Nicholas John Conard

Nicholas John Conard
University of Tuebingen | EKU Tübingen · Institute for Prehistory and Early History and Medieval Archaeology

PhD

About

632
Publications
208,365
Reads
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14,487
Citations
Citations since 2016
265 Research Items
8983 Citations
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
Additional affiliations
April 1995 - present
University of Tuebingen
Position
  • Department Chair

Publications

Publications (632)
Article
Full-text available
South Africa is arguably one of the most studied regions in Stone Age research. There are, however, considerable differences in research intensity with respect to different regions and time periods. While KwaZulu-Natal is an epicenter for Middle Stone Age (MSA) research, the Late Pleistocene LSA record is largely understudied in this region. Here w...
Article
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Paleolithic archaeologists often rely on cave and rockshelter sites with rich occupation levels to explore hominin behavior and settlement patterns. However, a closer look into regional occupation data may reveal an uneven distribution of sites and the presence of occupational hiatuses or low-density occupation horizons that often remain understudi...
Poster
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Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were an important aspect of Magdalenian subsistence in Western and Central Europe – a characteristic already established by 1861 with Lartet’s coining of the phrase “l’Âge du Renne” to describe early Magdalenian findings from France. The faunal material from Petersfels, located in the Hegau Jura of southwestern Germany,...
Poster
Full-text available
Supplementary information to the Poster "Foxes as proxy for human activities in the past: Isotopic evidence from Southwest Germany"
Poster
Vogelherd Cave is located in the Lone Valley near the town of Niederstotzingen (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). The site was excavated by Gustav Riek from the University of Tübingen in 1931. In just three months Riek and four workers excavated the entire cave. Riek’s team dumped the backdirt from the excavation directly in front of the southwestern an...
Article
Full-text available
Dumped deposits are a valuable source of information for inferring past behaviour. They provide insights into site maintenance, social organization and settlement dynamics. Hohle Fels Cave in SW Germany offers a unique opportunity to investigate the importance of dumping and site maintenance during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic of the Swabian J...
Article
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The analyses of raw material provenance offers the possibility of tracing short and long-distance raw material transport. So far, most studies of raw material of flint and chert in Europe have been based on macroscopic analyses. We apply infrared spectroscopy to Aurignacian assemblages from Vogelherd cave and to the Magdalenian site Randecker Maar...
Article
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For the last 10 years, we have been carefully excavating rich, well-stratified Middle Stone Age (MSA) horizons from Sibhudu in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This work has provided a great abundance of numerous classes of cultural material from well-controlled contexts dating to between > 90 and 36 ka that is relevant for documenting the Late Pleisto...
Article
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The Zagros Mountains represent a strategic geographic region near the junction of Africa, Europe, and Asia, and valleys within the mountain range likely correspond to migration corridors used by archaic and modern humans. Ghar-e Boof, a key archeological site in the southern Zagros, is located at an altitude of 905 m.a.s.l. in the Dasht-e Rostam...
Article
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The grey wolf (Canis lupus) was the first species to give rise to a domestic population, and they remained widespread throughout the last Ice Age when many other large mammal species went extinct. Little is known, however, about the history and possible extinction of past wolf populations or when and where the wolf progenitors of the present-day do...
Technical Report
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In this 20th newsletter, ROCEEH takes you on a little trip around the world. We tell the story of stone technologies in southern Italy at the transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic, the paleoenvironment of Homo erectus in Indonesia, and a unique eyed needle from the Armenian Highlands. We hope you enjoy!
Book
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The discovery of the remains of European sabre-toothed cats (Homotherium latidens), also colloquially known as sabre-toothed tigers, during excavations in the Schöningen open-cast mine from 2012 to 2014, was generally viewed as a sensation. Additional important finds from a place where many important discoveries have already been made. ... Due to...
Article
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In this paper, we analyse the fsh and small mammal assemblages from the Middle Paleolithic horizons of Hohle Fels Cave to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions faced by the Neanderthal groups who occupied the site. The fsh assemblage indicates that the freshwater ecosystem around this site was characterized by a pre-mounta...
