Neil Mansfield

Neil Mansfield
Imperial College London | Imperial

Professor of Design Engineering and Human Factors

About

120
Publications
34,338
Reads
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2,583
Citations
Citations since 2016
8 Research Items
1281 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
March 1999 - present
Loughborough University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
March 1999 - present
Loughborough University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
March 1999 - July 2015
Loughborough University
Position
  • Associate Dean (Research)

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
This study sought to measure and compare the Situation Awareness (SA) of a younger group of 11 drivers (average age 28.2 years) to that of an older group of 10 drivers (average age 77.2 years), as they traversed a route that included many cognitively taxing elements. This was achieved by recording a participant's continual commentary of what s/he f...
Article
Full-text available
The population of older people continues to increase around the world, and this trend is expected to continue; the population of older drivers is increasing accordingly. January 2012 figures from the DVLA in the UK stated that there were more than 15 million drivers aged over 60; more than 1 million drivers were aged over 80. There is a need for sp...
Article
Discomfort in vehicle seats is a multifactorial problem with large increases in discomfort occurring during extended duration driving. Due to the nature of driver discomfort, previous research has found it difficult to accurately quantify long term driver discomfort via the use of objective measures. This paper reports a laboratory study that inves...
Article
Design researchers disseminate their work through many outlets. Journals have been, and continue to be, a vital conduit by which research methods and results are reported. Journal paper authors want their work to be published in the best possible titles, but ranking of journals is notoriously difficult and always controversial. This paper takes a n...
Article
The two studies reported here sought to measure and compare the Situation Awareness (SA) of younger and older driver groups whilst driving (Study 1), and watching video footage of actual car journeys (Study 2). In both studies this was achieved by recording a participant’s commentary on what s/he felt was of relevance to the driving task. The narra...
Article
Full-text available
A questionnaire survey of drivers (n = 903) was conducted covering musculoskeletal symptoms, the vehicle seat, access to specific vehicle features, ingress/egress, driving performance and driving behaviours. Significantly, more discomfort was reported by older drivers (aged 65+) in the hips/thighs/buttocks and knees. Older drivers reported more dif...
Article
Full-text available
Although much is known about human body vibration discomfort, there is little research data on the effects of vibration on vehicle occupant drowsiness. A laboratory experimental setup has been developed. Vibration was applied to the volunteers sitting on the vehicle seat mounted on the vibration platform. Seated volunteers were exposed to a Gaussia...
Article
Full-text available
Drivers of earth-moving machines are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). In mining operations there can be a combination of relatively high magnitudes of vibration and long exposure times. Effective risk mitigation requires understanding of the main aspects of a task that pose a hazard to health. There are very few published studies of WBV expos...
Article
Discomfort in vehicle seats is a multi-factorial problem with contributions occurring from effects of sitting duration, seat design, and the dynamic environment to which the occupant is exposed. This paper reports laboratory studies investigating the extent to which reports of discomfort are affected by vibration commencing or ceasing, and whether...
Article
The primary purposes of a vehicle driver's seat, is to allow them to complete the driving task comfortably and safely. Within each class of vehicle (e.g. passenger, commercial, industrial, agricultural), there is an expected driving position to which a vehicle cabin is designed. This paper reports a study that compares two driving positions, in rel...
Article
Unlabelled: In this paper, alternative assessment methods for whole-body vibration and shocks are compared by means of 70 vibration samples measured from 13 work vehicles, deliberately selected to represent periods containing shocks. Five methodologies (ISO 2631-1:1997, BS 6841:1987, ISO 2631-5:2004, DIN SPEC 45697:2012 and one specified by Gunsto...
Article
Full-text available
Background: whole-body vibration training may improve neuromuscular function, falls risk and bone density, but previous studies have had conflicting findings. Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the influence of vertical vibration (VV) and side-alternating vibration (SV) on musculoskeletal health in older people at risk of falls. Design: s...
Article
Link analysis (LA) is a popular ergonomic tool for studying and improving the layout of workspaces. It uses a data (event) recording method to input interactions of human behavior with their environment. The traditional “pen and paper'' method of LA is cumbersome, time consuming, and gives limited outputs. To address these limitations, the computer...
