Nestor Gandelman

Nestor Gandelman
Universidad ORT Uruguay | ORT · Economics

PhD in Ecnonomics, University of Rochester

About

70
Publications
5,431
Reads
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721
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
459 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
Additional affiliations
July 2009 - present
Universidad ORT Uruguay
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Applied Research Methodology (Taller de Investigación Aplicada) -Master level
March 2001 - August 2011
Universidad ORT Uruguay
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Industrial Organization
August 2000 - present
Universidad ORT Uruguay
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Priniciples of Economics
Education
August 1996 - June 2000
University of Rochester
Field of study
  • Economics
March 1990 - September 1995

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
In this paper we provide estimates of the coefficient of relative risk aversion using information on self-reports of subjective personal well-being from the 2006 Gallup World Poll. We expand the existing literature on the use of happiness data to analyze economic issues by considering the implications of allowing for health state dependence in the...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses a labour supply model in which individuals maximize a utility function that depends on leisure time, consumption and time devoted to an activity that is termed ‘artistic’. This activity may generate income that depends nonlinearly on hours dedicated to it. The individual can also work in the labour market (an activity that doe...
Article
Full-text available
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that...
Article
We analyse the impact of longer incarceration terms in juvenile correctional facilities on short-term criminal recidivism. We exploit a legal modification in Uruguay that significantly increased the sentence length for violent crimes. We find that more time in custody, even under very harsh conditions, is associated with reductions in reoffending....
Article
Female researchers have lower probability than male researchers of being accepted into the largest national research support program in Uruguay. Age, scientific productivity, teaching activities and previous applications explains 5.2 percentage points of the 7.1 point gender acceptance probability gap. The remaining 1.9% can be attributed to gender...
Article
How the entrepreneurship rate changes with age and the business cycle has been theoretically and empirically studied. On the other hand, cohort effects have been mostly neglected in the literature. Cohort effects are intrinsic generation characteristics that follow individuals over their lifetime and the business cycles. We propose a methodology to...
Chapter
Using the Gallup World Poll for 2006, in this chapter we compute measures of inequality of income, happiness and various simulated utility levels for twenty three Latin American countries. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. We also find that for the most plausible parameters of the utility function, income in...
Article
This article examines the effect of bank credit on employment formalization in Uruguay. Using a difference-in-differences methodology the article finds that financial deepening decreases informality, especially in more financially dependent sectors. In addition, the effect is found to be greater among women and older workers. In the period under an...
Article
Using micro data from the manufacturing and service sectors in Uruguay, we analyze the relationship between firm exit and firm productivity. We find that even during profound crisis years, when the financial sector collapsed, exit of firms is associated with lower productivity. This suggests that even in the presence of severe financial friction, c...
Article
Using the Gallup World Poll, the World Values Survey and the European Social Survey we present evidence of differences in happiness by gender. Although worldwide women are happier than men, at the country level the happiness gap favors females in some cases and males in others. We decompose the happiness gap between observable characteristics and h...
Article
We estimate the relationship between parents' education and income and children's schooling in Uruguay (1982-2010), interpreting this as a measure of intergenerational social mobility. Using three methodologies we report that such mobility has decreased over time. Improvements in education in the 1980s and 1990s were unevenly distributed. Computing...
Article
In this paper we follow an income-based, time-dependence approach to measure the impact of entrepreneurship on social mobility in Uruguay. The working definition of entrepreneur is business owners with employees. Using household surveys from 1982 to 2010 we show that their income level, income volatility, and evolution over the business cycle are c...
Article
We estimate peer effects in risk attitudes in a sample of high school students. Relative risk aversion is elicited from surveys administered at school. Identification of peer effects is based on parents not being able to choose the class within the school of their choice, and on the use of instrumental variables conditional on school-grade fixed ef...
Article
We employ unconditional quantile-decomposition methods to analyze the gender wage gap (gwg) in the urban region of twelve Latin American countries. Using data from harmonized household surveys we decompose the gwg into an explained component (differences in human capital) and an unexplained component (different rates of return to human capital). We...
