Neera Jain

Neera Jain
Purdue University | Purdue · School of Mechanical Engineering

PhD

About

68
Publications
17,694
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
624
Citations
Citations since 2016
56 Research Items
579 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Introduction
Dr. Neera Jain is an Associate Professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University. Her research is grounded in dynamic modeling and control theory with two major application thrusts: (1) transient thermal management for increasing electrification and (2) human-machine and human-robot interaction. Dr. Jain earned her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in ME from the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2009 and 2013, respectively and her S.B. from MIT in 2006.

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Metal hydrides have been studied for use in energy storage, hydrogen storage, and air-conditioning (A/C) systems. A common architecture for A/C and energy storage systems is two metal hydride reactors connected to each other so that hydrogen can flow between them, allowing for cyclic use of the hydrogen. This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic mode...
Article
Shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs) will be introduced in greater numbers over the coming decade. Due to rapid advances in shared mobility and the slower development of fully autonomous vehicles (AVs), SAVs will likely be deployed before privately-owned AVs. Moreover, existing shared mobility services are transitioning their vehicle fleets toward tho...
Preprint
This paper presents identities for calculating over-approximated successor sets of discrete-time nonlinear systems using hybrid zonotopes. The proposed technique extends the state-update set construct, previously developed for linear hybrid systems, to nonlinear systems. Forward reachability of nonlinear systems can then be performed using only pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs) will be introduced in greater numbers over the coming decade. Due to rapid advances in shared mobility and the slower development of fully autonomous vehicles (AVs), SAVs will likely be deployed before privately-owned AVs. Moreover, existing shared mobility services are transitioning their vehicle fleets toward tho...
Article
Peak load shifting requires strategies to efficiently and cost effectively absorb and discharge various forms of energy, including thermal energy. The energy storage rate of a thermal energy storage (TES) module containing phase change materials (PCMs) depends on the module geometry and dimensions, the internal distribution and orientation of PCMs...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-2444.vid Design and optimization of aircraft thermal management systems (TMS) is typically conducted at steady-state conditions using performance metrics such as bleed air flow rate, fuel burn flow rate, or total system mass. However, when trying to increase the overall performance of a legacy...
Article
This letter presents identities for calculating robust successor and precursor sets of discrete-time linear hybrid systems. The proposed technique relies on generating a set containing all possible state transitions of a dynamic system over a region of interest, named the state-update set. Forward and backward reachability can then be performed usi...
Article
Platooning heavy-duty trucks is a proven method to reduce fuel consumption on flat ground, but a significant portion of the U.S. highway system covers hilly terrain. The effort described in this paper uses experimentally gathered single truck data from a route with hilly terrain and an experimentally-validated two-truck platoon simulation framework...
Article
Hybrid zonotopes have been recently introduced as a mixed-integer set representation that is equivalent to the union of up to $2^{\mathrm{ N}}$ constrained zonotopes through the use of N binary factors. This letter further develops this new set representation by deriving identities for union and complement set operations of hybrid zonotopes. The...
Article
Thermal energy storage (TES), such as ice storage, is often used with air conditioning systems to shift cooling loads away from peak hours, reducing operating costs if time-of-use electricity rates are available. Phase change materials (PCMs) have been investigated for energy storage with heating systems; however, a single PCM cannot be used for st...
Preprint
Metal hydrides have been studied for use in energy storage, hydrogen storage, and air-conditioning (A/C) systems. A common architecture for A/C and energy storage systems is two metal hydride reactors connected to each other so that hydrogen can flow between them, allowing for cyclic use of the hydrogen. This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic mode...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article presents a new set representation named the hybrid zonotope. The hybrid zonotope is shown to be equivalent to $2^N$ constrained zonotopes through the addition of $N$ binary zonotope factors and is well-suited for the analysis of hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete states and inputs. The major contribution of this manuscrip...
Preprint
Control co-design (CCD) is a technique for improving the closed-loop performance of systems through the coordinated design of both plant parameters and an optimal control policy. While model predictive control (MPC) is an attractive control strategy for many systems, embedding it within a CCD algorithm presents challenges because obtaining a closed...
