In addition to other information, it details the amount of home care delivered to all individuals in receipt of this service during a specified census week. How well this census represents care delivered through...
Article
Full-text available
This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households wil...
Article
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Quantitative indices of segregation are powerful tools for summarising the spatial relationships between population groups and thereby providing the basis for analysis and public policy intervention. While the broad concept of segregation may be intuitive, measurement is challenging because of the complexity of varied dimensions and spatial arrange...
Research
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This report examines the Scottish Government’s Child Poverty Strategy 2014-2017, in the context of the child poverty targets set out in the Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill. This report is concerned in particular with analysing the ‘Pockets’ and ‘Places’ outcomes identified in the Strategy, as well as their associated policy measures. The aim is to pr...
Chapter
Townsend argued that poverty is a key barrier to social participation as it limits people’s ability to participate in social activities and to maintain social relationships or networks. The results in this chapter support this argument finding that poverty acts as a barrier to social contact, particularly with friends; that it constrains participat...
Chapter
Full-text available
One in three people in employment is not enjoying the inclusionary benefits usually associated with paid work: they are in poverty, in poor quality jobs or in insecure employment. People in this group can be described as being in ‘exclusionary employment’. The people most at risk of exclusionary employment are those who are younger, are lone parent...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Bristol Social Exclusion Matrix (BSEM) identifies multiple domains of social exclusion, and the PSE-UK 2012 survey successfully operationalised these for the first time in a single UK household survey. There are many approaches which can be used to explore the relationships between the multiple domains. This chapter uses two different approache...
Chapter
Full-text available
Poverty as measured by material deprivation through lack of economic resources remains absolutely central to understanding the causation and patterning of most aspects of social exclusion and a wide range of social outcomes. Concerns are expressed about the implications of trends to greater inequality, marketization and loss of social cohesion, as...
Chapter
Urban and rural locations may have different levels of poverty or social exclusion but also different combinations of problems or forms of exclusion. Understanding these differences is important both for the allocation of resources but also for the development of appropriate policies or interventions. Overall, this chapter argues that the similarit...
Chapter
Introduction This chapter focuses on the differences in poverty and social exclusion between rural and urban locations in the UK. It examines differences in material terms, including levels of poverty as well as broader measures of living standards. It also explores wider aspects of social exclusion. Given space constraints, we cannot look at all o...
Chapter
Introduction Previous chapters in this volume explore different dimensions of poverty and social exclusion in the UK, while the companion volume (Dermott and Main, 2017) presents evidence on the poverty and social exclusion experienced by different social groups or in different locations. Although many of these contributions also examine how disadv...
Chapter
Introduction In this concluding section we attempt to provide some synthesis from the rich detail and insights developed across the preceding chapters. We do not attempt to simply reproduce the conclusions from each chapter. Rather, we have identified some larger themes which cut across the individual chapters and place the emergent findings from t...
Chapter
Introduction Paid work is, quite rightly, at the heart of many governments’ responses to poverty and social exclusion. Most directly, paid work is a source of income which can reduce risks of poverty and raise living standards, both in the short and longer term, including in retirement. In addition, it is also seen as having a wider ‘transformative...
Chapter
Introduction The ability to maintain social relationships and networks, and to participate in widely enjoyed social activities, is as central to Townsend's conception of relative poverty as it is to definitions of social exclusion (Townsend, 1979; Levitas, 2006; Levitas et al, 2007). These relationships and activities matter because they form part...
Article
The largest UK research study on poverty and social exclusion ever conducted reveals startling levels of deprivation. 18m people are unable to afford adequate housing; 14m can’t afford essential household goods; and nearly half the population have some form of financial insecurity. Defining poverty as those whose lack of resources forces them to li...
Article
Based on the largest UK study of its kind ever commissioned in the UK, this book provides the most detailed national picture of poverty and social exclusion. Chapters consider a wide range of dimensions of disadvantage, covering aspects of household resources, participation and quality of life. On resources, the book charts changing views about the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper tracks changes in relative centralisation and relative concentration of poverty for the 25 largest British cities, analysing change for poor and non-poor groups separately, and examining parallel changes in spatial segregation. The paper confirms that poverty is suburbanising, at least in the larger cities, although poverty remains over-...