Article
This paper explores whether the extent of informality in a sector affects a firm's investment decision directly or indirectly through a credit availability channel. The dataset used in the estimation of the econometric models consists of an unbalanced panel of Uruguayan firms for the period 1997-2008. The results suggest that financial restrictions...
Article
In this paper we provide estimates of the coefficient of relative risk aversion for 80 countries using data on self-reports of personal well-being from the Gallup World Poll. For most countries we cannot reject the null hypothesis that the coefficient of relative risk aversion equals 1. We conclude that our result supports the use of the log utilit...
Article
In this paper we follow an income-based, time-dependence approach to measure the impact of entrepreneurship on social mobility in Uruguay. The working definition of entrepreneur is business owners with employees. Using household surveys from 1982 to 2010 we show that their income level, income volatility, and evolution over the business cycle are c...
Article
This paper estimates the relationship between parents’ educational attainment and income and children’s schooling in Uruguay between 1982 and 2010. This relationship is interpreted as a measure of intergenerational social mobility, and the paper reports evidence that it has decreased over time. The paper finds that the probability that the children...
Article
This paper examines the effect of bank credit on employment formalization in Uruguay. Using a difference-in-differences methodology proposed by Cata~o, Page´s and Rosales (2011), the paper finds that financial deepening decreases informality, especially in more financially dependent sectors. The effect is additionally found to be greater for women...
Article
Este trabajo presenta nueva evidencia sobre el uso de instrumentos financieros para el manejo del riesgo cambiario por parte de las empresas uruguayas. El análisis se basa en una muestra representativa de 837 empresas no financieras con información detallada sobre su uso de derivados del tipo de cambio, estructura de financiamiento, participación e...
Article
Using a sample of Uruguayan manufacturing establishments we analyze employment, capital, and productivity dynamics over a period of currency appreciation; changes in trade policy; and changes in the institutional setting of wage negotiations. As the relative capital–labor price ratio fell, capital intensity increased. At the same time, there was an...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we analyze various dimensions of the quality of life in Uruguay. The results suggest that differences in overall happiness and in domain satisfaction can partly be explained by different levels of access to public goods. We find that the monetary equivalent value of public goods such as electricity, running water, sewage system, drain...
Article
Human capital investment may be affected by titling programs. Besides the obvious income effect, titling induces a substitution effec t in favor of physical assets so that the net effect on human capital is ambiguous. We presen t a simple model to illustrate this point and exploit a natural experiment in Uruguay. Our results confirm that titling fa...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed individual and program characteristics associated with participation in an ICT-based substance use preventive intervention in Uruguay, South America. The intervention was directed at nine- and ten-grade students in ten private schools in Montevideo. Participation in the program was non-mandatory and effective participation rates were lo...
Article
In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more satis...
Article
This paper summarizes a randomized experiment to study the effects of an Internet-based intervention on type 2 diabetes patients in Montevideo, Uruguay. A specially designed website and electronic social network allowed participants to navigate freely, download materials, and interact with other diabetics and specialists. No significant impact was...
Article
This paper reports the results of a three-month randomized controlled trial to estimate the impact of an Internet and mobile telephone short message service (SMS) intervention on adolescents information about substances and rates of consumption. A low percentage of participants logged on to the Web platform, but most participants were reached throu...
Article
We exploit a natural experiment in Montevideo, Uruguay, in order to analyse the effects on human health of granting formal property rights to untitled individuals. Because of administrative mistakes committed decades ago by an institution that no longer exists, such rights may be transferred to residents of some neighborhoods but not to residents o...
Article
This paper reviews and assesses some of the Productive Development Policies currently being implemented in Uruguay. Three horizontal and three vertical policies are considered in light of the market and public failures they attempt to address and minimize. Horizontal policies comprise Innovation, Industrial Promotion and Directives for Industrial a...
Article
The authors use data from the Gallup World Poll to analyze what determines individual assessments of past, present, and future personal and country well-being. These measures allow the analysis of two dimensions of happiness data not previously examined in the literature: the better-than-average effect and optimism. The authors find that individual...
Article
This paper analyzes various dimensions of the quality of life in Montevideo. The paper finds that satisfaction with various public goods and services at the neighborhood level play a minor role in the overall reported well-being of individuals and in the satisfaction of life domains, such as leisure, social life, family, health, housing, neighborho...