Conference Paper
Studies have shown that whilst emissions from passenger vehicles have fallen in the last 20-years, emissions from light commercial vehicles (LCVs) have risen. An elevated driving seat will result in a driving posture higher than in conventional vehicles and will benefit vehicle deign in terms of a reduction in vehicles’ mass potentially resulting i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With increases in life expectancy, there is a growing population of older people around the world. As a result, the population of older drivers is showing a similar increase. Many cars have not been designed to meet the needs of people with age-related disabilities. A questionnaire survey of older and younger drivers (paper/online version n=903) an...
Article
We present a review of current expert opinion on the effects of combined exposures to trunk rotation and whole-body vibration (WBV), commonly experienced by operators of agricultural machinery. We evaluate the level of agreement between academic experts in the field of ergonomics, human response to WBV and agricultural operators, on the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
Occupants of automobiles experience discomfort after long drives, irrespective of how well designed a seat might be. Previous studies of discomfort during driving have focused either on the seat shape and materials ("static" properties), long-term discomfort ("fatigue" properties), or dynamics ("vibration" properties). These factors have previously...
Article
The Future Electric Vehicles for Ambulances (FEVA) project is a proof of concept study to explore the feasibility of introducing electric vehicles as smaller, lighter and more compact solo responder vehicles as part of an ambulance fleet. The limited use of electric vehicles in the ambulance service is largely due to the initial cost and performanc...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: National and International Standards (e.g. BS 6841 and ISO 2631-1) provide methodologies for the measurement and assessment of whole-body vibration in terms of comfort and health. The EU Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive (PAVD) provides criteria by which vibration magnitudes can be assessed. However, these standards only consider u...
Article
Full-text available
The Community Urgent Response Environment (CURE) concept is a new technology system developed to support the work of Emergency Care Practitioners with portable pods and packs and mobile treatment units. This paper describes a project to transfer research outputs from an academic setting into practice through collaboration between two universities,...
Conference Paper
Locomotives produce vibrations and mechanical shocks from irregularities in the track, structural dynamics, the engines, the trucks, and train slack movement (Mansfield, 2005). The different directions of the irregularities give rise to car-body vibrations in multiple axes including the following: • longitudinal, or along the length of the train (x...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: This study investigated the effects of reclined backrest angles on cognitive and psycho-motor tasks during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration. Twenty participants were each exposed to three test stimuli of vertical vibration: 2-8 Hz; 8-14 Hz and 14-20 Hz, plus a stationary control condition whilst seated on a vibration platform...
Article
Full-text available
Real-world whole-body vibration exposures comprise motion in fore-aft, lateral, and vertical directions simultaneously. There can also be components of roll, pitch, and yaw. If evaluating vibration with respect to human response, most investigators will use methods defined in ISO 2631-1. This uses frequency weightings that were originally derived f...
Article
Full-text available
Helicopter pilots are exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) in their working environment. WBV has been associated with low back pain (LBP) and helicopter pilots have a high prevalence for LBP compared with other professions. The aim of this study was to develop a test protocol for measuring helicopters with ISO 2631-1 and to perform a whole body vi...
Article
Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to interfere with performance of activities. An experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of WBV exposure on performance using a hand-held keypad in seated and standing postures. Participants (n=16) were exposed to sinusoidal vibration between 1-8 Hz in the x-, y- and z-axis inde...
Article
A prototype radio frequency identification (RFID) system has been tested in a mock-up hospital room. The system is designed to track the movements of patients for extended periods of time, potentially up to several weeks. Patients will wear tags that can be detected by readers located in key positions. This paper describes a prototype system used f...
Conference Paper
Locomotives produce vibrations and mechanical shocks from irregularities in the track, structural dynamics, the engines, the trucks, and train slack movement (Mansfield, 2005). The different directions of the irregularities give rise to car-body vibrations in multiple axes including the following: • Longitudinal, or along the length of the train (x...
Article
The purpose of this research is to explore and validate the effect of direction with regard to whole-body vibration using the category judgment method. Experiments were conducted using random signals as stimuli. The stimuli consisted of vibration with flat PSD (Power Spectrum Density) ranging from 1 to 20 Hz. The signal levels were varied over a ra...
Article
Exposure to vibration is an intrinsic part of our lives. Practically all types of transportation will cause vibration to a human body. In some cases the vibration causes health effects, but in most cases it causes discomfort, which manifests as distraction, annoyance and other problems. Because increasing numbers of people use transportation, it is...
