Neda Jahanshad

Neda Jahanshad
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Department of Neurology

About

565
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Publications

Publications (565)
Preprint
Whole brain tractography is commonly used to study the brain's white matter fiber pathways, but the large number of streamlines generated - up to one million per brain - can be challenging for large-scale population studies. We propose a robust dimensionality reduction framework for tractography, using a Convolutional Variational Autoencoder (ConvV...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of suicide attempts than the general population. Specific cortical abnormalities (e.g., the cortical surface area and thickness) may be associated with a history of suicide attempts. We recruited 74 individuals with schizophrenia (37 suicide attempters were individually matched with 37 non-attempters...
Article
Results of neuroimaging datasets aggregated from multiple sites may be biased by site-specific profiles in participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as MRI acquisition protocols and scanning platforms. We compared the impact of four different harmonization methods on results obtained from analyses of cortical thickness data: (...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine learning (ML) techniques have gained popularity in the neuroimaging field due to their potential for classifying neuropsychiatric disorders based on brain patterns. However, the diagnostic predictive power of the existing algorithms has been limited by small sample sizes, lack of representativeness, data leakage, and/or overfitting. Here, w...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction Chronic pain (CP) in adolescents costs society $19.5 billion annually. Childhood hospital admissions for CP increased 831% from 2004-2010. Many have comorbid conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and change in bowel habits; a large proportion will continue to experience CP into adulthood4. Central sensitization (CS), possibly indic...
Article
Full-text available
The current concept of brain aging proposes three gradient patterns of changes in white matter that occur during healthy brain aging: antero-posterior, supero-inferior, and the myelodegeneration-retrogenesis (or the “last-in-first-out”) concept. The aim of this study was to correlate white matter diffusivity measures (fractional anisotropy-FA, mean...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Recent work has shown that people with common epilepsies have characteristic patterns of cortical thinning, and that these changes may be progressive over time. Leveraging a large multicenter cross-sectional cohort, we investigated whether regional morphometric changes occur in a sequential manner, and whether these changes in people wi...
Preprint
Mechanisms underpinning neurotypical age-related variations in cortical thickness in the human brain remain insufficiently specified. Here we used cell-specific marker genes, followed by gene ontology and enrichment analyses, to quantify the association between gene-expression levels and inter-regional age-related variations in neurotypical cortica...
Article
Full-text available
Background Persistent sensorimotor impairments after stroke can negatively impact quality of life. The hippocampus is vulnerable to poststroke secondary degeneration and is involved in sensorimotor behavior but has not been widely studied within the context of poststroke upper‐limb sensorimotor impairment. We investigated associations between non‐l...
Article
Background The pattern of structural brain abnormalities in anorexia nervosa (AN) is still not well understood. While several studies report substantial deficits in grey matter volume and cortical thickness in acutely underweight patients, others find no differences, or even increases in patients compared with healthy controls. Recent weight regain...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sensorimotor performance after stroke is strongly related to focal injury measures such as corticospinal tract lesion load. However, the role of global brain health is less clear. Here, we examined the impact of brain age, a measure of neurobiological aging derived from whole brain structural neuroimaging, on sensorimotor outcomes. We hypothesized...
Preprint
Site differences, or systematic differences in feature distributions across multiple data-acquisition sites, are a known source of heterogeneity that may adversely affect large-scale meta- and mega-analyses of independently collected neuroimaging data. They influence nearly all multi-site imaging modalities and biomarkers, and methods to compensate...
Preprint
Objective Spinal cord damage is a hallmark of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), but its progression and clinical correlates remain unclear. Here we performed a characterization of cervical spinal cord structural abnormalities in a large multisite FRDA cohort. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of cervical spinal cord (C1 to C4) cross-sectiona...
Article
Importance: Characterization of early tau deposition in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) is critical for prevention trials that aim to select individuals at risk for AD and halt the progression of disease. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of cortical tau positron emission tomography (PET) heterogeneity in a large cohort o...
