Neeltje van Doremalen

Neeltje van Doremalen
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | NIAID · Laboratory of Virology

PhD

About

94
Publications
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19,285
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Publications

Publications (94)
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012. Recently, the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was identified and the specific interaction of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of MERS-CoV spike protein and DPP4 was determined by crystallography. Animal studies identified rhesus macaques but not h...
Article
Full-text available
The stability of Middle East respiratory syndrome cor-onavirus (MERS-CoV) was determined at 20°C - 40% relative humidity (RH); 30°C - 30% RH and 30°C - 80% RH. MERS-CoV was more stable at low temperature/ low humidity conditions and could still be recovered after 48 hours. During aerosolisation of MERS-CoV, no decrease in stability was observed at...
Article
Full-text available
In 2012, a novel coronavirus associated with severe respiratory disease in humans emerged in the Middle East. Epidemiologic investigations identified dromedary camels as the likely source of zoonotic transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here we provide experimental support for camels as a reservoir for MERS-CoV....
Article
Full-text available
The availability of a robust disease model is essential for the development of countermeasures for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While a rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV has been established, the lack of uniform, severe disease in this model complicates the analysis of countermeasure studies. Modeling of the interaction b...
Article
Full-text available
On March 20, 2015, 30 days after the most recent confirmed Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola) patient in Liberia was isolated, Ebola was laboratory confirmed in a woman in Monrovia. The investigation identified only one epidemiologic link to Ebola: unprotected vaginal intercourse with a survivor. Published reports from previous outbreaks have demonstrated...
Article
Full-text available
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus–vectored vaccine encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, based on the first published full-length sequence (Wuhan-1). AZD1222 has been shown to have 74% vaccine efficacy against symptomatic disease in clinical trials. However, variants of concern (VoCs) have been detected,...
Preprint
Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, five different variants of concern (VOCs) have been identified: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. Due to confounding factors in the human population, such as pre-existing immunity, comparing severity of disease caused by different VOCs is challenging. Here, we investigate disease progression in the rhesus ma...
Preprint
Omicron has demonstrated a competitive advantage over Delta in vaccinated people. To understand this, we designed a transmission chain experiment using naive, intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) vaccinated, and previously infected (PI) hamsters. Vaccination and previous infection protected animals from disease and virus replication after Delt...
Article
To combat future SARS-CoV-2 variants and spillovers of SARS-like betacoronaviruses (sarbecoviruses) threatening global health, we designed mosaic nanoparticles presenting randomly-arranged sarbecovirus spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to elicit antibodies against epitopes that are conserved and relatively occluded, rather than variable, immuno...
Article
Full-text available
Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, we used the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight older and eight younger macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using viral RNA quantification, clinical observations, thoracic radiographs, single-cell transcriptomics,...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population and the resulting COVID-19 pandemic have led to the development of various diagnostic tests. The OraSure InteliSwab™ COVID-19 Rapid Test is a recently developed and FDA emergency use-authorized rapid antigen-detecting test that functions as a lateral flow device targeting the nucleocapsid protein....
Article
Full-text available
As novel SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge, it is critical that their potential to cause severe disease and evade vaccine-induced immunity is rapidly assessed in humans and studied in animal models. In early January 2021, a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant designated B.1.429 comprising 2 lineages, B.1.427 and B.1.429, was originally detected in Califo...
Preprint
Full-text available
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus–vectored vaccine encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, based on the first published full-length sequence (Wuhan-1). AZD1222 was shown to have 74% vaccine efficacy (VE) against symptomatic disease in clinical trials and over 2.5 billion doses of vaccine have been released...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population and the resulting COVID-19 pandemic has led to the development of various diagnostic tests. The OraSure InteliSwab COVID-19 Rapid Test is a recently developed and FDA emergency use authorized rapid antigen-detecting test that functions as a lateral flow device targeting the nucleocapsid protein. D...
Article
Full-text available
The major transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 is airborne. However, previous studies could not elucidate the contribution between large droplets and aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Here, we designed and validated an optimized transmission caging setup, which allows for the assessment of aerosol transmission efficiency at various...
Article
The emergence of several SARS-CoV-2 variants has caused global concerns about increased transmissibility, increased pathogenicity, and decreased efficacy of medical countermeasures. Animal models can be used to assess phenotypical changes in the absence of confounding factors. Here, we compared variants of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 to a rec...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 in Syrian hamsters. We previously showed protection against SARS-CoV-2 disease and pneumonia in hamsters vaccinated with a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Here, we observe a 9.5-fold reduction of virus neutralizing antibody t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, particularly with respect to immune responses, we utilized the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two cohorts of eight older (16-23 years) and eight younger (3-5 years) rhesus macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using...
Article
Full-text available
