Nathaniel Kinsey

Nathaniel Kinsey
Virginia Commonwealth University | VCU · Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy
Brainstorming next steps in nonlinear optics...

About

105
Publications
23,817
Reads
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2,836
Citations
Introduction
Nathaniel Kinsey currently works at Virginia Commonwealth University in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Nathaniel does research in Nonlinear Optics, Nanophotonics, Materials Physics, Solid State Physics.
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - August 2016
Purdue University
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • Investigating the nonlinear optical properties of alternative plasmonic films Design, fabricate, and test integrated plasmonic devices using alternative plasmonic materials
May 2011 - July 2012
University of Missouri
Position
  • Master's Student
Description
  • Studied and designed solid state optical switches for RF signals using gallium nitride.
Education
July 2012 - July 2016
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering
May 2011 - July 2012
University of Missouri
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering
August 2007 - May 2011
University of Missouri
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
The discovery, design and development of materials are critically linked to advances in many areas of research, and optics is no exception. Recently, the spectral region in which the index of refraction of a material approaches zero has become a topic of interest owing to fascinating phenomena, such as static light, enhanced nonlinearities, light t...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, nonlinear optics has been used to control the frequency and propagation of light in unique ways enabling a wide range of applications such as ultrafast lasing, sub-wavelength imaging, and novel sensing methods. Through this, a key thread of research in the field has always been the development of new and improved nonlinear materials to...
Article
Full-text available
Major technological breakthroughs are often driven by advancements in materials research, and optics is no different. Over the last few years, near-zero-index (NZI) materials have triggered significant interest owing to their exceptional tunability of optical properties and enhanced light-matter interaction, leading to several demonstrations of com...
Article
Full-text available
Novel materials, with enhanced light–matter interaction capabilities, play an essential role in achieving the lofty goals of nonlinear optics. Recently, epsilon‐near‐zero (ENZ) media have emerged as a promising candidate to enable the enhancement of several nonlinear processes including refractive index modulation and harmonic generation. Here, the...
Article
Full-text available
The conversion of a photon’s frequency has long been a key application area of nonlinear optics. It has been discussed how a slow temporal variation of a material’s refractive index can lead to the adiabatic frequency shift (AFS) of a pulse spectrum. Such a rigid spectral change has relevant technological implications, for example, in ultrafast sig...
Article
Plasmonic-based integrated nanophotonic modulators, despite their promising features, have one key limiting factor of large insertion loss (IL), which limits their practical potential. To combat this, we utilize a plasmon-assisted approach through the lens of surface-to-volume ratio to realize a 4-slot based EAM with an extinction ratio (ER) of 2.6...
Article
Full-text available
Refractive index invariably describes the speed at which light passes through materials, and subsequently its perceived momentum. But what happens to these quantities as the index becomes zero? A new work explores this question, highlighting how momentum in near-zero-index materials affects linear optical processes.
Article
Full-text available
In nonlinear optics, significant effort is concentrated on improving the strength and efficiency of interactions; however, experimentally investigating nonlinear materials is a complex, time-consuming, and costly investment. Moreover, it is often challenging to isolate, study, and optimize material parameters in an experiment due to complexities in...
Article
Subwavelength epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) films with decorated nanoantennae are an emerging platform for coupling radiation into the ENZ mode: recent experiments have shown how strong coupling between the two systems underpins significant nonlinear effects. Field enhancement and the temporal dynamic of the radiation in ENZ films strongly coupled with p...
Article
Electromagnetic radiation when coupled to collective oscillations of free electrons, dubbed as plasmonics, makes it possible to manipulate light at dimensions well below the diffraction limit and substantially enhances light–matter interaction. Plasmonics has already enabled many novel technologies with a wide variety of application in chemical and...
Article
Full-text available
A mechanically robust metasurface exhibiting plasmonic colors across the visible and the near-IR spectrum is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Thin TiN layers (41 nm in thickness) prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) are patterned with sub-wavelength apertures (75 nm to 150 nm radii), arranged with hexagonal periodicity....
Article
Full-text available
Titanium nitride (TiN) is a highly sought‐after material for plasmonics and nanophotonics applications owing to its gold‐like but tunable optical properties. Its prodigious potential in plasmonic devices has been demonstrated on sapphire or bulk MgO substrates. For a transformational impact, high optical quality TiN on Si is required instead, which...
Data
Raw data from D. Fomra et al "Al:ZnO as a platform for near-zero-index photonics: enhancing the doping efficiency of atomic layer deposition" Opt. Mater. Express 10(12), 2020.
Conference Paper
We report a plasmon-driven thermomechanical switch, which is actuated using the ohmic losses of plasmons as a highly concentrated and thermally isolated heat source. This device operates with sub-15ns switching time and sub-10mW power consumption.
Conference Paper
We demonstrate an on-chip hybrid plasmonic-waveguide based trapping system to combine electro-thermo-plasmonic flow and negative thermophoretic force with optical gradient force in realizing stable (8 KBT) and fast (within seconds) trapping of sub-nm particles (10 nm).
Preprint
Full-text available
Novel materials, with enhanced light-matter interaction capabilities, play an essential role in achieving the lofty goals of nonlinear optics. Recently, Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) media have emerged as a promising candidate to enable the enhancement of several nonlinear processes including refractive index modulation and harmonic generation. Here, we...
Data
Raw data from D. Fomra et al "Plasmonic titanium nitride via atomic layer deposition: a low-temperature route" J. Appl. Phys. 127(10), 2020.
Preprint