Preprint
Automatic neuroimaging segmentation and parcellation tools provide convenient and systematic methods for extracting numerous features from brain MRI scans, and are becoming standard practice for large-scale coordinated studies. One such tool, FreeSurfer, provides an easy-to-use pipeline to extract metrics describing cortical and subcortical morphom...
Article
Objective Each year, around one million people die by suicide. Despite its recognition as a public health concern, large-scale research on causal determinants of suicide attempt risk is scarce. Here, we leverage results from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of suicide attempt to perform a data-driven screening of traits causally associ...
Article
Full-text available
Small average differences in the left-right asymmetry of cerebral cortical thickness have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing controls, affecting widespread cortical regions. The possible impacts of these regional alterations in terms of structural network effects have not previously bee...
Article
Full-text available
Human brain structure changes throughout the lifespan. Altered brain growth or rates of decline are implicated in a vast range of psychiatric, developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we identified common genetic variants that affect rates of brain growth or atrophy in what is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide association...
Preprint
Mechanisms underpinning age-related variations in cortical thickness in the human brain remain poorly understood. We investigated whether inter-regional age-related variations in cortical thinning (in a multicohort neuroimaging dataset from the ENIGMA Lifespan Working Group totalling 14,248 individuals, aged 4-89 years) depended on cell-specific ma...
Poster
Full-text available
In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of structural MRI using three international cohorts within the ENIGMA-Sleep working group (N=912) to measure cortical and subcortical brain changes between subjects with and without insomnia symptoms.
Article
Background Morphology of the human cerebral cortex differs across psychiatric disorders, with neurobiology and developmental origins mostly undetermined. Deviations in the tangential growth of the cerebral cortex during pre/peri-natal period may be reflected in individual variations in cortical surface area. Methods Inter-regional profiles of grou...
Article
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by disrupted cortical neuroanatomy. We investigated alteration in covariance of structural networks associated with PTSD in regions that demonstrate the case-control differences in cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA). Methods Neuroimaging and clinical data were aggregated fro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Emerging evidence suggests brain white matter alterations in adolescents with early-onset psychosis (EOP; age of onset <18 years). However, as neuroimaging methods vary and sample sizes are modest, results remain inconclusive. Using harmonized data processing protocols and a mega-analytic approach, we compared white matter microstructure...
Article
Background Despite efforts to predict suicide risk in children, the ability to reliably identify who will engage in suicide thoughts or behaviours has remained unsuccessful. Aims We apply a novel machine-learning approach and examine whether children with suicide thoughts or behaviours could be differentiated from children without suicide thoughts...
Preprint
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Introduction: Mental disorders are increasingly conceptualized as overlapping spectra with underlying polygenicity, neurodevelopmental etiology, and clinical comorbidity. They share multi-level neurobiological alterations, including network-like brain structural alterations. However, whether alteration patterns covary across mental disord...
Article
Full-text available
Severe mental illnesses (SMI) including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) elevate accelerated brain aging risks. Cardio-metabolic disorders (CMD) are common comorbidities in SMI and negatively impact brain health. We validated a linear quantile regression index (QRI) approach against t...
Article
This review compares the main brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) determined by ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) consortium investigations. We obtained ranked effect sizes for subcortical volumes, regional cortical t...
Preprint
Numerous brain disorders demonstrate structural brain abnormalities, which are thought to arise from molecular perturbations or connectome miswiring. The unique and shared contributions of these molecular and connectomic vulnerabilities to brain disorders remain unknown, and has yet to be studied in a single multi-disorder framework. Using MRI morp...
Preprint
Numerous brain disorders demonstrate structural brain abnormalities, which are thought to arise from molecular perturbations or connectome miswiring. The unique and shared contributions of these molecular and connectomic vulnerabilities to brain disorders remain unknown, and has yet to be studied in a single multi-disorder framework. Using MRI morp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with an increased risk of life-long cognitive impairments, age-related chronic disease, and premature mortality. We investigated evidence for advanced brain ageing in adult SZ patients, and whether this was associated with clinical characteristics in a prospective meta-analytic study conducted by the ENIGMA Schizoph...
