Neil Rickman

Neil Rickman
University of Surrey · School of Economics

About

72
Publications
7,883
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866
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
180 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305101520253035
201720182019202020212022202305101520253035
201720182019202020212022202305101520253035

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
Care quality is important to patients and providers, but is hard to measure. This study aimed to examine changes in the frequency and severity of one quality measure - adverse events associated with medical care - in Great Britain over a 12-year period when available resources initially expanded and were subsequently constrained. Data on perceived...
Article
Expenditure on legal services has been rising and has attracted considerable policy attention in the UK. We argue that an important reason for this increase stems from the introduction of ‘no win no fee’ schemes in 1995 and a subsequent amendment's in 2000 which allowed claimants to shift additional costs onto losing defendants. We describe how thi...
Article
Full-text available
We develop a model to analyse the pattern of R&D network formation when unions have relative preferences over wages and employment. Within a three-firm industry, we show that when the unions place a low weight on wages and technological spillovers are low, a partial R&D network that includes two firms but excludes the third emerges in equilibrium....
Article
Expenditure on legal services has been rising for much of the last two decades and has attracted considerable policy attention in the UK. We argue that an important reason for this increase lies within the introduction of 'no win no fee' schemes in 1995 and a subsequent amendment which allowed claimants to shift additional costs (introduced by the...
Article
We study a key part of National Health Service (NHS) policy to ensure high‐quality health care: failure to supply such care cost the NHS £787m in clinical negligence payouts during 2009–10. The NHS uses risk management standards to incentivize care, and we examine their effects on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Using...
Article
We use a competing risk model to explore the relationship between information about case strength and the speed with which medical malpractice disputes are resolved. We have data on the time to resolution of such disputes in a group of English hospitals and how each dispute is resolved (drop, settlement, or trial). We also have detailed data on the...
Article
Wage claims have been an important feature of British industrial relations during the postwar period. They help set the boundaries within which wage negotiations take place and provide an insight into the conduct of negotiations, especially during periods of change in industrial relations. Despite this, claims remain an underinvestigated area. This...
Article
Expenditure on civil litigation in the UK has been rising for much of the last two decades and has attracted considerable policy attention. We argue that an important reason for this increase lies with changes to the implementation of `no win no fee' arrangements. These interventions allowed claimants and their lawyers to shift the risk of paying l...
Article
Robbing a bank is the staple crime of thrillers, movies and newspapers. But, say Barry Reilly, Neil Rickman and Robert Witt, bank robbery is not all it is cracked up to be. With access to a unique data set, they give us the low‐down on the economics of the bank heist.
Article
This article deals with issues of litigation based on claims of personal injuries. It briefly describes the way that economists have tended to think about the "litigation process." It discusses a number of areas of empirical work. It begins with case outcomes and looks at the ways in which the legal system itself can influence matter through the en...
Article
Full-text available
The case for making public bodies independent and taking them out of the day-to-day political process is widely accepted in many areas of policy. One area where academics have contributed to this consensus is in the area of monetary policy. The theoretical literature on the ‘credibility problem ’ and empirical cross-country
Article
The relationship between legal fees and damages is fundamental to the way litigation is funded in most countries. In jurisdictions where fee shifting is the norm, the means by which courts regulate recoverable costs (i.e., the plaintiff's fees), and the extent to which they are proportional to damages, is of central importance. This article explore...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic principal-agent settings with asymmetric information but no commitment are well known to create a ratchet effect. Here, the most efficient agents must be provided with extra 'information rent' as an incentive to relinquish their informational advantage over an uninformed principal; this causes welfare to fall. We study this problem in the c...
Article
The safety of patients is an important responsibility of health care providers, and significant compensation costs may arise if providers are negligent. A widely debated option involves liability for such compensation being placed with the hospital rather than the individual clinician, a system known as “enterprise liability.” In the United States,...
Article
In their systematic review of 82 (mostly US) studies, Comondore and colleagues conclude that on average not-for-profit nursing homes provided better quality of care than for-profit facilities.1 We recently analysed the factors associated with quality of care (measured as the number of failures of national standards at announced inspections) in resi...
Article
This paper reports an empirical study that investigated associations between the quality of care received by older people in residential settings and features of the care homes in which they live. Data were gathered from the first announced inspection reports (2002-2003) of all 258 care homes for older people in one county of England (Surrey). The...
