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Nicholas V Dipatrizio

Nicholas V Dipatrizio
University of California Riverside School of Medicine · Biomedical Sciences

PhD

About

69
Publications
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1,973
Citations

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
The gut barrier provides protection from pathogens and its function is compromised in diet-induced obesity (DIO). The endocannabinoid system in the gut is dysregulated in DIO and participates in gut barrier function; however, whether its activity is protective or detrimental for gut barrier integrity is unclear. We used mice conditionally deficient...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit an array of symptoms, including sociability deficits, increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and sensory hyperexcitability. It is unclear how endocannabinoid (eCB) modulation can be targeted to alleviate neurophysiological abnormalities in FXS as behavioral r...
Article
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the gut communicates with the body and brain as part of the homeostatic mechanisms that affect energy balance. Although perhaps best known for its effects on energy intake, the eCB system also regulates voluntary locomotor behavior. Here, we examined gut eCB concentrations in relation to voluntary exercise, speci...
Article
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by chronic pain and bouts of extreme acute pain from vasoocclusive crises (VOC). Sickle pain has both neuropathic and inflammatory features (Tran et al., Blood 2017). Mechanisms underlying neural injury remain unknown in SCD. Neurite outgrowth inhibitor (NOGO-A/reticulon-4) and its receptor NGR1 contribute...
Article
Full-text available
The endocannabinoid system is expressed in cells throughout the body and controls a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions. We describe robust and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS-based methods for analyzing metabolism of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl- sn -glycerol and arachidonoyl ethanolamide, and related monoacylglycerols (MAGs)...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural workers, especially those who work in swine confinement facilities, are at increased risk for developing pulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic bronchitis due to exposures to fumes, vapors, and organic dust. Repetitive exposure to agricultural dust leads to unresolved inflammation, a com...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are particularly susceptible to dysregulation of energy metabolism, which may manifest as protein energy wasting and cachexia. In recent years, the endocannabinoid system has been shown to play an important role in energy metabolism with potential relevance in ESRD. N-acylethanolamin...
Article
Full-text available
Pain in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a major comorbidity and unique with acute pain due to recurrent and episodic vaso-occlusive crises as well as chronic pain, which can span an individual’s entire life. Opioids are the mainstay treatment for pain in SCD. Due to recent health crises raised by adverse effects including deaths from opioid use, pain...
Article
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by multiple comorbidities including pain. SCD patients often use cannabinoids to alleviate pain, but their psychoactive effects and social stigma impose major challenges. Strategies to elevate endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) are devoid of such challenges, but pharmacologic approaches showed adverse-effects...
Article
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Abstract Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardant chemicals and environmental contaminants with endocrine-disrupting properties that are associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in humans. However, their diabetogenic actions are not completely characterized or understood. In this study, we investigated the effect...
Article
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The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the intake of palatable food. For example, endocannabinoid signaling in the upper small-intestinal epithelium is increased (i) in rats after tasting dietary fats, which promotes intake of fats, and (ii) in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, which promotes overeating via impaired nutrient-ind...
Preprint
Full-text available
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardant chemicals and environmental contaminants with endocrine-disrupting properties that are associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in humans. However, their diabetogenic actions are not completely characterized or understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of DE-7...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Lipid mediators in the GI tract regulate satiation and satiety. Bile acids (BAs) regulate the absorption and metabolism of dietary lipid in the intestine, but their effects on lipid-regulated satiation and satiety are completely unknown. Investigating this is challenging because introducing excessive BAs or eliminating BAs strongly impac...
Article
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Background: Mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) remains exceptionally high. While traditional risk factors such as obesity are paradoxically associated with better survival, nontraditional risk factors including cachexia increase the likelihood of poor outcomes. There is accumulating evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Context Previous studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system, through the actions of its main mediators 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), plays a major role in the energy metabolism. Objective We examined serum levels of major endocannabinoid mediators and their association with clinical parameters in patients with end...
Article
Full-text available