Article
COVER ILLUSTRATION This cover illustration is the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium's logo, depicting a human brain surrounded by genetic information. The logo reflects the focus of the consortium which is to study the human brain from around the world through neuroimaging and genetics. This marks the ten-yea...
Article
Disrupted iron homeostasis is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and may be partially modulated by genetic risk factors. Here we evaluated whether subcortical iron deposition is associated with ApoE genotype, which substantially affects risk for late-onset AD. We evaluated differences in subcorti...
Article
Big Data neuroimaging collaborations including Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) integrated worldwide data to identify regional brain deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). We evaluated the sensitivity of translating ENIGMA-defined MDD deficit patterns to the individual level. We treated ENIGMA MDD deficit patter...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling but seem particularly tractable to investigation with translational neuroscience methodologies. Neuroimaging has informed our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders, but research has been limited by small sample sizes and low statistical power, as well as heterogenous imaging meth...
Article
Full-text available
The volume of subcortical structures represents a reliable, quantitative, and objective phenotype that captures genetic effects, environmental effects such as trauma, and disease effects such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma and PTSD represent potent exposures that may interact with genetic markers to influence brain structure and fu...
Article
Background and aims Graph theoretic analysis of structural covariance networks (SCN) provides an assessment of brain organization that has not yet been applied to alcohol dependence (AD). We estimated whether SCN differences are present in adults with AD and heavy drinking adolescents at age 19 and age 14, prior to substantial exposure to alcohol....
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive characterization of the brain’s white matter is critical for improving our understanding of healthy and diseased aging. Here we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to estimate age and sex effects on white matter microstructure in a cross-sectional sample of 15,628 adults aged 45–80 years old (47.6% male, 52.4%...
Article
Aging and Alzheimer’s disease are both associated with alterations in the brain’s white matter. Understanding how the brain’s white matter changes as we age may also improve our understanding of processes involved in Alzheimer’s disease. Here we investigated the ability of both traditional and advanced diffusion‐weighted MRI methods to capture age...
Article
Multi‐shell diffusion MRI (dMRI) biophysical models can estimate intracellular (ICVF), extracellular (ECVF) and free water (ISOVF) volume fractions (VFs) in brain tissue, and may offer insight into Alzheimer's disease pathological processes. These microstructural measures can be calculated in the cortex using a gray matter specific model that may b...
Article
In the UK, individuals with Indian ancestry show lower rates of dementia compared to other ethnicities. Most dementia studies mainly examine individuals of European ancestry and/or higher socioeconomic status, making it unclear if effects generalize to other populations. Here we map age trends in subcortical brain morphometry in later life and inve...
Article
The incidence of dementia in India is 14%, and its prevalence doubles with every five‐year increase in age. Given the lack of ethnic diversity in most brain research to date, it is valuable to study cohorts with diverse genetic and environmental backgrounds, to identify predictors of health and disease that can be generalized to other ethnic groups...
Article
The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype is a major risk factor for late‐onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). APOE2, on the other hand, has a protective effect. While there is evidence supporting an association between APOE genotype and white matter (WM) microstructure, findings have been inconsistent. Studies assessing AD risk in WM microstructure have l...
Article
Two copies of the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele is associated with approximately 10 to 20 times greater risk for late‐onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD)1,2,3, depending on genetic ancestry. Although reduced hippocampus and amygdala volumes are seen in ε4 carriers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD4,5, the relationship between genetic risk an...
Article
Understanding the normative variation in brain structure across life may provide insights into healthy aging as well as neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Women are at greater risk of developing AD, but men tend to show faster rates of subcortical atrophy across adulthood. Sex‐dependent differences in male and female brain agi...
Article
Full-text available
The FAIR principles, as applied to clinical and neuroimaging data, reflect the goal of making research products F indable, A ccessible, I nteroperable, and R eusable. The use of the Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite Toolkit for Anonymized Computation (COINSTAC) platform in the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (EN...
