Nicholas Crofts

Nicholas Crofts
Texas Tech University | TTU · Museum

PhD

About

26
Publications
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184
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Introduction
I studied Philosophy and History of Art in Canterbury UK and I hold a PhD in Cultural informatics from Geneva university. I spent several years working as head of documentation for Geneva's Musée d'art et d'histoire and, until recently, for the Olympic foundation for culture and heritage in Lausanne. I am a member of the ICOM Executive Board, adjunct professor at Museum of Texas Tech University and a consultant in cultural informatics.

Publications

Publications (26)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Publishing information about their collections is one of the Museum's key responsibilities, an essential aspect of the institutional mission enshrined in the ICOM code of ethics: "Museums have a particular responsibility for making collections and all relevant information available as freely as possible, having regard to restraints arising for reas...
Conference Paper
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First published in 1995, the International Guidelines for Museum Object Information: The CIDOC Information Categories (also known more simply as The CIDOC Guidelines), has become a standard reference document used by institutions around the world. A Japanese translation was published in 2003, followed by French, Portuguese and Spanish. The Guidelin...
Conference Paper
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Documentation technology is in constant evolution: new technologies emerge, and new applications are found for existing technologies. Some developments prove to have long-term value while others quickly fall out of favour. Originally initiated by UNESCO, the survey of documentation technology is an ongoing initiative whose aim is to identify emerge...
Conference Paper
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Today, documenting what we know has become a relatively straightforward task. Our information systems allow us to record a wealth of information about our collections, the actors, places and events that relate to them. What we don't yet know is also easy to deal with-when we know nothing at all, there is nothing to record. However, cultural heritag...
Conference Paper
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The Olympic museum recently reopened its doors to the public following a radical two-year overhaul. The building has been renovated and the museum’s exhibition spaces have been completely redesigned, using the latest multimedia technology, to meet the expectations of today’s museum visitors. To maximize the long-term benefits of this massive invest...
Article
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The document and professions associated with works of art This second section addresses the issue of how documentation is used within a museum but also how knowledge is shared via networks. More broadly, we analyse how documentation transmits, assists and guides professionals who are closely or remotely in contact with a work of art. Cross-metier i...
Conference Paper
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Museums in many countries are required to provide information in several languages, and all museums, big or small, try to reach out to international audiences. Ideally, we would like to communicate with all people in their own language, adapting our content as needed, on the web and in printed publications. Unfortunately, this goal can seem hopeles...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few years, the ICOM/CIDOC document standards group has been developing an object oriented Conceptual Reference Model. The model represents an 'ontology' for cultural heritage information, i.e., it describes in a formal language the explicit and implicit concepts relations relevant to the documentation of cultural heritage. The primary...
Conference Paper
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Museums are being promoted by ICOM as guardians of intangible heritage. What sense does this make, if any, and what is the impact on documentation practice? In recent years ICOM has been encouraging moves to broaden the notion of cultural heritage to include intangible as well and tangible heritage. The theme of the ICOM General Conference in 2004...
Conference Paper
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Crofts Inventaire et documentation scientifique Musées d'art et d'histoire 2, rue Charles Galland 1211 Genève 3 Suisse Over recent years, a number of high-profile projects have promoted the dream of universal access to cultural heritage through the integration and dissemination of the digital assets held by 'memory institutions': museums, libraries...
Conference Paper
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Développé par ICOM/CIDOC (Comité international pour la documentation des musées de l’ICOM) et publié en 2006 en tant que ISO 21127, le CIDOC Conceptual reference model (CRM) est une norme qui s’applique au domaine culturel dans un sens large. Elle se présente sous forme d’un schéma «orienté-objet» constitué de 80 classes, telles que «Personne», «Li...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a practical application of the CIDOC CRM in integrating a large and divers set of data sources used by the Direction du Patrimoine et des Sites in Geneva. These data sources, accumulated over a number of years, all contain information relating to Geneva's architectural and cultural heritage: the inventory of archaeological and...
Article
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CIDOC, the Comité International pour la Documentation is one of more than twenty committees that form part of ICOM - the International Council for Museums. CIDOC's members are primarily museum professionals working in the field of cultural heritage information and technology. It organises an annual conference and encompasses a number of working gro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past few years, the ICOM/CIDOC document standards group has been develop- ing an object oriented Conceptual Reference Model. The model represents an 'ontology' for cultural heritage information, i.e. it describes in a formal language the explicit and implicit concepts and relations relevant to the documentation of cultural heritage. The pr...
Article
Full-text available
The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) is an object oriented semantic reference model for cultural heritage information. Developed by the CIDOC Documentation Standards Group, it was launched at the CIDOC Melbourne conference in 1998. The CRM it is intended primarily for use in the development of mediation systems and other forms of data exchang...
Article
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The oo CIDOC Reference Model represents an ontology; i.e. it describes in a formal language the overt and implicit concepts and relations relevant to cultural heritage information. The authors argue that the semantic and structural incompatibility of existing information systems constitutes a major barrier to integration. An ontology such as the CI...
Article
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L’utilisation des technologies de l’information a ouvert tout un éventail de possibilités passionnantes pour la documentation muséale, inimaginable autrefois. Pourtant, en dépit de tous ses avantages, l’informatisation de la documentation présente également des inconvénients. Le présent article a pour objectif d’identifier certains des risques inhé...
Article
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Introduction The use of information technology, IT, for museum documentation has opened up a whole range of exciting possibilities that would have been unthinkable in the past : today we routinely do systematic searches on millions of records in seconds, we handle gigabytes of data with ease, we can communicate with the whole planet, integrate grap...
Article
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At the ICOM meeting in Stavanger, Norway, the Model Working Group and the Data Terminology Working Group merged and became the Data Standards Working Group. Each of the former groups presented a product: the CIDOC Relational Data Model of the Data Model Working Group and the Information Categories Guidelines of the Data Terminology Working Group. P...
Conference Paper
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L'informatisation de la documentation dans les musées s'est développée très rapidement au cours des dernières années. Selon les données du CIDOC, il y a actuellement 500 musées informatisés en Grande Bretagne, 100 en France et 200 en Suisse. Ce dernier chiffre représente environ le quart des musées hélvétiques. L'informatisation peut avoir un effet...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La base SIGMA (Système d’Inventaire et de Gestion Muséographique et Archéologique) est consacrée au traitement des collections conservées au Musée cantonal d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Lausanne (Vaud, Suisse), ainsi que dans les musées qui lui sont liés. Les principes documentaires développés ne sont pas liés à un type de machine ou à un logiciel...
Article
Full-text available
Concerne notamment le projet Musinfo des musées de la Ville de Genève. L'apparition d'Internet et "la nouvelle muséologie" - une réévaluation du but et de la fonction des musées - ont stimulé la demande pour des informations concernant le patrimoine culturel (IPC). Les musées ont été relativement rapides à profiter des nouvelles technologies de l'i...

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