Gut-brain signaling controls feeding behavior and energy homeostasis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on these pathways are poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that elevated endocannabinoid activity at cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1Rs) in the gut of mice rendered DIO by chronic access to a h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anxiety disorders are major risk factors for obesity. However, the mechanisms accounting for this susceptibility remain unclear. Animal models have proved to be useful tools for understanding the role of emotional functioning in the development and maintenance of metabolic alterations implicated in obesity. Here we sought to determine the predictiv...
Article
Introduction: As the prevalence of kidney disease continues to rise worldwide, there is accumulating evidence that kidney injury and dysfunction, whether acute or chronic, is associated with major adverse outcomes, including mortality. Meanwhile, effective therapeutic options in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease...
Article
Full-text available
Over two-thirds of adults in the United States are obese or overweight, which is largely due to chronic overconsumption of diets high in fats and sugars (i.e., Western diet). Recent studies reveal that maternal obesity may predispose offspring to development of obesity and other metabolic diseases; however, the molecular underpinnings of these outc...
Article
Helminths have co-evolved with their hosts resulting in the development of specialized host immune mechanisms and parasite-specific regulatory products. Identification of new pathways that regulate helminth infection could provide a better understanding of host-helminth interaction and may identify new therapeutic targets for helminth infection. He...
Article
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Epidemiological and clinical research studies have provided ample evidence demonstrating that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) increases risk factors involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our previous study demonstrated that when compared to aspartame (Asp), two weeks of high-...
Article
Introduction/aims: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) are a family of lipid mediators that participate in a host of biological functions. Procedures for the quantitative analysis of FAEs include organic solvent extraction from biological matrices (e.g., blood), followed by purification and subsequent quantitation by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry...
Article
Full-text available
The hallmark of vaccines is their ability to prevent the spread of infectious pathogens and thereby serve as invaluable public health tool. Despite their medical relevance, there is a gap in our understanding of the physiological factors that mediate innate and adaptive immune response to vaccines. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a critical mod...
Article
Consumption of dietary fats is critical for survival. Essential fatty acids found in our diet provide the building blocks of a variety of molecules that regulate cellular function and communication, including the eicosanoid signaling molecules, the endocannabinoids. Indeed, the endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of feeding, energy bal...
Article
We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL −/−) become obese by 16 weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether incre...
Article
Cannabis has been used medicinally for centuries to treat a variety of disorders, including those associated with the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery of our bodies' own "cannabis-like molecules" and associated receptors and metabolic machinery - collectively called the endocannabinoid system - enabled investigations into the physiological rel...
Article
The endocannabinoids are lipid-derived signaling molecules that control feeding and energy balance by activating CB1-type cannabinoid receptors in brain and peripheral tissues. Previous studies have shown that oral exposure to dietary fat stimulates endocannabinoid signaling in the rat small intestine, which provides positive feedback that drives f...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in lipid metabolism have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerides in lipoproteins and regulates lipid metabolism in multiple organs and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). Though many brain regions express LPL, the functions o...
Article
The gastrointestinal tract plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by initiating neural and hormonal responses to the ingestion of nutrients. In addition to peptide hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CKK) and peptide YY (PYY), the lipid-derived mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been implicated in the control of satiety. Pr...
Article
Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor, Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioral, taste nerve and...
Article
Fat is a vital macronutrient, and its intake is closely monitored by an array of molecular sensors distributed throughout the alimentary canal. In the mouth, dietary fat constituents such as mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids give rise to taste signals that stimulate food intake, in part by enhancing the production of lipid-derived endocannabinoid...
Article
Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, ho...
Article
Dietary fat exerts a potent stimulatory effect on feeding. This effect is mediated, at least in part, by a cephalic mechanism that involves recruitment of the vagus nerve and subsequent activation of endocannabinoid signaling in the gut. Here, we used a sham-feeding protocol in rats to identify fatty-acid constituents of dietary fat that might be r...
Article
Full-text available
Fragile X syndrome, the most commonly known genetic cause of autism, is due to loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which regulates signal transduction at metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 in the brain. Fragile X mental retardation protein deletion in mice enhances metabotropic glutamate receptor-5-dependent long-term depression in the...