Article
Aomation has become prevalent in the everyday lives of humans. However, despite significant technological advancements, human supervision and intervention are still necessary in almost all sectors of automation, ranging from manufacturing and transportation to disaster management and health care [1]. Therefore, it is expected that the future will b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Properly calibrated human trust is essential for successful interaction between humans and automation. However, while human trust calibration can be improved by increased automation transparency, too much transparency can overwhelm human workload. To address this tradeoff, we present a probabilistic framework using a partially observable Markov dec...
Article
The operation of combined heat and power systems is inherently challenging due to the fact that they synchronously generate power and heat while being tasked to meet asynchronous loads. By integrating thermal storage into the system, these loads can be temporally decoupled, albeit at the cost of a more complex dynamical system. In this paper we pre...
Article
In this paper we present a mixed-integer linear program to represent the decision-making process for heterogeneous fleets selecting vehicles and allocating them on freight delivery routes to minimize total cost of ownership. This formulation is implemented to project alternative powertrain technology adoption and utilization trends for a set of lin...
Article
Increasing performance demands and constraints are necessitating the design of highly complex, integrated systems across multiple sectors, including transportation and energy. However, conventional design approaches for such systems are largely siloed and focused on steady-state operation. To accommodate tightening operating envelopes, new design p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human trust in automation plays an essential role in interactions between humans and automation. While a lack of trust can lead to a human's disuse of automation, over-trust can result in a human trusting a faulty autonomous system which could have negative consequences for the human. Therefore, human trust should be calibrated to optimize human-ma...
Article
In this article, we propose an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm for a class of periodic processes with a variable time-delay that is greater than one iteration of the process. We propose a definition of the time delay as the sum of an integer and a residual such that the two components can be estimated separately. This structure enables t...
Article
Intelligent and autonomous technology is performing tasks from driving to healthcare, in which calibration of human trust in automation is critical. In this paper, we use a model-based clustering algorithm to identify and model dominant dynamics of human trust in automation among a general population. In doing so, we seek to balance the tradeoffs b...
Conference Paper
We present a switched linear system approach for modeling the complex nonlinear dynamics associated with temperature inversion occurring in thermally stratified hot water tanks. Such tanks are commonly used for thermal energy storage, particularly in low- to medium-temperature waste heat recovery applications. By separating the influence of tempera...
Conference Paper
We present a new methodology for designing a heat exchanger that explicitly considers both static and transient performance characteristics. The proposed approach leverages 1) a highly detailed, albeit static model that captures the complex nonlinear relationship between heat exchanger geometry and heat transfer coefficients, and 2) a reduced-order...
Article
A significant increase in electrification is driving the need for thermal management systems that are more robust to transient thermal loads. Unfortunately, thermal-fluid systems are typically designed using steady-state assumptions, an approach that often neglects, or constrains, the closed-loop transient performance. To meet the demand for improv...
Article
In recent years, variable electricity pricing has become available to residential consumers to incentivize demand reductions during midday peak hours. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems enable consumers to store cooling energy when demand is low and assist A/C operation during peak demand periods. However, the cost savings achievable using TES ar...
Article
Flash boiling is a heat transfer process with promise for rapid transient cooling for pulsed, episodic heat loads. While real-time control is needed to use flash boiling for thermal management, the highly nonlinear dynamics of flash boiling do not lend themselves to simple feedback control methods. Here, a control-oriented switched-mode dynamic mod...
Article
A System-of-Systems engineering methodology is used to project truck technology adoption behaviors of heterogeneous fleets operating over the U.S. line-haul freight transportation system. A constrained mixed-integer linear program is formulated to optimize total cost of ownership of regional fleets given vehicle highway performance, fleet operation...
Article
During twin-roll steel strip casting, molten steel is poured onto the surface of two casting rolls where it solidifies to form a steel strip. The solidification process introduces a two-phase region of steel known as mushy steel which has a significant effect on the resulting quality of the manufactured steel strip. Therefore, an accurate model of...
Article
To attain improved human-machine collaboration, it is necessary for autonomous systems to infer human trust and workload and respond accordingly. In turn, autonomous systems require models that capture both human trust and workload dynamics. In a companion paper, we developed a trust-workload partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) mod...