Article
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Here we present the results of a microcontextual analysis of purported combustion features recovered from Middle and Upper Paleolithic occupations at the cave site of Fumane, Italy. Our analyses, which integrate micromorphology with organic petrology, show that only a few of the features represent primary, intact hearths; some of them show evidence...
Article
The end of the Middle Stone Age in southern Africa, often called the final MSA (∼40–28 ka), represents one of the most understudied technocomplexes in this part of the world. Researchers have often focused on earlier time periods associated with Marine Isotope Stage 4 or have emphasised the transition between the Middle and the Later Stone Age. Thu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The onset of the Upper Paleolithic (UP) in the Zagros Mountains, recently dated between ca. 45-40 ka cal. BP., has been traditionally associated with the arrival of anatomically modern humans and the emergence of new techno-cultural traditions (Baradostian and Rostamian). Along with stone tools, the study of faunal remains is also vital to reconstr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prior zooarchaeological research at the Magdalenian site of Petersfels (SW Germany) has provided excellent responses to the question: What were people eating? Namely, reindeer. However, research questions that go “beyond” diet and subsistence are far from exhausted. Unstudied faunal remains from excavations in the 1980s provide a new opportunity to...
Article
Ghar-e Boof is a Paleolithic cave site in Iran, known for being the type locality for the early Upper Paleolithic (UP) Rostamian lithic industries. Defining the Rostamian cultural group has significant archaeological implications for the Zagros Mountains. First, it highlights the cultural diversity of the UP in the Zagros. Second, it evinces a more...
Article
Coastal adaptations have been considered to play an important role in the bio-cultural evolution of early Homo sapiens and their dispersal out of Africa. In line with this assessment, recent years have seen increasing evidence for the exploitation of seafood from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of northern and southern Africa. Yet, chronological control...
Article
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Significance DNA preserved in sediments has emerged as an important source of information about past ecosystems, independent of the discovery of skeletal remains. However, little is known about the sources of sediment DNA, the factors affecting its long-term preservation, and the extent to which it may be translocated after deposition. Here, we sho...
Article
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This article describes the most important findings from the 2020 excavation campaign of the Schöningen excavation.
Technical Report
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In the 19th ROCEEH newsletter, we look at geographic methods for the study of habitat change, the analysis of stone artifacts from the Upper Paleolithic in Armenia, the research history of one of the most important Paleolithic sites in Germany (the UNESCO World Heritage site Geißenklösterle in the Swabian Jura), and the cognitive abilities of o...
Article
During the 2020 season at Hohle Fels Cave in the Ach Valley of southwestern Germany the excavation team from the University of Tübingen recovered a bifacial leaf point in archaeological horizon (AH) X. This horizon is the fifth deepest of the Middle Paleolithic horizons at the site and is located roughly 120 cm beneath the base of the rich Aurignac...
Article
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Ensuring comparability between results is a key goal of all paleoecological reconstructions. Quantitative estimates of meteorological variables, as opposed to relative qualitative descriptions, provide the opportunity to compare local paleoenvironmental records against global estimates and incrementally build regional paleoclimatic records. The Bio...
Article
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The so-called Triticoid-type grains are known from several prehistoric sites in southwest Asia and their identification has long been unclear. They resemble the grains of wheats and researchers suggested they may represent an extinct Triticeae species, possibly closely related to wild crop progenitors. In this study we identify the Triticoid-type g...
Poster
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Fox remains are known from almost every European Late Pleistocene site (about 100 to 13,000 years ago). Of particular interest in archaeological studies are the perforated fox canines, found in the Swabian Jura sites (SW-Germany), originating from about 42 to 30,000 years ago. Cut marks on fox bones show that fur and meat were important as well....
Poster
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The question, whether a dog is a dog or rather a wolf, is highly debated in the field of zooarchaeology, paleogenetic, and stable isotopes. Recent evidence points towards an onset of wolf domestication in south-western Germany and northern Switzerland at around 16 to 15,000 years ago. Regarding diet of wolves and potential dogs, both groups fed on...
