Neil Greenberg

Neil Greenberg
University of Tennessee | UTK · Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Adjunct in Departments of Psychology and of Medicine

PhD, Rutgers University

About

61
Publications
11,010
Reads
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2,687
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2007 - June 2012
The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Worked with research team engaged in investigating cognitive dysfunction
August 1978 - present
University of Tennessee
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
Previous analyses of transformational learning (TL) focused on rational or nonrational processes such as critical reflection on an uncomfortable personal situation or emotional learning, respectively. In this phenomenological study, researchers examined existential dimensions of TL. Individual interviews were analyzed to identify the lived experien...
Article
Abstract and SummaryExploratory behavior and tongue-flicking in males of the small arboreal iguanid lizard, Anolis carolinensis, were examined under naturalistic environmental conditions (home or novel habitat, and air or foliage movement) and under stress. Two classes of exploratory behavior (site changes and active surveillance) and two types of...
Article
Full-text available
Serotonin is widely believed to exert inhibitory control over aggressive behavior and intent. In addition, a number of studies of fish, reptiles, and mammals, including the lizard Anolis carolinensis, have demonstrated that serotonergic activity is stimulated by aggressive social interaction in both dominant and subordinate males. As serotonergic a...
Article
Full-text available
Stable social relationships are rearranged over time as resources such as favored territorial positions change. We test the hypotheses that social rank relationships are relatively stable, and although social signals influence aggression and rank, they are not as important as memory of an opponent. In addition, we hypothesize that eyespots, aggress...
Article
Full-text available
The green anolis lizard, Anolis carolinensis, is a uniquely convenient species with great potential for providing insights about the causes and consequences of social behavior from an evolutionary perspective. In this species, social interactions are mediated by visual displays in which specific units of behavior are combined in various ways to com...
Article
Dominant and subordinate males respond differently to the stress of social interaction. After an hour of social interaction, subordinate male Anolis carolinensis have elevated serotonergic activity in hippocampus, but dominant males do not. In other species, and using other stressors, the activation of hippocampal serotonergic activity is much more...
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Full-text available
Stress involves real or perceived changes within an organism in the environment that activate an organism's attempts to cope by means of evolutionarily ancient neural and endocrine mechanisms. Responses to acute stressors involve catecholamines released in varying proportion at different sites in the sympathetic and central nervous systems. These r...
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Research on the stress response in reptiles can provide a useful comparative perspective for understanding how the constituent elements of the response can be put into service of diverse behavioral adaptations. A summary of the neural and endocrine causes and consequences of specific behavioral patterns seen in the small diurnal lizard, Anolis caro...
Article
Stressful aggressive interaction stimulates central serotonergic activation in telencephalon as well as brainstem. Social roles can be distinguished by monoamine activity following aggression. Pairs of male lizards, Anolis carolinensis, were allowed to fight and form dominant/subordinate relationships. In micropunched regions of telencephalon, the...
Article
Many stimuli, including social aggression, activate endocrine stress mechanisms, presumably mediated or modulated by central neurotransmitters. To determine the effects of aggression on central neurochemistry, reproductively active male Anolis carolinensis were paired and allowed to establish social dominance relationships. While combatants cohabit...
Article
The behavior of 10 free-ranging male green anoles A. carolinensis was videotaped in a riparian habitat. Comparisons of breeding versus non-breeding seasons showed dramatic shifts in the percentage of time spent in the various behavioral modes. Over all contexts, the respective breeding versus post-breeding season rates for distance moved and displa...
Chapter
There is a necessary relationship between research design, the welfare of research animals, and the validity of research data. This paper explores several dimensions of this relationship along with comments on the importance of ethologically informed design. Design, in the sense of a coherent programme that guides a specific scientific undertaking,...
Article
Aggressive interactions in Anolis carolinensis result in increased circulating levels of epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) and conspicuous color changes. This activation of the adrenergic component of an acute stress response is externally represented by the darkening of the postorbital eyespot of A. carolinensis. In adult males, this site...
Article
Tongue-flicking in reptiles is frequently seen to increase in novel habitats and is presumed to involve the acquisition of chemical information. Like most behavioral patterns, however, tongue-flicking has both multiple causes and multiple functions, only some of which involve chemosensation. This paper describes units of exploratory behavior, inclu...
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Full-text available
It is well known that androgen-dependent sexual behaviors in male mammals and birds are inhibited by exogenous progesterone (P). However, recent research on male whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus inornatus) indicates that P can stimulate sexual and copulatory behavior. We report here both antiandrogenic and synandrogenic actions of P on sexual behavi...
Article
We examined the influences of territorial status, encounter outcome, body mass difference, activity, and display on lactate accumulation in adult male Anolis carolinensis during agonistic interactions. Of the pairs of lizards frozen at the onset of an encounter, intruders had significantly higher lactate concentrations than residents. Lactate level...
Article
Full-text available