Article
That contemporary austerity is being realised to a large extent in and through cities is a growing theme in urban scholarship. Similarly, the concern that the economically marginalised are disproportionately impacted as ‘austerity urbanism’ takes hold drives a significant body of research. While it is clear that substantial austerity cuts are being...
Book
How many people live in poverty in the UK, and how has this changed over recent decades? Are those in poverty more likely to suffer other forms of disadvantage or social exclusion? Is exclusion multi-dimensional, taking different forms for different groups or places? Based on the largest UK study of its kind ever commissioned, this fascinating book...
Article
Full-text available
Segregation studies have mainly focused on urban structures as a whole or have discussed specific (gentrifying or renewing) neighbourhoods. The literature suggests that changes in segregation occur primarily through selective migration. In this paper, we follow up on recent work that has questioned these orthodoxies, suggesting that in situ social...
Article
Full-text available
Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018315601800 There is growing evidence of the problematic nature of the UK’s ‘flexible labour market’ with rising levels of in-work poverty and insecurity. Yet successive governments have stressed that paid work is the route to inclusion, focussing attention on the divide between employed and unemployed. P...
Article
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This introduction to the Symposium sets out the context for local government in the UK at the current time. It outlines the scale of the reductions in funding since 2010, showing how uneven these cuts have been across the country and the reasons for this. It also describes the increased exposure to risk of both local government and of the citizens...
Article
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The scale of the cuts to local government finance, coupled with increasing demand for services, has led to unprecedented ‘budget gaps’ in council budgets. Arguably, two competing narratives of the trajectory of local government have emerged in which contrasting futures are imagined for the sector – a positive story of adaptation and survival and mo...
Book
Full-text available
As we stand at the halfway point of the government's austerity programme, this timely report examines its impact on local government, with evidence from national data and local case studies. • The most deprived areas have borne the brunt of the cuts. On one key measure, the most deprived English authorities have had a level of cut nearly six times...
Article
Full-text available
Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2014.1000834 Social mix policies have become controversial. Claims about the harms caused by neighbourhood effects have been challenged while counter-claims have been made about the potential benefits for low-income households from living in poor communities. This paper examines two aspects of this de...
Article
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This article examines whether the population of Scotland would set a different poverty standard compared with the rest of the UK. It is based on research on a consensual or democratic poverty measure, defined by majority views of the items or activities which should be considered the ‘necessities of life’. The article explores whether majority opin...
Article
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This paper asks whether where someone lives bears any association with their attitudes to inequality and income redistribution, focusing on the relative contribution of neighbourhood income, density and ethnic composition. People on higher incomes showed higher support for redistribution when living in more deprived neighbourhoods. People with lowe...
Article
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There is a longstanding concern about middle-class capture of the benefits of public service provision, although relatively little evidence exists on the exact nature of any advantage or on the processes by which this comes about. Using a framework developed from Gal (J. Gal, 1998. Formulating the Matthew Principle: on the role of the middle-classe...
Article
For a number of years, housing and regeneration policy in Britain has focused on creating social mix through changing housing tenure mix, particularly in deprived social housing areas. Policies are founded on the perception that segregation of rich and poor is increasing, and this reinforces disadvantage. Little work has examined the degree of corr...
Article
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Open Access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a45641 Rising levels of income inequality have been directly linked to rising levels of spatial segregation. In this paper we explore whether rising segregation may in turn erode support for the redistributive policies of the welfare state, further increasing levels of inequality-a form of positive feedback. T...
Article
This edited volume critically examines the link between area based policies, neighbourhood based problems, and neighbourhood effects: the idea that living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods has a negative effect on residents life chances over and above the effect of their individual characteristics. Over the last few decades, Western governments have...
Book
This edited volume critically examines the link between area based policies, neighbourhood based problems, and neighbourhood effects: the idea that living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods has a negative effect on residents’ life chances over and above the effect of their individual characteristics. Over the last few decades, Western governments have...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of this note is to document how the geographic contextual variables were constructed for the PSE-UK 2012 survey. These variables provide some limited information on geographic context at two scales: a functional region scale where measures reflect the level of demand in labour and housing markets; and a neighbourhood scale where measure...