Article
The vibration to which rail passengers are exposed has been shown to interfere with the performance of activities. For standing passengers it is often necessary to utilise postural supports such as grab rails or leaning on walls to maintain stability. An experimental study was conducted to determine the influence of different support strategies on...
Article
An elevated driving posture could have Ergonomic benefits for professional drivers of rail and road vehicles. It could also allow for cabs to be redesigned making the vehicle lighter and more compact. The effect of the new driving posture on drivability whilst exposed to vehicle motion has not been considered. This paper describes a laboratory stud...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how vibration affects discomfort is an important factor for improving work and travelling experience. Methods of evaluating health effects from whole-body vibration are closely linked to those for evaluating discomfort in ISO 2631-1. The standard includes a method to evaluate discomfort using twelve axes of vibration with a similar ap...
Article
Full-text available
Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker’s noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting fil...
Article
Full-text available
Standing people are exposed to whole-body vibration in many environments. This paper investigates the effects of horizontal whole-body vibration and standing posture on task performance. Sixteen participants were exposed to random vibration (up to 4 Hz) whilst performing a timed pegboard task in two standing postures. Objective and subjective indic...
Article
Standing people experience whole-body vibration in many environments, performing a wide range of tasks (Mansfield, 2004). This paper compares two studies, designed to investigate the performance of specific types of manual control tasks, namely discrete and continuous tasks.
Article
Combining results from studies on long-term sitting discomfort by Porter et al., and vibration-induced discomfort by Ebe et al., a multi-factorial model for overall driver sitting discomfort was proposed in 2005. This model includes static factors, dynamic factors and temporal factors. Experimental testing of the model showed that the original 2005...
Article
Full-text available
The lunge is regularly used in badminton and is recognized for the high physical demands it places on the lower limbs. Despite its common occurrence, little information is available on the biomechanics of lunging in the singles game. A video-based pilot study confirmed the relatively high frequency of lunging, approximately 15% of all movements, in...
Article
Being able to accurately record the interactions which take place within any environment is beneficial for understanding human behaviour in a wide range of industries. Link Analysis is a standard technique which is often used, but traditional pen and paper methods are cumbersome and time consuming. This paper details a way to automate recording the...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is an occupational hazard for operators of industrial vehicles, such as earth-moving machines. Quantification of WBV exposure in terms of impact on health forms one aspect of the Standard ISO 2631-1 (1997). Regarding assessment of risk to health, ISO 2631-1 (1997) states that if WBV components below 1 Hz are n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Whole body vibrations in the train are known to affect the performance of sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, working on a computer, eating, drinking, etc. The objective of the study was to investigate, as to what extent the process of drawing is disturbed by random vibration. The study involved 21 subjects who were exposed to...
Article
This is a conference paper. Link Analysis (LA) is a useful method to study relationships and arrangements of elements within a system. It has been used more and more in the healthcare domain to create appropriate work conditions for clinical staff and provide patients with effective, efficient and safe services. However LA has limitations, such as...
Article
INTRODUCTION Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is an emerging treatment with potential benefits for muscle and bone health (Cardinale and Rittweger, 2006; Prisby et al., 2008). There are several WBV devices and the differences are not easily quantifiable. The development of legislation designed to minimise occupational exposure to WBV has led to...
Article
Full-text available
This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Age and Ageing following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afp036
Article
Full-text available
Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS) and crossover stepping (XS) movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kin...
Article
Besides the vibrations, passenger discomfort is influenced by various other factors such as, the environmental factors of noise, temperature, humidity and visual stimuli, etc. The discomfort can be measured both subjectively and objectively. Rammohan25 studied the influence of backrest support and handgrip contractions on acute metabolic, respirato...
Article
Tool manufacturers are required to declare the vibration emission of their hand-held power tools in order to sell them within Europe. To enable comparison between different manufacturers, tests are carried out in accordance with the relevant test code (such as those defined in the ISO 8662 and EN 60745 series). These tests may be carried out in art...
Article
Full-text available
There is little knowledge on performance during vibration exposure combined with occupational hazards such as bent or twisted postures. In addition, little information is available on the effective use of armrests during performance-related tasks. This paper investigates the influence of sitting in different working postures on the reaction time an...
Article
The relationship between the subjective ride comfort in a vehicle seat and whole-body vibration can be modeled using frequency weightings and rms averaging as specified in ISO 2631-1. If two vibrating environments have the same frequency-weighted rms acceleration value using this method, it is assumed that the two environments would have the same d...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of tri-axial random vibration on reading and writing was investigated. Additionally the influence of posture and language on these two tasks was tested. 20 participants (10 males, 10 females) were assessed using an adapted version of the 'word chains' methodology for the reading test, and a dictation task for the writing test. Difficult...