After the first detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in camels in Jordan in 2013, we conducted 2 consecutive surveys in 2014-2015 and 2017-2018 investigating risk factors for MERS-CoV infection among camel populations in southern Jordan. Multivariate analysis to control for confounding demonstrated that borrowing of...
Preprint
Full-text available
As novel SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge, it is critical that their potential to cause severe disease and evade vaccine-induced immunity is rapidly assessed in humans and studied in animal models. In early January 2021, a novel variant of concern (VOC) designated B.1.429 comprising 2 lineages, B.1.427 and B.1.429, was originally detected in...
Article
Full-text available
Many different vaccine candidates against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, are currently approved and under development. Vaccine platforms vary from mRNA vaccines to viral-vectored vaccines, and several candidates have been shown to produce humoral and cellular responses in small anima...
Article
Full-text available
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is driven by contact, fomite, and airborne transmission. The relative contribution of different transmission routes remains subject to debate. Here, we show Syrian hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection through intranasal, aerosol and fomite exposure. Different routes of exposure present with distinct disease ma...
Article
Full-text available
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 is an approved adenovirus-based vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently being deployed globally. Previous studies in rhesus macaques revealed that intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 provided protection against pneumonia but did not reduce shedding of SARS-CoV-2 f...
Article
Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with T cell lymphopenia, but no causal effect of T cell deficiency on disease severity has been established. To investigate the specific role of T cells in recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we studied rhesus macaques that were deplete...
Preprint
Full-text available
Airborne transmission, a term combining both large droplet and aerosol transmission, is thought to be the main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. Here we investigated the relative efficiency of aerosol transmission of two variants of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7 (alpha) and lineage A, in the Syrian hamster. A novel transmission caging setup was designed and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Airborne transmission, a term combining both large droplet and aerosol transmission, is thought to be the main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. Here we investigated the relative efficiency of aerosol transmission of two variants of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7 (alpha) and lineage A, in the Syrian hamster. A novel transmission caging setup was designed and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many different vaccine candidates against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, are currently approved and under development. Vaccine platforms vary from mRNA vaccines to viral-vectored vaccines, and several candidates have been shown to produce humoral and cellular responses in small anima...
Article
Full-text available
The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs). It is currently unclear whether previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection with VOCs. Here, we show that low dose aerosol exposure to hCoV-19/human/USA/WA-CDC-WA1/2020 (WA1, lineage A), resulted in a productive mild infection....
Preprint
The emergence of several SARS-CoV-2 variants has caused global concerns about increased transmissibility, increased pathogenicity, and decreased efficacy of medical countermeasures. Animal models can be used to assess phenotypical changes in the absence of confounding factors that affect observed pathogenicity and transmissibility data in the human...
Preprint
The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs). It is currently unclear whether previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection with VOCs. Here, we show that low dose aerosol exposure to hCoV-19/human/USA/WA-CDC-WA1/2020 (WA1, lineage A), resulted in a productive mild infection....
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe COVID-19 has been associated with T cell lymphopenia 1,2, but no causal effect of T cell deficiency on disease severity has been established. To investigate the specific role of T cells in recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infections we studied rhesus macaques that were depleted of either CD4+, CD8+ or both T cell subsets prior to infection. Peak vir...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus (CoV) spillover events from wildlife reservoirs can result in mild to severe human respiratory illness. These spillover events underlie the importance of detecting known and novel CoVs circulating in reservoir host species and determining CoV prevalence and distribution, allowing improved prediction of spillover events or where a human–...
Article
Full-text available
Ambient temperature and humidity strongly affect inactivation rates of enveloped viruses, but a mechanistic, quantitative theory of these effects has been elusive. We measure the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on an inert surface at nine temperature and humidity conditions and develop a mechanistic model to explain and predict how temperature and humidity...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a persistent zoonotic pathogen with frequent spillover from dromedary camels to humans in the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in limited outbreaks of MERS with a high case-fatality rate. Full genome sequence data from camel-derived MERS-CoV variants show diverse lineages circulating in...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigated ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 in Syrian hamsters. We previously showed protection against SARS-CoV-2 disease and pneumonia in hamsters vaccinated with a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Here, we observed a 9.5-fold reduction of virus neutralizing antibody...
Article
Full-text available
Lassa virus (LASV) infects hundreds of thousands of individuals each year, highlighting the need for the accelerated development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions. To date, no vaccine has been licensed for LASV. ChAdOx1-Lassa-GPC is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the Josiah strain LASV glycoprotein precurso...
Preprint
Full-text available
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a coronavirus that infects both humans and dromedary camels and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory illness in humans in the Middle East. While some mutations found in camel-derived MERS-CoV strains have been characterized, the majority of natural variation found ac...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03099-2