Chapter
This chapter reviews what is known about patterns of residential mobility and selective migration, in order to provide a clearer understanding of these dynamics on which to build research on neighbourhood effects. Three findings of research on residential mobility and population turnover are discussed: The first one is that neighbourhood characteri...
Chapter
Non-random sorting of residents into neighbourhoods provides neighbourhood effects researchers with a major challenge: The neighbourhoods which people ‘choose’ reflect their incomes, and as a result neighbourhood characteristics are endogenous, causing bias in models of neighbourhood effects. So understanding neighbourhood choice and neighbourhood...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is strong evidence that segregation on socioeconomic lines has risen in many countries over the last few decades, comparatively little is known about the processes by which this happens. While it is often assumed that selective migration is the dominant process, this has rarely been demonstrated. This paper proposes a more comprehens...
Article
Full-text available
This study addresses issues of social or environmental justice in local urban environmental services, through the particular lens of street cleaning services. While UK policy gives some legitimacy to the idea that services should be enhanced in disadavantaged areas, it is unclear how much service and resource discrimination are necessary or appropr...
Book
Full-text available
This report explores how budget cuts will affect the capacity of local government to meet the needs of more deprived households and communities. There is real concern that more deprived groups will suffer the most. This report provides early, systematic evidence of the scale of the cuts and of how local councils are grappling with these issues. The...
Book
Over the last 25 years a vast body of literature has been published on neighbourhood effects: the idea that living in more deprived neighbourhoods has a negative effect on residents’ life chances over and above the effect of their individual characteristics. The volume of work not only reflects academic and policy interest in this topic, but also t...
Chapter
Over the last 25 years a vast body of literature has been published investigating neighbourhood effects: the idea that neighbourhood characteristics can have a significant effect on residents’ life chances over and above the effect of their individual characteristics. There is little doubt that neighbourhood effects exist, but we know little about...
Article
Full-text available
Scotland has some of the worst reported health in the developed world. In comparison to England and Wales it has higher mortality rates, as well as higher incidence and prevalence of heart disease, many cancers (especially lung cancer) and deaths from suicides, accidents and alcohol. Scotland also has some of the most deprived neighbourhoods in the...
Article
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This paper examines the determinants of individual place attachment, focusing in particular on differences between deprived and other neighbourhoods, and on the impacts of population turnover and social mix. It uses a multi-level modelling approach to take account of both individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants. Data are drawn from a large...
Article
Those living in deprived areas may have a greater reliance on the neighbourhood as a setting for social activity. However, the reduced quality of deprived neighbourhoods may make attachment in such places less likely. Other factors, like high turnover and social mix, may also act to reduce an individual’s attachment in these neighbourhoods. Using q...
Article
This article describes a qualitative study exploring the impact of poverty on children’s access to and use of services, which took a comparative approach to gather the views of children from more and less affluent households. Findings suggest affordability and related factors including limited mobility constrained service use for less affluent chil...
Article
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Selective migration flows are thought to be a key means by which the intended benefits of area-based initiatives `leak out' of target areas, undermining their effectiveness. To date, direct evidence on the scale or impact of these flows has been weak since they are difficult to assess using survey methods. Using 2001 census data for England and Sco...
Article
It has become common to say that social cohesion and economic competitiveness go together, indeed to claim that cohesion actually promotes prosperity. This is a reversal of the previous belief in economic determinism and individualism. The shift in perspective stems partly from concerns about a growing malaise in society with the potential for unre...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines the sources of social cohesion and prosperity in the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. It analyses the contrasting performance and very different trajectories of these two neighbouring cities over the last two decades and evaluates the relationship between them. The findings suggest that while Glasgow has experience...
Chapter
Although only 45 miles separate Edinburgh and Glasgow, the two largest cities in Scotland, they exhibit striking contrasts in their historic performance and social conditions. Severe deindustrialisation and decentralisation have left Glasgow with some of the most serious social and environmental problems in Britain. In recent years, however, there...
Article
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The idea of strategic planning for networks of cities and towns, encapsulated in the polynuclear urban region concept, has attracted growing interest in many European regions. Key themes include cooperation between neighbouring cities and coordination between functional policies. This art