Article
In this paper, we establish a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model framework that captures dynamic changes in human trust and workload for contexts that involve interactions between humans and intelligent decision-aid systems. We use a reconnaissance mission study to elicit a dynamic change in human trust and workload with res...
Article
We developed an experiment to elicit human trust dynamics in human–machine interaction contexts and established a quantitative model of human trust behavior with respect to these contexts. The proposed model describes human trust level as a function of experience, cumulative trust, and expectation bias. We estimated the model parameters using human...
Conference Paper
In this paper we propose an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm for a class of periodic processes with a variable time-delay that is greater than one iteration in length. We estimate the delay by separating it into two components: an estimate based on the number of iterations contained within a single delay period and an estimate defined as...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present a dynamic model formulation for thermal-fluid systems that enables direct minimization of dissipative and frictional losses, otherwise known as entropy generation. While analysis based upon the second law of thermodynamics has long been used for optimizing steady-state design of thermodynamic systems, transient performance...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent availability of variable electric energy and demand rates for residential buildings is providing incentives for the application of thermal storage for cooling that previously has been limited to commercial buildings. This is particularly relevant for hot climates where airconditioning (A/C) use is the primary cause for peak electricity d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, variable electricity pricing has become available to residential consumers to incentivize load shifting and peak demand reductions during traditional midday peak hours. This is especially important in hot climates where airconditioning (A/C) use is the primary cause for peak electricity demand. Thermal storage allows consumers to s...
Conference Paper
The U.S. freight transportation system is a complex agglomeration of interacting systems that includes line-haul and urban delivery vehicles, inter and intra-city highways, and support infrastructure. In order to project the evolution of the system and the market penetration of emerging freight vehicle technologies, it is important to model the afo...
Article
Today, intelligent machines \emph{interact and collaborate} with humans in a way that demands a greater level of trust between human and machine. A first step towards building intelligent machines that are capable of building and maintaining trust with humans is the design of a sensor that will enable machines to estimate human trust level in real-...
Article
In this paper we consider control-oriented modeling of a sensible thermal energy storage (TES) tank with a helical immersed heat exchanger (IHX) coil. A key focus of the modeling approach is to minimize the number of dynamic states required to adequately describe the system dynamics. The resulting model is well-suited for model-based control design...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In an increasingly automated world, trust between humans and autonomous systems is critical for successful integration of these systems into our daily lives. In particular, for autonomous systems to work cooperatively with humans, they must be able to sense and respond to the trust of the human. This inherently requires a control-oriented model of...
Article
Full-text available
Human trust in automation plays an important role in successful interactions between humans and machines. To design intelligent machines that can respond to changes in human trust, real-time sensing of trust level is needed. In this paper, we describe an empirical trust sensor model that maps psychophysiological measurements to human trust level. T...
Conference Paper
We consider the problem of dynamic coupling between the rapid thermal solidification and mechanical compression of steel in twin-roll steel strip casting. In traditional steel casting, molten steel is first solidified into thick slabs and then compressed via a series of rollers to create thin sheets of steel. In twin-roll casting, these two process...
Article
Exergy-based analysis and optimization has been successfully used to design a variety of thermal systems to achieve greater efficiency. However, the advantages afforded by exergy destruction minimization (EDM) at the design stage have not been translated to closed-loop operation of thermal systems such as vapor compression systems (VCSs). Through o...
Article
We consider the problem of designing a scalable control architecture for large-scale variable-refrigerant-flow (VRF) systems. Using a gray-box modeling approach, and by exploiting the one-way coupling between the fluid dynamics and thermal dynamics, we derive individual linearized models for each class of dynamics. This sufficiently reduces the com...
Article
This is a study focused on the criticality of thermal systems in almost every domain of energy conversion. Thermal systems are critically important to nearly all domains of energy conversion, and controls are vital to extracting maximal efficiency from the overall system. Understanding the dynamics of transient thermal systems is the first step tow...
Article
This paper introduces an exergy-based objective function for the steady-state optimization and control of integrated energy systems (IESs). The use of exergy destruction as the metric for minimization enables the objective function to be scalable with respect to (1) subsystem configuration and (2) subsystem capacity, thereby rendering the approach...
