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Nicholas Czaplewski

Nicholas Czaplewski
University of Oklahoma

PhD

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96
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Publications

Publications (96)
Article
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We report three new taxa of bats from the late early Eocene to earliest middle Eocene (Bridgerian biochrons Br1b–Br2; ca. 50–48 Ma) Elderberry Canyon Quarry, Sheep Pass Formation, in the Egan Mountain Range of eastern Nevada, USA. Volactrix simmonsae gen. et sp. nov., represented by two dentaries, is tentatively referred to the family ?Onychonycter...
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We surveyed molar surface morphology of bats of 281 extant and extinct species in 5 archaic and 19 extant families using scanning microscopy. We note the occurrence of structural features on talonid crests, the cristid obliqua, postcris�tid, and entocristid, and their absence in upper molars, even of the same species having them on lowers. We term...
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The Optima Local Fauna represents an important glimpse into the ecological transition between savannah and grassland during the late Miocene (Hemphillian) of what is now the southcentral Great Plains of North America. Though dominated by horses, herbivores from the Optima are morphologically diverse, bearing adaptations for both browsing and graz...
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A middle Miocene, early Barstovian land mammal age vertebrate assemblage, the Eastgate local fauna (LF), is known in the basal-most part of the Monarch Mill Formation. This rich assemblage of fossil vertebrates occurs within the Middlegate Basin in Churchill County, Nevada, USA. The Eastgate LF includes the fossil remains of fish, amphibians, re...
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With 14 species recorded, the Miocene La Venta bat fauna is the most diverse bat paleocommunity in South America. It includes the oldest plant-visiting bat in the New World and some of the earliest representatives of the extant families Phyllostomidae, Thyropteridae, and Noctilionidae. La Venta's Notonycteris magdalenensis is an extinct member of t...
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Paleontological occurrences of helodermatid lizards (Helodermatidae) are relatively uncommon and scattered in the North American fossil record. A recently discovered concentration of vertebrate fossils was exposed in a karstic fissure filling in an active rock quarry in southwestern Oklahoma. Underwater screening of the ancient cave fill yielded nu...
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A well-preserved left lower jaw of Lontra canadensis found in sands of the Canadian River in east-central Oklahoma provides the first fossil record of the species in Oklahoma. When subjected to pretreatment in advance of radiometric dating, the canine root extracted from the jaw did not preserve enough collagen to be datable. However, its preservat...
Preprint
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The middle Miocene La Venta bat fauna is the most diverse bat palaeocommunity in South America, with at least 14 species recorded. They include the oldest plant-visiting bat in the New World, and some of the earliest representatives of the extant families Phyllostomidae, Thyropteridae and Noctilionidae. La Venta’s Notonycteris magdalenensis is an e...
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Numerous molecular phylogenetic analyses support the Desmodontinae (vampire bats) as one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Phyllostomidae (western hemisphere leaf-nosed bats). Yet the fossil record that could support and help calibrate this hypothesised divergence is weak; the oldest-known fossils of vampire bats are relatively young and poorly...
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A new genus of cricetid rodent previously allocated to Copemys mariae Korth and Baskin is diagnosed from late Miocene deposits in Oklahoma and Nebraska. Honeymys, new genus, is characterized by a first lower molar (m1) with two conulids and first upper molar (M1) with two conules. Cusps on upper molars are less alternate than in Copemys and extant...
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A new genus and species of fossil bat, Koopmanycteris palaeomormoops, representing an ancient member of the endemic Neotropical family Mormoopidae, is described from the Oligocene of Florida. This new species is known from two paleokarst deposits in northern peninsular Florida, the early Oligocene (Whitneyan, 30–32 Ma) I-75 Local Fauna in Alachua C...
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The pallid bat ( Antrozous pallidus ) is a species of western North America, inhabiting ecoregions ranging from desert to oak and pine forest. They are primarily insectivorous predators on large arthropods that occasionally take small vertebrate prey, and are at least seasonally omnivorous in certain parts of their geographic range where they take...
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We report on an assemblage of vertebrate fossils from a limestone cave in the southwestern portion of the Ozark Highland. The fauna includes several extinct large-bodied mammalian taxa including Megalonyx jeffersonii (Jefferson’s ground sloth), Canis dirus (dire wolf), Arctodus simus (short-faced bear; two individuals), and Equidae (extinct horses)...
Preprint
Full-text available
The pallid bat ( Antrozous pallidus ) is a species of arid and semiarid western North America, inhabiting ecoregions ranging from desert to oak and pine forest. Considered primarily insectivorous predators on large arthropods but taking occasional small vertebrate prey, pallid bats were recently shown to be at least seasonally omnivorous; they demo...
Preprint
The pallid bat ( Antrozous pallidus ) is a species of arid and semiarid western North America, inhabiting ecoregions ranging from desert to oak and pine forest. Considered primarily insectivorous predators on large arthropods but taking occasional small vertebrate prey, pallid bats were recently shown to be at least seasonally omnivorous; they demo...
