Nawi Ng

Nawi Ng
University of Gothenburg | GU · School of Public Health and Community Medicine

Professor of Global Health

About

177
Publications
51,744
Reads
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5,245
Citations
Introduction
Prof Ng's research focuses on the epidemiology of non-communicable diseases and ageing. He leads five research projects on: (i) poverty and ageing in Myanmar; (ii) implementation research on TB, DM and tobacco control programme in India and Indonesia; (iii) digital coaching for sustainable behaviour change; (iv) developing risk prediction score for cardiovascular diseases and (v) social capital for planning and design of a sustainable neighbourhood.
Additional affiliations
May 2019 - present
Umeå University
Position
  • Professor
March 2019 - present
University of Gothenburg
Position
  • Professor
January 2015 - February 2019
Umeå University
Position
  • Professor
Education
December 2003 - June 2006
Umeå University
Field of study
  • Epidemiology and Public Health
September 2000 - June 2001
Umeå University
Field of study
  • Public Health
September 1992 - February 1999
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Field of study
  • Medicine

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
Full-text available
Background Indonesia is in the middle of a rapid epidemiological transition with an ageing population and increasing exposure to risk factors for chronic conditions. This study examines the relative impacts of obesity, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity, on non-communicable diseases multimorbidity, health service use, catastrophic health...
Article
Background Frailty is a syndrome commonly associated with old age. Social relationships are an essential determinant of frailty progression, and frailty can negatively affect social relationships. Objectives To identify social relationship types among older adults in Europe; to evaluate whether social relationship types differ across European regi...
Article
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BACKGROUND A series of studies have explored the health effects of long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 among older adults. However, few studies have investigated the adverse effect of long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 on frailty, and the results are inconclusive. This study sought to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to ambi...
Article
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The development of social capital is acknowledged as key for sustainable social development. Little is known about how social capital changes over time and how it correlates with sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. This study was conducted in 46 neighbourhoods in Umeå Municipality, northern Sweden. The aim was to examine neighbourhood-level...
Article
Background and aims: The association between the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk is unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether eGFR can be used as a predictor in ASCVD risk assessment. Methods and results: Using baseline data from 28,187 participants from Shanghai Suburban Adult Coho...
Article
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Introduction: Parental factors may explain part of the social patterning of smoking among adolescents. This study aims at assessing the association between adolescent smoking and family characteristics (parental education, family wealth, and religion) and the mediating role of parental factors (smoking, control, and permissiveness towards smoking)...
Article
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Importance Preventive drugs are often underused. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and their detection could possibly improve estimation of the likelihood of CVD and prescription of preventive drugs. Objective To evaluate whether pictorial information on participants’ asymptomatic...
Article
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The objectives are to, for neighborhoods with different levels of social capital, (1) map out the levels of social interactions, emotional support, and instrumental support before the COVID-19 crisis, (2) analyze how social interactions, emotional support, and instrumental support had changed during the pandemic and, (3) analyze changes in self-rat...
Article
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Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: Public Institution(s). Main funding source(s): Region Västerbotten and the Swedish Research Council Background The VIPVIZA trial has previously shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores 1 year after sending pictorial information of carotid ultrasound imaging (Picture 1) t...
Article
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Background Multimorbidity (the presence of two or more non-communicable diseases) is a major growing challenge for many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Yet, its effects on health care costs and financial burden for patients have not been adequately studied. This study investigates the effect of multimorbidity across the different pe...
Article
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Objective Non-adherence to guidelines and preventive measures is a major challenge, particularly so to obtain long-term adherence to lifestyle changes and recommended medication. The objective was to investigate if pictorial information regarding subclinical carotid atherosclerosis’ provided to individuals and physicians gave sustained effects on c...
Article
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This study investigates how the probability to live alone has developed among working age individuals with and without disabilities in Sweden during the period 1993–2011 when extensive political reforms to improve the integration of disabled individuals in society were implemented. The results show that individuals with disabilities are approximate...
Article
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Background and Aims The accuracy of various 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk models has been debatable. We compared two risk algorithms and explored clustering patterns across different risk stratifications among community residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 28,201 residents (aged 40-74 years old) who were free of...
Article
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Introduction: The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) in the Region Västerbotten Sweden is one of the very few cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes globally that is integrated into routine primary health care. The VIP has been shown as a cost-effective intervention to significantly reduce CVD mortality. However, little is known...
Article
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Objectives To quantify tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS), self-reported exposure from online and offline platforms among adolescents in Indonesia. Methods A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted in 2017. In total, 2820 students aged 13–18 years were recruited from 22 schools in seven cities. Respondents reported TAP...
Article