Article
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The Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany contains some of the oldest and richest Aurignacian assemblages in Europe and has been intensively studied for over 160 years. Sirgenstein, excavated in 1906, is one of the iconic caves in the region that in 2017 were awarded the UNESCO World Heritage status and preserves a sequence that spans the Middle and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ghar-e Boof, a cave site located in the Dasht-e Rostam region (Fars Province, Iran), represents a key locality for understanding human behavior and cultural diversity in the Zagros Mountains during the Early Upper Paleolithic (UP)-Rostamian (42-35 ka cal. BP). Recent excavations carried out by the Tübingen-Iranian Stone Age Research Project (TISARP...
Poster
Full-text available
The question, whether a dog is a dog or rather a wolf, became recently highly debated. Recent evidence points towards an onset of domestication at around 16 to 15,000 years ago including an intriguing example of the Kesslerloch cave (CH), where beside wolf remains, one large canid has been morphologically and genetically confirmed as dog. Regarding...
Article
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Since more than 80 years, the University of Tübingen hosts the archaeological collections excavated by Margit and Ludwig Kohl-Larsen between 1934 and 1939 in modern-day Tanzania. Despite the great scientific relevance of these collections, most of them were never published on an international scale and were thus unavailable for the broader Africani...
Article
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The site of Vogelherd in the Lone Valley of southwestern Germany has become world famous for its many unique artworks made from mammoth ivory, personal ornaments, flute fragments, lithic artifacts, and antler and bone artifacts. In the study below, the molluscs from Vogelherd are presented, offering us new insights on the mobility and social behavi...
Technical Report
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The 18th newsletter focuses on the diet of Paranthropus boisei and how environmental conditions and technical capabilities affected it. We report on ROCEEH‘s collaboration with ARIADNEplus, a large-scale European project on the scientific infrastructure of archaeological data. We also announce the opening of the exhibition “Being Human // The Origi...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs are known to be the oldest animals domesticated by humans. Although many studies have examined wolf domestication, the geographic and temporal origin of this process is still being debated. To address this issue, our study sheds new light on the early stages of wolf domestication during the Magdalenian period (16–14 ka cal BP) in the Hegau Jur...
Article
Full-text available
Unlike other Upper Paleolithic industries, Gravettian assemblages from the Swabian Jura are documented solely in the Ach Valley (35-30 Kcal BP). On the other hand, traces of contemporaneous occupations in the nearby Lone Valley are sparse. It is debated whether this gap is due to a phase of human depopulation, or taphonomic issues related with land...
Article
Despite advances in our understanding of the geographic and temporal scope of the Paleolithic record, we know remarkably little about the evolutionary and ecological consequences of changes in human behavior. Recent inquiries suggest that human evolution reflects a long history of interconnections between the behavior of humans and their surroundin...
Article
Ghār-e Boof is a Paleolithic cave site in Iran well known for its rich early Upper Paleolithic Rostamian assemblages. The site is located on the edge of the Dasht-e Rostam plain in the southern Zagros. Recent excavations by the members of the Tübingen-Iranian Stone Age Research Project at Ghār-e Boof also recovered well-stratified Middle Paleolithi...
Data
The cultural dynamics that led to the appearance of the Aurignacian have intrigued archaeologists since the start of Paleolithic research. However, cultural reconstructions have often focused on a restricted region of Europe, namely the northern Aquitaine Basin. The Mediterranean Basin, though, is also a region worthy of consideration when testing...
Article
Full-text available
The Aurignacian (ca. 43–35 ka) of southwestern Germany is well known for yielding some of the oldest artifacts related to symbolic behaviors, including examples of figurative art, musical instruments, and personal ornaments. Another aspect of these behaviors is the presence of numerous pieces of iron oxide (ocher); however, these are comparatively...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although Vogelherd Cave in the Lone Valley of southwestern Germany is particularly well-known for its rich Upper Paleolithic assemblages and Aurignacian _gurative art, the site's four Middle Paleolithic horizons also represent important points of reference for reconstructing Neanderthal behavior in the Swabian Jura. The original excavation under Gu...
Article
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This article describes the most important findings from the 2019 excavation campaign of the Schöningen excavation.