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New Pliocene bat records from the Meade Basin of southwestern Kansas increase our knowledge of chiropterans from the late Neogene of the central Great Plains. Examination of previously collected, unstudied material and new specimens recovered over the past 20 years resulted in 23 fossils of Pliocene bats from nine localities that add to the two Pli...
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Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens...
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We describe a new species of cricetid rodent based on isolated molars recovered from the early Pliocene (early Blancan) Chapala Formation, Jalisco, Mexico. Compared with other named species of the genus, the new species is characterized by its large size, M1 with the median mure connected to the protocone; m1 with (1) a wide and strongly bilobed pr...
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The lowest part of the Monarch Mill Formation in the Middlegate basin, west-central Nevada, has yielded a middle Miocene (Barstovian Land Mammal Age) vertebrate assemblage, the Eastgate local fauna. Paleobotanical evidence from nearby, nearly contemporaneous fossil leaf assemblages indicates that the Middle Miocene vegetation in the area was mixed...
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A new species of Apatemyidae, Sinclairella simplicidens , is based on four isolated teeth that were screenwashed from fissure fillings at the late Oligocene Buda locality, Alachua County, Florida. Compared to its only congener Sinclairella dakotensis , the new species is characterized by upper molars with more simplified crowns, with the near absen...
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Two species of shrews and four species of bats are described for Late Pleistocene fossils from Térapa, Sonora, Mexico. Shrews include Notiosorex and an indeterminate genus and species of Soricidae. Bats include several vespertilionids (Lasiurus, Antrozous pallidus, and Myotis) and a molossid (Tadarida brasiliensis). Previous interpretations based o...
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Phenacomys ungava Merriam, 1889, is an arvicoline rodent commonly known as the eastern heather vole. A small vole with a short tail and reddish to yellowish nose and eye rings, it is 1 of 2 currently recognized species in the genus Phenacomys. The species occurs in diverse habitats of the boreal forest ecosystem of Canada from Labrador to southern...
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We studied fossils of late Pleistocene vertebrates that were excavated in 1940 from a small rockshelter in Cimarron County, Oklahoma. The assemblage consists of a Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and 14 mammals. Most of the mammals are large or medium-sized indicating a bias in the method of collecting. The assemblage includes Branta canadensis, Ma...
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We report details of a serendipitous encounter in July 2010 with a gopher snake (Pituaphis catenifer) hunting in the mud nests of Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). The swallow nests occurred beneath a deeply overhung sandstone cliff ledge in a box canyon of Ferron Creek in the shale deserts near Ferron, Emery County, Utah. The inaccessibil...
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Three new records of late Pleistocene fossil peccaries come from localities in western Oklahoma and improve on the only previous record from the state. Isolated occurrences of partial jaws at Rush Creek, Grady County, and south of Yukon, Canadian County, represent the flat-headed peccary, Platygonus compressus.An assemblage with three taxa of mamma...
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A partial skeleton of an adult mylagaulid rodent was collected in 1959 near Durham, Roger Mills County, Oklahoma, but the specimen was not prepared until 2010–2011. The specimen is a part of the Durham local fauna, of late Clarendonian (late Miocene) age. Several other isolated premolars previously published from the same locality give some indicat...
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A near complete shell from the Hemphillian 4 (Miocene/Pliocene boundary) Buis Ranch local fauna of Beaver County, Oklahoma, represents a fossil box turtle. An anterior contact of neural III and neural V with costal III and costal V only, respectively, presence of a small contact between the suprapygal and eleventh peripherals, development of a thin...
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Recent improvements in the fossil record of bats in the Americas provide new raw material to bolster interpretations of bat evolution and paleobiogeography. Herein we review the fossil record of bats from North America and South America and provide a narrative explanation of the historical development of the Neotropical bat fauna from a paleontolog...
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Bats (Chiroptera) are generally considered to be monophyletic based on morphological and molecular data (Simmons, 1998; Gunnell and Simmons, 2005; Teeling et al., 2005), but the relationships among the families, especially extinct families, are not well resolved (Simmons and Geisler, 1998; Gunnell and Simmons, 2005). Recent molecular phylogenetic w...
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The cricetid rodent Postcopemys repenningi, new genus and new species, is described from the Verde fauna in Arizona and the Maxum fauna in California. Two other rodents, Postcopemys maxumensis, new species, and Jacobsomys dailyi are reported herein from the Maxum fauna. Jacobsomys dailyi is described and Postcopemys valensis is reported (May et al....
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A small quarry in Pliocene lacu strine deposits at House Mountain in the Verde Formation of central Arizona produced a high concentration of micro vertebrate fossils of early Blancan (early Pliocene) age. Within a single bedding plane on excavated blocks, a miniature (0.25 m2) bone bed was exposed piecemeal under a microscope and mapped. The deposi...
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Two new fossil mammal localities from the Paleogene of central-western Patagonia are preliminarily described as the basis for a new possible biochronological unit for the early Eocene of Patagonia, correlated as being between two conventional SALMAs, the Riochican (older) and the Vacan subage of the Casamayoran SALMA. The mammal-bearing strata belo...