Article
As the total cost of clinical negligence claims has grown in the UK in recent years, calls for reform have resurfaced. The government now plans a White Paper on the subject next years. This paper assesses some of the economic arguments surrounding such reform. It suggests that the principle of negligence performs a useful economic function, that th...
Article
Principals who exercise favouritism towards certain agents may harm those who are not so favoured. We address this issue in the context of a natural experiment from English soccer. We study the effects of professional referees on a common measure of referee bias: length of injury time in close matches. We find that referees exercised a degree of fa...
Article
We test for effects of tort liability on the use of certain diagnostic procedures, where the health care providers' expected cost of litigation is proxied by the risk-sharing arrangements agreed with their insurers. 2SLS and GMM estimators are adopted to test for possible endogeneity of these risk-sharing arrangements. Our findings are consistent w...
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Full-text available
This paper combines models and ideas from radio-engineering literature and economics to address the need for regulation of spectrum allocation in a commons scenario. It discusses under what conditions a laissez-faire policy towards spectrum usage would engender the inefficiencies of a spectrum com- mons allocation regime; to overcome such potential...
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Full-text available
This paper asks whether lawyers respond to financial incentives in ways that are consistent with predictions from contract theory. It uses data collected from before/after the introduction of standard fees for legal aid lawyers in England and Wales. For some inputs (not all), these substituted fixed price contracts for retrospective fee-for-service...
Article
We present evidence on employee theft in the UK using data on actual recorded crime, in a model where employees are 'rational cheaters' whose theft decisions may also be influenced by individual characteristics. We produce hypotheses about the role of labour market deterrence and individual influences on employee theft. We then examine the role of...
Article
Full-text available
Cheating and plagiarism can involve the transgression of intellectual property rights across many areas of life. When a direct financial benefit from such practices is identifiable, the opportunity to seek legal redress is available via civil court action. When it is undertaken by a public official it may constitute malfeasance. Yet in the case of...
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Full-text available
This paper examines optimal price (i.e. ‘sliding scale’) regulation of a monopoly when productivity and managerial effort are not observed. We show generally how to operationalize this model of incentive regulation and use actual data from electricity distribution in England and Wales to estimate key parameters and make welfare comparisons of slidi...
Article
Full-text available
Treating spectrum of different bandwidths as essentially distinct inputs needed for possibly different types of services has formed the core of spectrum analysis in academic research so far. New technological advances, such as cognitive radio, now allow us to move away from this inflexibility and to open up the new possibility of making different s...
Article
Full-text available
Administered Incentive Pricing (AIP) of radio spectrum as advocated by Smith/NERA (1996) and recently assessed by Indepen (2003) envisages an incremental path towards e�cient pricing, with revealed and stated prefer- ence methods being used to reveal opportunity costs. We build on the latter to develop and optimal pricing scheme that allows for con...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the potential economic effects of spectrum trading amongst firms who require spectrum licences as part of their activities. Trading takes place within the technical interference constraints enforced by a regulator. The model accommodates a variety of markets and firms, as well as both chan- nel exchange and channel re-use (i.e. shari...
Article
Full-text available
We consider two aspects of the commitment problem in price regulation with lob-bying: the ratchet effect and the hold-up problem. We set out a dynamic model of price regulation with asymmetric information where the regulated firm can 'buy influence' in a lobbying equilibrium. Firms can sink non-contractible, cost-reducing investment but regulators...
Article
Principals who exercise favoritism towards certain agents may harm those who are not so favored. Other papers have produced evidence consistent with the presence of such favoritism but have been unable to consider methods for controlling it. We address this issue in the context of a natural experiment from English soccer, where one particular leagu...
Article
Litigants are generally charged for using court services. The charges involved are usually set to achieve a combination of efficiency, equity and funding goals. This paper presents a simple model, based on regulated monopoly pricing, to address the question of how these charges should be set. We find that fixed fees generally form part of the optim...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time, we test for effects of liability on hospital care using measures of current perceptions of litigation risk at hospital level; in particular, the risk-sharing arrangements agreed between hospitals and their insurers. GMM and ML estimators are used to allow for possible endogeneity of risksharing arrangements. Our findings are con...
Article
In Britain, the NHS spends millions of pounds a year compensating patients injured during medical treatment. Compensation is paid if the patient can demonstrate that treatment was supplied negligently. However, concern over the cost, effectiveness and administrative efficiency of this approach has led jurisdictions like Sweden, New Zealand and some...