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The association between quality of life (QoL) and social relationships is well established. This paper further analyses whether and how participation in social activities as well as providing and receiving social support, independently, are associated with QoL among the older population in 16 European countries. QoL was measured using the CASP-12 s...
Article
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Objectives To examine non-communicable diseases (NCDs) multimorbidity level and its relation to households’ socioeconomic characteristics, health service use, catastrophic health expenditures and productivity loss. Design This study used panel data of the Indonesian Family Life Survey conducted in 2007 (Wave 4) and 2014 (Wave 5). Setting The orig...
Article
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Background: Several studies in Indonesia have shown the protective effect of women-headed households on the double burden of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition in a household). Many other studies have presented a positive impact on children’s health and conditions when women are educated, have higher social capital and ha...
Article
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Background Failure to promote early detection and better management of hypertension will contribute to the increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to assess the gender differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, together with its associated factors, in China and Sweden. Methods We used dat...
Article
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Background Providing support to others has been shown to be beneficial to older adults. As people age, their health and social relationships change. These changes may also relate to changes in social support provision. We examined the trajectory of instrumental support provision by older people in three European regions throughout 11 years of follo...
Article
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Introduction: Promoting inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable communities is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals ratified in 2015 by 193 UN member states, not least in Sweden. Social sustainability involves preserving particular societal values (e.g., local identity) as well as developing values (e.g., social cohesion) that are percei...
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A broad range of aspects are needed to be taken into consideration in the design and development of personalized coaching systems based on artificial intelligence methodologies. This research presents the initial phase of joining different professional and stakeholder perspectives on behavior change technologies into a flexible design proposal for...
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Background Though visual impairment is a strong predictor for late-life depression, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This paper investigated the contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioural pathways in mediating a vision-depression association. Methods The study used cross-sectional data from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and A...
Article
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COVID-19 shocked health and economic systems leaving millions of people without employment and safety nets. The pandemic disproportionately affects people with substance use disorders (SUDs) due to the collision between SUDs and COVID-19. Comorbidities and risk environments for SUDs are likely risk factors for COVID-19. The pandemic, in turn, dimin...
Article
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We designed a retrospective cohort study for exploring the impact of municipality-level income inequality, based on the Gini 1986, 2004 indices, on all-cause old-age mortality among the older Swedish population during 2005–2009. We controlled for the confounding effects of individual and regional correlates and the lag effects of inequality by usin...
Article
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Aims To investigate to what extent the adoption of local smoke‐free policies (SFPs) in Indonesia in 2007‐2013 was associated with changes in adult smoking behaviour. Design A quasi‐experimental study. Setting Indonesia, 2007 and 2013. Participants A total of 1,052,611 over‐25‐year‐old adults. Data were derived from the 2007 and 2013 Indonesian n...
Article
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Background Banning smoking from public places may prevent adolescent smoking, but there is little evidence on impact of smoke-free policies (SFPs) from low and middle-income countries. This study assessed to what extent the adoption of local SPFs in Indonesia between 2007 and 2013 associated with adolescent smoking. Methods Data on 239,170 adolesc...
Article
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Objective The number of young adults on disability pension (DP) is increasing in European countries, creating a need to understand the related risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether adverse perinatal conditions are associated with receiving a DP early in life. Methods This longitudinal cohort study consisted of all persons (N = 453,22...
Preprint
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Background : Providing support to others may be beneficial for older adults. As people age, their health and social relationships change. These changes may relate to change in social support provision as well. We examined the trajectory of social support provision by older people in three European regions throughout eleven years of follow-up. We th...
Article
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Importance Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the most important risk factor for premature death worldwide. However, hypertension detection and control rates continue to be suboptimal. Objective To assess the association of education and feedback to primary care physicians with population-level SBP and hypertension control rates. Design, S...
Article
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Background: Living alone is increasingly common and has been depicted as an important cause of mortality. We examined the association between living alone and mortality risks among older men and women in northern Sweden, by linking two unique longitudinal datasets. Methods: We used the Linnaeus database, which links several population registers...
Article
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Abstract An evaluation of Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was recently conducted by San Sebastian et al. (BMC Public Health 19:202, 2019). Evaluation of health care interventions of this kind require 1) an understanding of both the design and the nature of the intervention, 2) correct definition of the target population, and 3) careful ch...
Article
Aims Health literacy, the degree to which individuals understand and act upon health information, may have a pivotal role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with low health literacy potentially explaining poorer adherence to prevention guidelines. We investigated the associations between health literacy, ultrasound-detected carotid...