Adult males of the small arboreal iguanid lizard, Anolis carolinensis, will fight and form social dominance hierarchies when placed in habitats with limited resources. The relationships between time since initial aggressive interaction, relative social dominance, reproductive activity, and corticosterone and androgen levels were determined for 34 p...
Article
Lacking sympathetic innervation, the skin of A. carolinensis, an iguanid lizard, darkens within minutes in response to circulating melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or beta adrenergic agonists such as epinephrine (EPI). This change is produced by dispersion of melanin from a perinculear position within dermal melanophores into superficial dendri...
Article
The sensitivity of reproductive function to the influence of environmental stressors in vertebrates has been clear since the late 1930’s, as have the stressing effects of reproductive activity itself.209,210 However, the agenda for the investigation of interactions between physiological stress and reproductive function did not emerge until after th...
Article
An influence of spatial scale on temporal processing has been described in humans (De Long, 1981). The hypothesis that a similar relationship exists in reptiles was tested by placing twelve lizards in volumetrically constant but large-scale or small-scale “home” environments and alternately exposing them to large and small scale novel environments...
Article
Platelet activating factor (PAF) and 1-O-alkyl-linked choline-containing phosphoglycerides have been identified in the blood of the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. The level of PAF in the blood of chronically stressed lizards is 250% higher than in that of controls; the blood contains sufficient 1-O-alkyl-linked choline-containing phosphoglycerides to...
Article
Adult males of the small arboreal iguanid lizard, Anolis carolinensis, form social dominance hierarchies when placed in habitats with limited resources. Skin color changes occur during hierarchy formation, most conspicuously in subordinates, who appear darker (more brown) than dominants (more green). Because skin color in this species is under the...
Article
Thirteen male green anole lizards were lesioned in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the posterior dorsal ventricular ridge (“amygdala”) and/or the paleostriatum (PS) to determine the influence of these structures on assertion and challenge displays addressed to male intruders, or courtship displays and copulatory neckgrip directed toward females....
Chapter
There are reciprocal relationships between the central and autonomic aspects of aggression, social status, and psychological stress. My interest in these emerged during a research project concerned with forebrain control of social behavior using the green anolis lizard, Anolis carolinensis, as a model species. This report will first summarize relev...
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Full-text available
Amphibians and reptiles have always excited the curiosity and interest of researchers, partly because of their status as transitional forms in the evolution of terrestrial life, and partly because, although representatives of our ancestors, they possess remarkably alien forms and habits. They have infiltrated the heart of many religious and cultura...
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A forebrain atlas and stereotaxic neurosurgical techniques were developed for use in anatomical and behavioral experiments on the green anolis lizard (Anolis carolinensis). Green anoles are convenient and robust experimental subjects with a rich behavioral repertoire, the social components of which are partly under hormonal control. The technique a...
Article
Full-text available
SYNOPSIS. We describe here a multidisciplinary investigation of the stimuli and mechanisms controlling reproduction in the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Bothenvironmental and social stimuli that vary seasonally are used as proximate cues to reproduction. In order for these ecological factors to initiate breeding, they must be perceived a...
Article
In a comparative study of forebrain mechanisms of species-typical behavior, unilateral lesions were placed in the subpallial telencephalon of male green anolis lizards (Anolis carolinsis), in which there is an almost complete decussation of the optic nerve. Responses to a conspecific male antagonist in a territorial confrontation were then tested w...
Article
An ethogram of the blue spiny lizard, Sceloporus cyanogenys, was derived from laboratory studies of feral populations in various enclosures designed to maximize the expression of behavior patterns by providing a diversity of natural and semi-natural environmental cues. A behavior inventory enumerating and defining 76 distinctive postures, orientati...
Article
1. The thermal relations of blue spiny lizards, Sceloporus cyanogenys, were studied in laboratory habitats which were designed to allow the expression of a large repertoire of natural behavior patterns. Body temperatures obtained with fast-reading thermometers and by radio telemetry from implanted transmitters were correlated with postures and acti...
Article
Typescript (photocopy). "A thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Rutgers University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy." "May, 1973." Thesis (Ph. D.)--Rutgers University, 1973. Vita. Photocopy. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 192-202).
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Full-text available
In the neuropsychology of art, we must remember that the Brain of Man has not abandoned its ancient animal foundations, it has built upon them . . . . But it has also reconstructed them as the shifting earth beneath dictates . . . . We have done the best possible in the landscape in which we have found ourselves with the raw materials we have inher...
Article
The pursuit of truth is woven into the fabric of every organism*. Any estimate of how best to survive and thrive in the reality in which we are immersed requires a sense of self, of the world, and of their relationship to each other. I wish to explore the idea that this pursuit has at its heart two complementary modes of reality testing utilizing s...
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Full-text available
This report explores the proposition that teaching effectiveness can be enhanced by accommodating the key differences between two complementary and deeply engrained modes of reality testing, each predominantly centered in different hemispheres of the brain. (1) Correspondence involves "reality-testing" of a percept, the cerebral representation of a...