Article
The risks involved in litigation are well documented; they include the risk of incurring legal expenses. While much literature focuses on contingent fees as a mechanism for litigants to shift this risk, there is little work on legal expenses insurance—the dominant means of shifting this risk in Europe. In our model, a risk averse plaintiff may purc...
Article
Full-text available
Current system operates well, but reforms are still needed That doctors are more likely to be sued for negligence now than they have been in the past is undeniable. In particular, in the 1980s and 1990s the number of claims steadily increased, relativeto the number of treatment episodes. The reasons for this are by no means clear but probably inc...
Article
We present a model of recent institutional developments in litigation funding across several European jurisdictions. They combine contingency fees with third party cover for cost in the event of losing the case: we call these "Third Party Contingency" (TPC) contracts. A TPC contract can make filing a suit credible and may increase settlement amount...
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Full-text available
We consider a dynamic model of price regulation with asymmetric information where strategic delegation is available to the regulator. Firms can sink non-contractible, cost-reducing investment but regulators cannot commit to future price levels. We fully characterise the perfect Bayesian equilibrium and show that, with incentive contracts and no del...
Article
We consider a model in which Cournot-Nash oligopolistic service providers are able to trade radio spectrum licences, subject to interference constraints. The terms of trade are endogenised through Nash bargaining. When the providers are in the same (geographical) market, the incentive to trade is due to cost differences; when they are in separate m...
Article
This Paper examines a general problem exemplified by post-auction (third generation ‘3G’) mobile telecommunications markets and by recent developments in the UK market for postal services. When entering these (or any other) markets, firms must often decide on the degree of coverage (‘roll-out’) they wish to achieve. Prior investment must be sunk in...
Article
Abstract We present a version of Spier’s (1992) dynamic model of litigation and use it to derive predictions about the duration of legal claims against motor in- surers. These are tested against a unique set of case data collected from an English motor insurer. The main predictions are supported, with one excep- tion. Our results suggest that infor...
Article
This paper analyzes the impact of FORIS contracts on litigation and settlement decisions using a simple divergent-expectations model. A FORIS contract introduces contingent fee arrangements under the British legal cost allocation rule: the plaintiff pays a percentage of his settlement or trial returns to FORIS and obtains coverage for trial costs i...
Article
On announcing a consultation exercise about how new money for the NHS should be used, the Health Secretary declared he wanted an NHS 'where the consumer is king'. Empowerment of consumers requires that they have choice. The institutional arrangements in the NHS do not facilitate this.
Article
Full-text available
To identify trends in the incidence and cost of clinical negligence claims. To determine the current annual cost to the NHS as a whole in terms of cash paid out to patients and their solicitors and the defence costs incurred. Analysis of records on database. A well defined group of hospitals within one health authority which collected information o...
Article
In a Dynamic setting, we compare procurement schemes in the form of a lump-sum payment with an optimal information-revealing menu of contracts without commitment. We find that lump-sum contracts generate two benefits. First, they always provide optimal levels of effort. Second, they 'tie the hands' of the producer, and avoid the ratchet effect. The...
Article
Delegation to independent bodies whose preference can be different from those of the government has been shown to have beneficial commitment benefits in areas as widely diverse as monetary policy and trade. This paper addresses the case for delegation in the context of a cost-reimbursement procurement problem. Our solution combines several features...
Article
Legal aid expenditure has risen dramatically in recent years, prompting attention from successive governments. A prominent theme of past and present government reform proposals has been the shifting of risk away from the taxpayer towards lawyers, clients and insurers by altering the means by which legal aid lawyers are paid. This paper explores thi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers whether lawyers, acting as agents, respond to financial incentives which are extraneous to their clients' requirements. The authors take, as a case study, lawyers performing legal aid work in England and Wales. An empirical model of legal aid expenditure variations across areas in relation to changes in the demand for conveyanc...
Article
The view that some public authorities should be taken out of the day-to-day democratic process and made 'independent' is now widely accepted. Delegation to independent bodies has been shown to have beneficial commitment benefit in areas as widely diverse as monetary policy, international tade policy, firm level R&D and tax auditing. For industry re...