Article
Full-text available
Plasma phosphorylated-tau181 (p-tau181) showed the potential for Alzheimer’s diagnosis and prognosis, but its role in detecting cerebral pathologies is unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether it could serve as a marker for Alzheimer’s pathology in the brain. A total of 1189 participants with plasma p-tau181 and PET data of amyloid, tau or FDG PET wer...
Article
Heavy drinking and HIV infection are independently associated with damage to the brain’s white matter. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether current alcohol consumption, HIV infection, and associated characteristics were associated with indices of white matter microstructural integrity in people living with HIV (PLWH) and sero...
Article
Full-text available
Imaging genetics analyses use neuroimaging traits as intermediate phenotypes to infer the degree of genetic contribution to brain structure and function in health and/or illness. Coefficients of relatedness (CR) summarize the degree of genetic similarity among subjects and are used to estimate the heritability - the proportion of phenotypic varianc...
Article
Background Nicotine and illicit stimulants are very addictive substances. Although associations between grey matter and dependence on stimulants have been frequently reported, white matter correlates have received less attention. Methods Eleven international sites ascribed to the ENIGMA-Addiction consortium contributed data from individuals with d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Persistent sensorimotor impairments after stroke can negatively impact quality of life. The hippocampus is involved in sensorimotor behavior but has not been widely studied within the context of post-stroke upper limb sensorimotor impairment. The hippocampus is vulnerable to secondary degeneration after stroke, and damage to this region could furth...
Article
Full-text available
Up to two-thirds of stroke survivors experience persistent sensorimotor impairments. Recovery relies on the integrity of spared brain areas to compensate for damaged tissue. Deep grey matter structures play a critical role in the control and regulation of sensorimotor circuits. The goal of this work is to identify associations between volumes of sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human brain is a complex organ underlying many cognitive and physiological processes, affected by a wide range of diseases. Genetic associations with macroscopic brain structure are emerging, providing insights into genetic sources of brain variability and risk for functional impairments and disease. However, specific associations with measures...
Article
Full-text available
This Special Issue of Human Brain Mapping is dedicated to a 10-year anniversary of the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium. It reports updates from a broad range of international neuroimaging projects that pool data from around the world to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience. Since ENIGMA was formed i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is sensitive to microstructural changes in the brain that occur with normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is much interest in which dMRI measures are most strongly correlated with clinical measures of AD severity, such as the clinical dementia rating (CDR), and biological processes th...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to compare brain structure between individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Previous studies have generated inconsistent findings, possibly due to small sample sizes, or clinical/analytic heterogeneity. To address these concerns, we combined data from 28 research sites worldwide through th...
Article
Full-text available
Tobacco smoking is an addictive behavior that supports nicotine dependence and is an independent risk factor for cancer and other illnesses. Its neurogenetic mechanisms are not fully understood but may act through alterations in the cerebral white matter (WM). We hypothesized that the vertical pleiotropic pathways, where genetic variants influence...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Identifying brain differences associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) in young people is critical to understanding their development and generating effective approaches to early intervention and prevention. The ENIGMA Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours (ENIGMA-STB) consortium analyzed neuroimaging data harmonized across sites...
Article
Results of neuroimaging datasets aggregated from multiple sites may be biased by site-specific profiles in participants demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as MRI acquisition protocols and scanning platforms. We compared the impact of four different harmonization methods on results obtained from analyses of cortical thickness data: (1...
Preprint
Full-text available
Big Data neuroimaging collaborations including Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) integrated worldwide data to identify regional brain deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). We evaluated the sensitivity of translating ENIGMA-defined MDD deficit patterns to the individual level. We treated ENIGMA MDD deficit patter...
Preprint
Objective A major limitation of current suicide research is the lack of power to identify robust correlates of suicidal thoughts or behaviour. Variation in suicide risk assessment instruments used across cohorts may represent a limitation to pooling data in international consortia. Method Here, we examine this issue through two approaches: (i) an e...