Conference Paper
Objective In poorer communities, smoking has demonstrated as an indicator of social inequalities in mortality. Adolescents from poor family are often exposed to smoking and are more vulnerable to smoke. This study quantified 1) the association between family characteristics and adolescent smoking in Indonesia and 2) the mediating role of the family...
Article
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Background: The recent surge in economic development in Myanmar will also contribute to accelerating the health burden shift from acute infectious to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) across the country. With just 11 years to achieve its goal of universal health coverage by the year 2030, significant efforts will be needed to quantify the sc...
Article
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We designed a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to analyse the associations between neighbourhood social capital and child injures. Register data from the Umeå Simsam Lab in Sweden was used to measure child injuries and demographic and socioeconomic factors at individual, household and neighbourhood level. A social capital score from a previo...
Article
Introduction: Understanding socioeconomic differences for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can offer guidance for the most effective development of both prevention and intervention programmes in different settings. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors for prediabetes and T2DM and to explore the effect of high body mas...
Article
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Background: To determine the optimal cut-off values and evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods: A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted among 35,256 adults aged 20-74 years in Shanghai between June 2016 and Decem...
Article
Background: There is a lack of evidence regarding the impact of changes in waist circumference on disability among older populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This research examines the association between changes in waist circumference with disability in the older populations of Indonesia, and whether the associations are depen...
Article
In the midst of tackling the persistent burden of maternal mortality and infectious diseases, Indonesia is facing an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Although there are increasing national efforts in NCD prevention and control, the worsening trend of NCD risk factors and morbidity is alarming. We provided assessment and discus...
Preprint
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Abstract Background Even though Indonesia has not ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), district and provincial stakeholders are increasingly adopting smoke-free policies (SFPs). This study aimed to 1) assess whether local SFP adoption in Indonesia followed a horizontal or vertical diffusion pattern and 2) identify district c...
Article
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Background: Social capital is a social determinant of health that has an impact on equity and well-being. It may be unequally distributed among any population. The aims of this study are to investigate the distribution of different forms of social capital between men and women in Ukraine and analyse how potential gender inequalities in social capi...
Article
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The low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid population ageing, yet knowledge about disability among older populations in these countries is scarce. This study aims to identify the prevalence and factors associated with disability among people aged 50 years and over in six LMICs. Cross-sectional data from the World Health Org...
Article
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Waist circumference, a measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with all-cause mortality in general adult population. However, the link between abdominal obesity with all-cause mortality in the studies of older adults is unclear. This study aims to determine the association between waist circumference and all-cause mortality in older adults in I...
Article
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Background: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves prevention. Me...
Article
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Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern...
Article
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Exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the health burden related to ambient outdoor air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between exposure to outdoor air pollution and child health in urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted a semi-ecological study among...
Article
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Predictors of decline in health in older populations have been investigated in multiple studies before. Most longitudinal studies of aging, however, assume that dropout at follow-up is ignorable (missing at random) given a set of observed characteristics at baseline. The objective of this study was to address non-ignorable dropout in investigating...
Article
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Background: Primary health care plays an important role in addressing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries. In light of the rapid urbanization of Vietnam, this study aims to explore health professionals' views about the responsiveness of primary health care services at commune health stations, particul...
Article
Background Many low-income countries develop tobacco control policies not only national levels, but also at local levels. The dynamics underlying the development of local-level policies are still poorly understood. This study aimed to map and understand the development of local-level policies regarding smoke-free area, as the main tobacco control s...
Conference Paper
Background Although Indonesia has not ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, it has developed a series of tobacco control policies at the local level. Strong presence of tobacco industry is marked with intensive marketing towards young people. This study assessed the impact of local smoke-free policy (SFP) on prevalence of daily...
Article
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Background Obesity has become a global health challenge as its prevalence has increased globally in recent decades. Studies in high-income countries have shown that obesity is more prevalent among the poor. In contrast, obesity is more prevalent among the rich in low- and middle-income countries, hence requiring different focal points to design pub...
Article
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Background Disability and quality of life are key outcomes for older people. Little is known about how these measures vary with age and gender across lower income and middle-income countries; such information is necessary to tailor health and social care policy to promote healthy ageing and minimise disability. Methods We analysed data from partic...