Data
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Supplementary Figures S1-S9 and Supplementary Methods
Article
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The goal of this study was to determine whether administration of the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant would alter fatty acid flux in nonhuman primates. Five adult baboons (Papio Sp) aged 12.1 ± 4.7 yr (body weight: 31.9 ± 2.1 kg) underwent repeated metabolic tests to determine fatty acid and TG flux before and after 7 wk of treatme...
Article
The 'thrifty gene hypothesis' posits that evolution preferentially selects physiological mechanisms that optimize energy storage to increase survival under alternating conditions of abundance and scarcity of food. Recent experiments suggest that endocannabinoids - a class of lipid-derived mediators that activate cannabinoid receptors in many cells...
Article
The endocannabinoid system plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis, but the identity and localization of the endocannabinoid signal involved remain unknown. In the present study, we developed transgenic mice that overexpress in forebrain neurons the presynaptic hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), which deactivates the endoc...
Article
Full-text available
The molecular bases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear. We used a lipidomic approach to identify lipid abnormalities in the brains of subjects with AD (N = 37) compared to age-matched controls (N = 17). The analyses revealed statistically detectable elevations in levels of non-esterified monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and mead acid (20...
Article
Full-text available
Oral sensory signals drive dietary fat intake, but the neural mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. The endocannabinoid system has gained recent attention for its central and peripheral roles in regulating food intake, energy balance, and reward. Here, we used a sham-feeding paradigm, which isolates orosensory from postingestive i...
Article
Full-text available
Ingestion of dietary fat stimulates production of the small-intestinal satiety factors oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NPPE), which reduce food intake through a combination of local (OEA) and systemic (NPPE) actions. Previous studies have shown that sympathetic innervation of the gut is necessary for duodenal infu...
Article
Free fatty acids (FFAs) suppress appetite when injected into the hypothalamus. To examine whether lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a serine hydrolase that releases FFAs from circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins, might contribute to FFA-mediated signaling in the brain, we created neuron-specific LPL-deficient mice. Homozygous mutant (NEXLPL-/-)...
Article
These studies investigated feeding responses to indirect activation of parabrachial cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Arachidonoyl serotonin (AA5HT), an inhibitor of the endocannabinoid degradative enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), was infused into the parabrachial nucleus of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and intakes of high-fat/sucrose pellets and s...
Article
The endocannabinoid system is emerging as an integral component in central and peripheral regulation of feeding and energy balance. Our investigation analyzed behavioral roles for cannabinoid mechanisms of the pontine parabrachial nucleus (PBN) in modulating intake of presumably palatable foods containing fat and/or sugar. The PBN serves to gate ne...
Article
AM1346 is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) anandamide analog [alkoxyacid amide of N-eicosa-(5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-tetraenylamine] with high affinity and selectivity for the CB1 vs. CB2 receptor [Ki (CB1)=1.5 nmol/l; Ki (CB2)=152 nmol/l]. The present study characterized the effects of AM1346 (5.6-18 mg/kg) and its interaction with the CB1R antagonis...
Article
This study examined the open-field (O-F) effects in rats of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) agonist WIN-55,212-2 (WIN; 1 to 5.6 mg/kg) and its interaction with the CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist SR-141716 (1 to 5.6 mg/kg). Additionally, separate studies examined the O-F effects of SR-141716 (1 to 10 mg/kg) and a newly synthesized CB1R selective...
Article
This study examined effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR-141716 and the CB1 receptor agonist delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) on feeding behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were housed individually with free access to regular pelletized laboratory chow [after a 2 weeks handling phase, animals had access to regula...
Article
(-)-Adamantyl-Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol (AM-411) is a 'classical' tricyclic cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist in which the C-3 alkyl side-chain has been replaced with an adamantyl group. The compound is cannabinoid CB1 receptor subtype selective (CB1 Ki=6.86 nmol/l, CB2 Ki=52.0 nmol/l). We examined the effects of AM-411 alone and in combination wi...
Article
This study examined the effects of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist (R)-methanandamide and the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR-141716 on open-field behaviors in rats. Animals were examined after administration of (R)-methanandamide (dose range 10 to 30 mg/kg) plus vehicle, and the two drugs in combination; the dose range of SR-141716 was 0.3 to...
Article
This study examined the effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and the CB1 antagonist SR-141716 on open-field behaviors in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were examined after administration of Delta(9)-THC alone (dose range: 0.3-5.6 mg/kg), SR-141716 alone (dose range: 1-5.6 mg/kg) and the two drugs in combination; injections wer...

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