Article
Full-text available
During the summer of 2020 the excavation team at Hohle Fels Cave in the Ach Valley of southwestern Germany recovered a leaf point (in German Blattspitze) made from gray Jurassic chert. The find is well-preserved and remarkable for a number of reasons. First this is the only leaf point recovered by a modern excavation in the Swabian Jura, and is the...
Article
Full-text available
The cultural dynamics that led to the appearance of the Aurignacian have intrigued archaeologists since the start of Paleolithic research. However, cultural reconstructions have often focused on a restricted region of Europe, namely the northern Aquitaine Basin. The Mediterranean Basin, though, is also a region worthy of consideration when testing...
Article
Full-text available
The systematic use of antlers and other osseous materials by modern humans marks a set of cultural and technological innovations in the early Upper Paleolithic, as is seen most clearly in the Aurignacian. Split-based points, which are one of the most common osseous tools, are present throughout most regions where the Aurignacian is documented. Usin...
Article
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The use of red iron‐based earth pigments, or ochre, is a key component of early symbolic behaviours for anatomically modern humans and possibly Neanderthals. We present the first ochre provenance study in Central Europe showing long‐term selection strategies by inhabitants of cave sites in south‐western Germany during the Upper Palaeolithic (43–14....
Article
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The Howiesons Poort (HP) of southern Africa plays an important role in models on the early behavioral evolution of Homo sapiens. The HP is often portrayed as a coherent MSA industry characterized by early complex material culture. Recent work has emphasized parallel technological change through time across southern Africa potentially driven by ecol...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zagros Mountains represent a strategic location near the junction of Africa, Europe and western Asia. Therefore, the river valleys that cross this huge mountain range most likely represent natural migration routes used by archaic and modern humans between Africa and/or Europe and eastern Asia. Ghar-e Boof, a key archaeological site in the southern...
Article
Full-text available
The Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany is famous for its Paleolithic sites which have been studied since the 1860s. While there is a rich tradition of research on the Magdalenian, many of the best-known sites were not excavated using modern methods, and recently, few discoveries of new sites have been made. Thus, much of the information on this p...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examine the role of foxes in Palaeolithic economies, focusing on sites of the Middle Palaeolithic, Aurignacian, Gravettian and Magdalenian of the Swabian Jura. For this purpose, we used published faunal data from 26 assemblages from the region, including new information from the Magdalenian layers of Langmahdhalde. We explore how...
Article
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Nowadays, opportunistic small predators, such as foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes lagopus), are well known to be very adaptable to human modified ecosystems. However, the timing of the start of this phenomenon in terms of human impact on ecosystems and of the implications for foxes has hardly been studied. We hypothesize that foxes can be used as an...
Technical Report
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This 17th issue of the ROCEEH newsletter focuses on early human migrations in Island Southeast Asia by examining microscopic traces of use-wear on stone artifacts. Next, we introduce the ROAD Summary Data Sheet, which provides an overview of locality data stored in the ROAD Database. Finally we discuss the latest developments in an agent-based mode...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Presentation
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Tübingen, den 19. Mai 2020 Im niedersächsischen Schöningen tummelten sich vor 300.000 Jahren Elefanten. Aus der altsteinzeitlichen Grabungsstelle wurden in den ver-gangenen Jahren Fossilien von mindestens zehn Elefanten geborgen. Nun haben Archäologen vom Senckenberg-Zentrum für menschliche Evolution und Paläoumwelt der Universität Tübingen in Koo...
Presentation
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Press Release Tübingen, den 19. Mai 2020 Elephants ranged over Schöningen in Lower Saxony 300,000 years ago. In recent years, remains of at least ten elephants have been found at the Palaeolithic sites situated on the edges of the former opencast lignite mine. Now, archaeologists from the Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironmen...
Article
Full-text available
The poor preservation of Palaeolithic sites rarely allows the recovery of wooden artefacts, which served as key tools in the arsenals of early hunters. Here, we report the discovery of a wooden throwing stick from the Middle Pleistocene open-air site of Schöningen that expands the range of Palaeolithic weaponry and establishes that late Lower Palae...