Article
The gender of the household head has often been treated as an exogenous determinant of homeownership. This paper argues that several determinants of homeownership also affect household headship and that failing to explicitly account for this endogeneity leads to inconsistent results. Using individual level data for Chile, Honduras and Nicaragua, th...
Article
Full-text available
El sexo del cabeza de familia se ha tratado a menudo como un factor determinante exógeno de la propiedad de la vivienda. En este trabajo se sostiene que hay varios factores determinantes de la propiedad de la vivienda que también inciden en el papel de cabeza de familia y que la incapacidad de dar cuenta de esta endogeneidad conduce a resultados in...
Article
Corruption in the public sector erodes tax compliance and leads to higher tax evasion. Moreover, corrupt public officials abuse their public power to extort bribes from the private agents. In both types of interaction with the public sector, the private agents are bound to face uncertainty with respect to their disposable incomes. To analyse effect...
Article
Full-text available
Corruption in the public sector erodes tax compliance and leads to higher tax evasion. Moreover, corrupt public officials abuse their public power to extort bribes from the private agents. In both types of interaction with the public sector, the private agents are bound to face uncertainty with respect to their disposable incomes. To analyse effect...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents descriptive data about Uruguayan’s quality of life and spare time. The data is divided depending on sex, education, age and living place of the target people of this study. Four of five interviewed people reported feeling quite happy or very happy. However, degree of satisfaction with several dimensions of their lives and with t...
Article
Full-text available
(Disponible en inglés) La distribución desigual de riqueza en América Latina y el Caribe esta ligada a la distribución desigual de activos (humanos y físicos) y al acceso diferenciado a los mercados y servicios. Estas circunstancias, y las correspondientes tensiones sociales, deben ser entendidas en términos de fuerzas tradicionales de exlcusión; l...
Article
Unequal income distribution in Latin America and the Caribbean is linked to unequal distributions of (human and physical) assets and differential access to markets and services. These circumstances, and the accompanying social tensions, need to be understood in terms of traditional fragmenting forces; the sectors of the population who experience un...
Article
Job mobility is an outstanding characteristic of most labor markets. However, most of the economic literature focuses on occupational choice and not whether this mobility implies movements to "better or worse" firms. One reason for this research gap is the difficulty in establishing if the new employer is "better or worse" than the previous one. In...
Article
Full-text available
No obstante la liberalización financiera del país iniciada en los años 70 y de varias leyes adicionales aprobadas en los 90’s que apuntaron a promover los mercados financieros locales, el desarrollo del mercado de capitales de Uruguay permanece insuficiente. El gobierno tiene la capacidad de captar fondos en el ámbito nacional e internacional en un...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The economic performance of Uruguay in the last 50 years has been disappointing. Annual growth in labor productivity has been lower than the rest of the Latin American economies and well below that East Asian and OECD countries. Out of the 0.9 percent of annual growth in productivity, total factor productivity (TFP) accounts for around 45 p...
Article
Why do firms sometimes choose to undertake their R&D by financing start-up companies, while other times they do it in their internal labs? We present a model where the choice of R&D is driven by information asymmetries on the quality of the project between the corporate venture capitalist and the idea owner. In an incomplete information environment...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes a labor supply model in which individuals maximize a utility function that depends on leisure time, consumption and time devoted to an activity that is termed “artistic”. This activity may generate income that depends non linearly on hours dedicated to it. The individual can also work in the labor market (an activity that does n...
Article
Full-text available
Using a panel of Uruguayan manufacturing firms we analyze the adjustment process in capital, blue collar and white collar employment. Our results confirm the lumpy nature of factor adjustment, the relevance of nonlinearities and the interdependence between factor shortages. The average annual estimated output gap due to adjustment cost for1982-1995...
Article
Uruguay's capital markets remain undeveloped despite the country's financial liberalization dating back to the 1970s, which was reinforced by passage of several additional laws in 1990s whose aim was to promote the local financial markets. The government is able to raise funds domestically in what is a liquid bond market, but private firms continue...
Article
This paper tests for the existence of two types of selection biases in sports markets. First, better-educated players and players of higher socioeconomic background have better outside opportunities. If they decide to take the risks of a professional soccer career they must be truly good in order to compensate their higher opportunity costs. Second...