Conference Paper
We consider the problem of stabilizing multi-evaporator vapor-compression cycle (ME-VCC) systems using decentralized controllers. ME-VCC systems, sometimes termed variable-refrigerant-flow systems, are prevalent in large buildings that maintain independent cooled spaces with a single heat rejection unit. We exploit the time-scale separation charact...
Conference Paper
To effectively control vapor compression cycle (VCC) systems whose dynamics are highly nonlinear, it is necessary to develop plant models and control laws for different operating regions. This paper presents a first-principles modeling framework that captures four operation modes over the operating envelope to construct an invariant-order switched...
Article
This article presents dynamic modeling approaches to predict system performance characteristics of cooling-/heating-mode switch cycling operation, a commonly used temperature regulation approach in refrigerated transport systems. A dynamic model of a commercially available transport refrigeration system is presented, which describes the system dyna...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) optimization of steady-state vapor-compression cycle (VCC) operation. Five degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the VCC are optimized using an objective function which minimizes the rate of exergy destruction in the cycle. The use of exergy is motivated by its ability to capture the physics of both...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multiple control objectives must be met in order to satisfy the system capacity and efficiency requirements of air-conditioning and refrigeration (A/C & R) systems. Moreover, in the HVAC industry, it is generally preferred to tune multiple single-input-single-output (SISO) control loops rather than a single multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) con...
Article
In vapor compression cycle systems, it is desirable to effectively control the thermodynamic cycle by controlling the thermodynamic states of the refrigerant. By controlling the thermodynamic states with an inner loop, supervisory algorithms can manage critical functions and objectives such as maintaining superheat and maximizing the coefficient of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For vapor compression cycle (VCC) systems, it is important to meet multiple control objectives in order to satisfy system capacity and efficiency requirements. Moreover, in the HVAC industry, it is generally preferred to tune multiple single-input-single-output (SISO) control loops rather than a single multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) control...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (7)
Project
Performance requirements for thermal management systems (TMSs) are growing increasingly stringent as a result of significant increases in electrification aboard a range of ground, air, and marine vehicles. Efforts at integrating thermal energy storage (TES) into such systems can provide a safeguard against highly transient loads that otherwise push or exceed the nominal operating envelope of the system. These “hybrid thermal management systems”, or hybrid TMSs, can maintain critical surface or fluid temperatures via a combination of thermal energy storage and heat exchange with an external sink. However, systematic methods for designing, and controlling, thermal energy storage devices integrated with TMSs do not exist. This project aims to address these gaps.
Project
This research investigates a human-centric architecture for "cognitive autonomy" that couples human psychophysiological and behavioral measures with objective measures of performance. The architecture has four elements: 1) a computable cognitive model which is amenable to control, yet highly customizable, responsive to the human, and context dependent; 2) a predictive monitor, which provides a priori probabilistic verification as well as real-time short-term predictions to anticipate problematic behaviors and trigger the appropriate action; 3) cognitive control, which collaboratively assures both desired safety properties and human performance metrics; and 4) transparent communication, which helps maintain trust and situational awareness through explanatory reasoning. The education and outreach plan focuses on broadening participation of underrepresented minorities through a culturally responsive undergraduate summer research program, which will also provide insights about learning environments that support participation and retention. All research and educational material generated by the project are being made available to the public through the project webpage.
Project
This research aims to develop the foundations of a control-theoretic framework for human-automation interaction that can use real-time data to continually improve prediction accuracy. It achieves this aim by defining a human cognitive state space and characterizing its dynamics in a model formulation that is compatible with standard tools of control design. A unique feature of this formulation is its interpretability, maintained by grounding the model in established conceptual frameworks governing human decision-making. A principled methodology for real-time parameter and cognitive state estimation will be created that blends information from multiple sensors with different capabilities and costs of querying, and enables adaptation to different individuals. A generalizable technique for exciting human cognitive dynamics, as well as guidelines for choosing the cognitive state estimation algorithm best suited for a particular human-automation interaction context, will be established. Laboratory and field experiments, including tests using trucks equipped with Level 1 driver assistance features, are planned for validation of the modeling framework and estimation algorithms.