Article
This paper presents data on the effect of power tool appendage selection on construction worker hand-arm (HAV) exposure. It presents an analysis of HAV data acquired from cut-off saws, angle grinders, and hammer drills utilised with different models of tool appendage. The tasks conducted during tool utilisation were typical of those conducted in th...
Article
The Physical Agents Vibration Directive was implemented in 2005 it stipulates measures for controlling the health risks associated with vibration exposure. The increased awareness of this occupational hazard has resulted in widespread research trying to address the problem. This study focused on characterising features of whole-body vibration expos...
Article
Human sensory interaction plays an important (but not yet fully understood) role in determining how individuals interact with the world around them. There are numerous types of sensory interaction and this paper examines the interaction of the auditory and visual senses for viewers of multimedia systems. This paper addresses two questions: first, d...
Article
Full-text available
Occupational driving has often been associated with a high prevalence of back pain. The factors that contribute to cause the pain are diverse and might include prolonged sitting, poor postures, exposure to whole-body vibration and other non-driving factors such as heavy lifting, poor diet or other psychosocial factors. In Europe, truck drivers are...
Article
Most workplaces where workers are exposed to whole-body vibration involves simultaneous motion in the fore-and-aft (x-), lateral (y-) and vertical (z-) directions. Previous studies reporting the biomechanical response of people exposed to vibration have almost always used single-axis vibration stimuli. This paper reports a study where apparent mass...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-modal effects occur when subjective opinions of stimuli from one sense (e.g., tactile at steering wheel) are influenced by simultaneous stimuli in another sense (auditory). A steering wheel rig was used to provide specified vibration stimuli to participants' hands, and a recording of vehicle sound was played in accordance with the vibrations....
Article
An increasing number of travellers use computers whilst travelling by train. Most portable computers now use a touchpad as the primary pointing device, although it is cheap and easy to use an external mouse. This paper reports a laboratory study designed to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration on mouse and touchpad use. The experiment...
Article
Whole-body vibration exposure has been found to negatively influence health, comfort and performance. There is little knowledge on the biomechanical response during vibration exposure combined with additional occupational hazards such as bent or twisted postures. In addition, little information is available on the effective use of armrests during e...
Article
Humans are exposed to whole-body vibration in many types of environment. In almost all cases, the vibration to which the human is exposed comprises multi-axis vibration, such that vibration occurs in all directions simultaneously. Despite the complex nature of vibration to which humans are exposed in the workplace, almost all laboratory studies inv...
Article
Whole-body vibration (WBV) measurements are an important aspect of performing risk assessments for those exposed to vibration. A large array of variables affect the outcome of a vibration measurement and its extrapolation to a daily dose measure: e.g. variability in driving style, road surface roughness, loading. The variability in vibration emissi...
Article
Full-text available
Military personnel are required to carry heavy loads whilst marching; this load carriage represents a substantial component of training and combat. Studies in the literature mainly concentrate on physiological effects, with few biomechanical studies of military load carriage systems (LCS). This study examines changes in gait and posture caused by i...
Article
The transition from traditional to modern materials has had a significant effect on equipment performance in many sports. As a result, governing bodies are increasingly placing performance limits on equipment and so other characteristics are becoming important to players seeking the most desirable equipment for their game. The 'feel' of the equipme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The OPERC HAVTEC database of hand-transmitted vibration exposure contains measurements for a wide range of hand held power tools (tested to ISO 5349). This paper examines measured vibration exposure levels of four electrical hammer drills, which were tested with a given range of drill-bit sizes from six drill-bit manufacturers. The measurements exa...
Article
Twelve seated male subjects were exposed to 15 vibration conditions to investigate the nature and mechanisms of the non-linearity in biomechanical response. Subjects were exposed to three groups of stimuli: Group A comprised three repeats of random vertical vibration at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ms(-2) r.m.s. with subjects sitting in a relaxed upright postu...
Article
Full-text available
Whole-body vibration exposure has been found to negatively influence health, comfort and performance. Performance measures are affected by the task and situation investigated, so it is difficult to make detailed recommendations based on fundamental research. There is little knowledge on performance during vibration exposure combined with additional...