Article
Job mobility is an outstanding characteristic of most labor markets. However, the economic literature for the most part has focused on occupational choice and has not paid attention to whether this mobility implies movements to better or worse firms. One reason for this is that in general it is not possible to establish if the new employer is bette...
Article
Full-text available
The gender of the household head has often been tre ated as an exogenous determinant of housing tenure. We argue that several determinants of homeo wnership also affect household headship and that failing to explicitly account for this endogen eity leads to inconsistent results. Using individua l level data for Chile, Honduras and Nicaragua we sho...
Article
Using a sample of Uruguayan establishments we analyze employment, capital and productivity dynamics over a period with changes in trade policy and in the institutional setting of employment negotiations. Firms performed a technological conversion towards more capital intensive technologies. This brought an increase in labor and total factor product...
Article
The literature on the determinants of housing tenure often incorporates the gender of the household head as one exogenous explanatory variable. Several studies have found discrimination in favor of women and others fail to find significant results with respect to the household head gender. Given the outcomes, in other contexts, of the gender discri...
Article
In a multi community environment local authorities compete for tax base. When monitoring is imperfect, agents may decide not to pay in their community (evasion), and save the tax difference. The agent decision on where to pay taxes is based on the probability of getting caught, the fine he eventually will have to pay and the time cost of paying in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization on labor and capital gross flows and productivity in the Uruguayan Manufacturing Sector. Uruguay opened its economy in the presence of strong –at least initially- unions and structural different industry concentration levels. Higher international exposure implied a slightly higher job creation...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization on labor and capital gross flows and productivity in the Uruguayan Manufacturing Sector. Higher international exposure implied a slightly higher job creation, an important increase in job and capital destruction, and an increase in productivity. Unions dampened these effects. Although not associ...
Article
Full-text available
El presente trabajo estudia el mercado hipotecario de viviendas en Uruguay. El principal operador del mercado es el Banco Hipotecario del Uruguay (BHU), una instituci�n estatal que concentra m�s de 80% del total de los cr�ditos. Esta instituci�n se ha visto en dificultades financieras, lo que ha dado pie a su reforma, la cual se est� procesando act...
Article
Three alternative specifications of an investment equation have been tested using panel data of Uruguayan firms: a traditional accelerator model of investment, an error-correction version of the accelerator model and an Euler equation for the capital stock. These models of investment were used to test for the existence of financial constraints in t...
Article
Full-text available
We examine a two-jurisdiction tax competition environment where local governments can only imperfectly monitor where agents pay taxes and risk-averse individuals may choose to cross borders to pay lower taxes in a neighboring location. In a game between local authorities, we find that, when communities differ in size, in equilibrium the smaller com...
Article
Why do somerms choose to undertake their RD bynancing start-up companies, while otherrms do it in their internal labs? An establishedrm can choose to hire an idea owner as a scientist in its internal labs, or it maynance a start-up company as a corporate venture capitalist with the idea owner being a shareholder in it. We present a model where the...
Article
We examine a multicommunity environment with competition among local govern- ments for tax base to …nance a local public good. Communities can verify whether agents pay taxes or not but can only imperfectly monitor where contributions are made. Agents enjoy the local public good, but may decide to cheat and pay taxes out- side of their place of res...
Article
Abstract The labor sports market ,provides the opportunity for the study of the ,determinants ,of individual performance,and the probabilities of professional success. This article is based ,on the ,professional Uruguayan,soccer players that played at ,least two games ,in the ,First Divisional of the ,Uruguayan National League in the ,2000 and 2001...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we exploit a natural experiment to study the effects of granting formal property rights on health. Titling could improve health outcomes trough various channels: housing investment, income or family cohesion. We found that titling diminishes the probability of suffering of several chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, sinusitis an...
Article
Full-text available
The gender of the household head has often been treated as an exogenous determinant of housing tenure. We argue that several determinants of homeownership also affect household headship and that failing to explicitly account for this endogeneity leads to inconsistent results. Using individual level data for Chile, Honduras and Nicaragua we show tha...
Article
Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Economics, 2000. Includes vita and abstract. Includes bibliographical references.

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