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Several animal models have been rapidly developed that recapitulate the asymptomatic to moderate disease spectrum. Now, there is a direct need for additional small animal models to study the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for fast-tracked medical countermeasure deve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 protected rhesus macaques against pneumonia but did not reduce shedding of SARS-CoV-2. Here we investigate whether intranasally administered ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reduces shedding, using a SARS-CoV-2 virus with the D614G mutation in the spike protein. Viral load in swabs obtained from intranasally va...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is driven by contact, fomite, and airborne transmission. The relative contribution of different transmission routes remains subject to debate. Here, we show Syrian hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection through intranasal, aerosol and fomite exposure. Different routes of exposure presented with distinct disease...
Article
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic disease that was first identified in humans in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV causes acute and severe respiratory disease in humans. The mortality rate of MERS in humans is ∼35% and >800 deaths have been reported globally as of August 2020. Dromedary camels are a natural host of...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 20191,2 and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic3. Vaccines are an essential countermeasure urgently needed to control the pandemic4. Here, we show that the adenovirus-vectored vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, encoding the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, is immunogenic in mic...
Article
Since emerging in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic, and it may become an endemic human pathogen. Understanding the impact of environmental conditions on SARS-CoV-2 viability and its transmission potential is crucial to anticipating epidemic dynamics and designing mitigation strategies. Ambient temperature and humidity are known to...
Article
Full-text available
An outbreak of a novel coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, causing respiratory disease and a ~2% case fatality rate started in Wuhan, China in December 20191,2. Following unprecedented global spread³, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Although data on disease in humans are emerging at a steady pace, certain as...
Article
Full-text available
Effective therapeutics to treat COVID-19 are urgently needed. While many investigational, approved, and repurposed drugs have been suggested, preclinical data from animal models can guide the search for effective treatments by ruling out treatments without in vivo efficacy. Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a nucleotide analog prodrug with broad antiviral ac...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Several animal models have been rapidly developed that recapitulate the asymptomatic to moderate disease spectrum. Now, there is a direct need for additional small animal models to study the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for fast-tracked medical countermeasure deve...
Article
Full-text available
We found that environmental conditions affect the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nasal mucus and sputum. The virus is more stable at low-temperature and low-humidity conditions, whereas warmer temperature and higher humidity shortened half-life. Although infectious virus was undetectable after 48 hours, viral RNA re...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus pandemic has created worldwide shortages of N95 respirators. We analyzed 4 decontamination methods for effectiveness in deactivating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and effect on respirator function. Our results indicate that N95 respirators can be decontaminated and reused, but the integrity of respirator fit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 20191,2 and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic3. Vaccines are an essential countermeasure urgently needed to control the pandemic4. Here, we show that the adenovirus-vectored vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, encoding the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, is immunogenic in mic...
Article
Full-text available
Developing a vaccine to protect against the lethal effects of the many strains of coronavirus is critical given the current global pandemic. For Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), we show that rhesus macaques seroconverted rapidly after a single intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 MERS. The vaccine protected against respira...
Preprint
The unprecedented pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has created worldwide shortages of personal protective equipment, in particular respiratory protection such as N95 respirators. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is frequently occurring in hospital settings, with numerous reported cases of nosocomial transmission highlighting the vulnerability of healthcare workers. I...
Preprint
Full-text available
The unprecedented pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has created worldwide shortages of personal protective equipment, in particular respiratory protection such as N95 respirators. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is frequently occurring in hospital settings, with numerous reported cases of nosocomial transmission highlighting the vulnerability of healthcare workers. I...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Effective therapeutics to treat COVID-19 are urgently needed. Remdesivir is a nucleotide prodrug with in vitro and in vivo efficacy against coronaviruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: To evaluate the effect of remdesivir treatment on SARS-CoV-2 disease o...
Preprint
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to infect humans via the dromedary camel reservoir and can transmit between humans, most commonly via nosocomial transmission. Currently, no licensed vaccine is available. Previously we showed that vaccination of transgenic mice with ChAdOx1 MERS, encoding the MERS S protein, prevent...
Preprint
Full-text available
An outbreak of a novel coronavirus, now named SARS-CoV-2, causing respiratory disease and a ~2% case fatality rate started in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Following unprecedented rapid global spread, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Although data on disease in humans are emerging at a steady pace, cert...