Article
Despite the fact that (i) when the EPA observes regulatory violations it rarely pursues the violator and, (ii) the expected penalty faced by a violator who is pursued is small compared to the cost of compliance, it is still the case that, (iii), firms comply a significant portion of the time. Winston Harrington (Harrington, W., 1988. Enforcement le...
Article
Delay in litigation is a policy concern in many jurisdictions. Little evidence is available on the causes of such delay, however. The authors present a version of K. Spier's (1992) bargaining model of litigation and derive directly a functional form for the conditional probability of case settlement. They then estimate this and test predictions abo...
Article
Hospitals can be reimbursed for their costs in many ways. Several authors have investigated the effects of these reimbursement rules on physician incentives and, therefore, on the quantity of services provided to patients. A form of (linear) cost-sharing tends to emerge as the socially efficient reimbursement policy. The authors present a model of...
Article
Policy makers and static economic models often argue that contingent fees cause lawyers to settle cases sooner than their clients would like, so as to avoid accumulating costs of bargaining. Yet, in a dynamic setting, a willingness to sink costs can be a strategic advantage when seeking to establish the credibility of threats. This paper shows that...
Article
Policy makers and static economic models often argue that contingent fees cause lawyers to settle cases sooner than their clients would like, so as to avoid accumulating costs of bargaining. Yet, in a dynamic setting, a willingness to sink costs can be a strategic advantage when seeking to establish the credibility of threats. This paper shows that...
Article
Despite the fact that (i) when the EPA observes regulatory violations it rarely pursues the violator and, (ii) the expected penalty faced by a violator who is pursued is small compared to the cost of compliance, it is still the case that, (iii), firms comply a significant portion of the time. Winston Harrington (Harrington, W., 1988. Enforcement le...
Article
This paper analyzes the impact of FORIS contracts on litigation and settlement decisions using a simple divergent-expectations model. A FORIS contract introduces contingent fee arrangements under the British legal cost allocation rule: the plaintiff pays a percentage of his settlement or trial returns to FORIS and obtains coverage for trial costs i...
Article
In the jurisdictions both of England and Wales and of Scotland, the civil justice system is currently the subject of intense critical appraisal. This paper considers the current status of civil justice, beginning by asking what we expect from our system of civil justice and going on to analyse the supply and demand of civil legal services in market...
Article
We present a formal model of the relationship between a health care purchaser and a provider drawing on the recent experience of explicit contracting in the UK health sector. Specifically we model the contractual relationships emerging between District Health Authorities, who are presently the dominant health care purchasers, and the providers of h...
Article
We present a formal model of the relationship between a health care purchaser and a provider drawing on the recent experience of explicit contracting in the UK health sector. Specifically we model the contractual relationships emerging between District Health Authorities, who are presently the dominant health care purchasers, and the providers of h...
Article
In the light of the lack of dynamism of the British economy, and indeed the United States and European economies in general, this article suggests urgent attention be given to the construction of an industrial strategy. The article reports on the deficiencies of industrial policy-making in Britain, past and present, and seeks to identify a new appr...
Article
In Britain, the NHS spends millions of pounds a year compensating patients injured during medical treatment. Compensation is paid if the patient can demonstrate that treatment was supplied negligently. However, concern over the cost, effectiveness and administrative effi- ciency of this approach has led jurisdictions like Sweden, New Zealand and so...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses economics to analyse the growing problem of plagiarism. Two approaches are considered. Firstly students are assumed to plagiarise to conserve time (which is limited in relation to study, leisure and part-time work). Secondly students attempt to improve the quality of coursework by substituting cheating for honest work in the 'marks...
Article
In a variety of economies, the past two decades have witnessed sub- stantial privatisation and regulation of previously state-owned monop- olies. An important question for policy makers in such situations is the design of the regulated industry: should it retain its monopoly sta- tus (as British Gas did) or should it face immediate competition? An...
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Full-text available
Primary care plays a strategic role in the British National Health Service. It has been a target for health care reforms in recent years: the concept of general practitioner (GP) fundholding was introduced in 1991 as part of the 'purchaser-provider split' required for the operation of the 'internal market', only to be abolished in 1999 with the reo...
Article
This thesis uses a theoretical model to consider whether plaintiffs paying lawyers on a contingent fee basis receive smaller payoffs than those retaining lawyers on an hourly basis. This is the view in England, where contingent fees are illegal. It is also a view recognised in America, where contingent fees are legal and commonly used in some areas...

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