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A new Paleogene mammal fauna was recently recovered in northwestern Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The mammal-bearing strata belong to the Middle Chubut River volcanic pyroclastic complex, of Paleocene-Eocene age. The site, named Laguna Fría, is about 50 km west of the town of Paso del Sapo, on the property of Estancia San Ramón, and has pr...
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Recobramos fósiles Pleistocenos de un depósito de un río represado por lava a lo largo del Río de Moctezuma en el noreste de Sonora, a 29°41′N, 109°39′W, y a 605 m de altura. Hoy la región es semiárida con matorral desértica. El encierro que produjo la represa de lava resultó en un área pantanosa de poca duración con una sabana adyacente. La fauna...
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A new bat, Karstala silva, gen. et sp. nov., is described from the early Miocene (early Hemingfordian) Thomas Farm local fauna, Gilchrist County, Florida. The new taxon is represented by an upper canine, posterior part of the dentary, isolated upper and lower molars, much of the humerus, and part of the radius. The myotodont configuration and steep...
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Miles de huesos de murciélagos fueron recuperados de un depósito pequeño de guano degradado de murciélago del Cuaternario tardío, en la Cueva Arkenstone, Colossal Cave Mountain Park, condado de Pima, Arizona. La mayoría de los huesos representan una acumulación de murciélagos muertos debajo de una colonia maternal de Myotis thysanodes, especie que...
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INTRODUCTION With the exception of rodents, bats are the most diverse extant mammalian order. The fossil record of bats is notoriously poor, however. There are several good reasons for the impoverished fossil record of chiropterans. Bats are generally quite small mammals with very light and delicate bones. They are volant (the only mammals to achie...
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2006. A new genus of eomyid rodent from the Miocene of Nevada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51 (2): 385–392. The description of a new genus (Apeomyoides) of eomyid rodent from the Miocene of Nevada increases the diversity of known taxa, enhances the geographic range, and extends the biochronology for the Apeomyinae (Eomyidae). Three groups of Eomy...
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We report Pleistocene bat fossils from the Inciarte asphalt seeps in northwestern Venezuela. Extinct species of mammals other than bats in the fauna indicate that the tar seeps were accumulating the remains of organisms during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, and preliminary radiocarbon dates reported elsewhere for this site indicate an age...
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The fossil history of molossids in the North American Tertiary is among the poorest for any family of bats. The oldest definite record is of Wallia scalopidens of middle Eocene (Uintan) age from Saskatchewan, Canada. One of the youngest records is of Eumops cf. E. perotis from the late Pliocene (late early Blancan) of Arizona, USA. New occurrences...
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We describe a new extinct genus and species of bat belonging to the endemic Neotropical family Natalidae (Chiroptera) from the Thomas Farm Local Fauna in northern peninsular Florida of early Miocene age (18–19 million years old). The natalid sample from Thomas Farm consists of 32 fossils, including a maxillary fragment, periotics, partial dentaries...
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The second occurrence of fossil bats for Central America is reported from Belize. A cranium and articulated atlas of the extinct vampire bat Desmodus draculae (Phyllostomidae) were recovered from a corridor of Cebada Cave, a segment of the Chiquibul Cave System. Unlike other bat skeletons found in the cave, the vampire specimen was covered with a t...
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Czaplewski N.J., Masanaru T., T. M. Naeher., N. Shigehara, and T. Setoguchi: Additional bats from the middle Miocene La Venta fauna of Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 27 (103): 263-282, 2003. ISSN 0370-3908. By screenwashing sedimentary rocks from three localities in the middle Miocene Villavieja Formation, Río Magdalena valley, Huila Departmen...
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A mud deposit in Sassafras Cave near Stilwell, Oklahoma, produced a small assemblage of fossil vertebrates including an unidentified salamander and the mammals Myotis sp., Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus subflavus, Tamias striatus, Peromyscus sp., Reithrodontomys sp., Microtus sp., and Tapirus veroensis. The fossiliferous mud deposit is a s...
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A new bat, Karstala silva, gen. et sp. nov., is described from the early Miocene (early Hemingfordian) Thomas Farm local fauna, Gilchrist County, Florida. The new taxon is represented by an upper canine, posterior part of the dentary, isolated upper and lower molars, much of the humerus, and part of the radius. The myotodont configuration and steep...
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Scarce remains of bats are reported from five localities in northern Nebraska in which other kinds of vertebrates are much more common. ?Oligomyotis or ?Myotis, possibly of an undescribed species, is represented by fragments of jaws and humeri from an early Arikareean (late Oligocene) locality in Dawes County. Several toothless jaw fragments from t...
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A mandible with M(1)-M(3) and associated right and left humeri from a late Quaternary deposit near Palpa in southwestern Peru are identified as remains of the rare bat Amorphochilus schnablii (Chiroptera: Furipteridae), the first fossil record of this species. The combination of characters observed in these fossils can be found only in Amorphochilu...
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Twenty-seven taxa of bats from late Pleistocene fossils originated from five caves in Bahia, Brazil. Ln one cave, humeri of Mormoops megalophylla were dated radiometrically to 20,060 +/- 290 years ago. In another cave, a cranium of Desmodus rotundus was found adhering to the underside of a coprolite of a sloth (Nothrotherium) that had a radiometric...