Full-text available
For decades, nonlinear optics has been used to control the frequency and propagation of light in unique ways enabling a wide range of applications such as ultrafast lasing, sub-wavelength imaging, and novel sensing methods. Through this, a key thread of research in the field has always been the development of new and improved nonlinear materials to...
Article
Full-text available
To integrate plasmonic devices into industry, it is essential to develop scalable and CMOS compatible plasmonic materials. In this work, we report high plasmonic quality titanium nitride (TiN) on c-plane sapphire grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. TiN with low losses, high metallicity, and a plasma frequency below 500 nm was achieved...
Preprint
Full-text available
To integrate plasmonic devices into industry, it is essential to develop scalable and CMOS compatible plasmonic materials. In this work, we report high plasmonic quality titanium nitride (TiN) on c-plane sapphire by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). TiN with low losses and high metallicity was achieved at temperatures below 500{\deg...
Article
Full-text available
Titanium nitride is widely used in plasmonic applications, due to its robustness and optical properties which resemble those of gold. Despite this interest, the nonlinear properties have only recently begun to be investigated. In this work, beam deflection and non-degenerate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy (800 nm pump and 650 nm probe) were us...
Article
Full-text available
Epsilon-near-zero materials have recently come onto the scene as promising new nonlinear optical materials. However, this field is quite crowded and it is prudent to ask whether they possess any key features which will elevate them above other candidates. It is our opinion that they in fact possess two such features, a simultaneous intrinsic and ex...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate adiabatic frequency conversion using epsilon near zero (ENZ) materials and show that while the maximum frequency conversion for a given change of permittivity does not exhibit increase in the vicinity of epsilon=0 condition. However, that change can be achieved in a shorter length, and if the pump is also in the ENZ vicinity, at a lo...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate adiabatic frequency conversion using epsilon near zero (ENZ) materials and show that while the maximum frequency conversion for a given change of permittivity does not exhibit increase in the vicinity of {\epsilon}=0 condition. However, that change can be achieved in a shorter length, and if the pump is also in the ENZ vicinity, at a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To optimize the excitation and predict behavior of nonlinear interactions in near-zero-index media, physically accurate models are needed. We describe a phenomenological model that can extract standard coefficients and optical excitation conditions.
Conference Paper
We demonstrate high plasmonic quality TiN on Si (001) via PE-ALD. Employment of an MgO buffer improved the figure of merit (FoM) at 1550 nm from 2.0 to 2.5 and the peak FoM from 2.4 to 2.8.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Patterned titanium nitride films grown via PE-ALD exhibit plasmonic colors along with being scratch resistant and durable making them an attractive choice for applications that require robust materials such as security holograms and labels.
Article
Full-text available
A solid-state hybrid photonic-plasmonic (HPP) waveguide geometry has been experimentally demonstrated with plasmonic titanium nitride. The configuration is made with robust fabrication techniques, CMOS-compatible materials, and features a straightforward design with dielectric cladding layers that exhibit a significant index mismatch with the subst...
Article
Full-text available
A nearly monolayer, closely‐packed nanoparticle deposition is demonstrated by a dual‐droplet inkjet printing process. The colloidal nanoparticles in a wetting droplet spread on a supporting droplet and self‐assemble into a monolayer film at the interface. Upon solvent evaporation, the nearly monolayer deposition forms on the substrate, which exhibi...
Article
Full-text available
For nearly two decades, researchers in the field of plasmonics 1 -which studies the coupling of electromagnetic waves to the motion of free electrons near the surface of a metal 2 -have sought to realize subwavelength optical devices for information technology3-6, sensing7,8, nonlinear optics9,10, optical nanotweezers 11 and biomedical applications...
Article
Full-text available
The well‐known coffee‐ring effect causes colloidal particles to convectively transport toward the contact line of an inkjet droplet leading to a nonuniform deposition of the colloidal particles. In this work, the self‐assembly of colloidal particles in a dual‐droplet inkjet printing configuration to produce a nearly monolayer closely packed deposit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigate the color of polystyrene metasurfaces printed via a novel dual-droplet ink-jet technique resulting in a closely-packed hexagonal formation through self-assembly. Simulations, Mie Theory, and Bragg Diffraction calculations are utilized for spectra validation.
Conference Paper
Using the optical beam deflection method we measure the transient optical nonlinearity of titanium nitride thin films deposited at 350° and 800° C around their respective epsilon near-zero wavelengths.
Conference Paper
We show that Ohmic losses in plasmonic modulators can be bypassed by using a resonant scheme. This enables the first modulator that unites low-loss, high-speed, compact footprint and low-electrical energy consumption.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigate the quality of atomic layer deposited Titanium nitride thin films and find metallicity close to high quality sputtered films on both sapphire and silicon for a deposition temperature of 375°C.
Conference Paper
We investigate and find that the quality of titanium nitride grown at 350°C and 375°C using atomic layer deposition on silicon and sapphire substrates respectively are approaching the metallicity of sputtered films.
Article
Full-text available
By combining first principles theoretical calculations and experimental optical and structural characterization such as spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray spectroscopy, and electron microscopy, we study the dielectric permittivity and plasmonic properties of ultrathin TiN films at an atomistic level. Our results indicate a remarkably persistent meta...
Article
Full-text available
Plasmonics is a rapidly developing field at the boundary of physical optics and condensed matter physics. It studies phenomena induced by and associated with surface plasmons—elementary polar excitations bound to surfaces and interfaces of good nanostructured metals. This Roadmap is written collectively by prominent researchers in the field of plas...
Article
Full-text available
Nanophotonics and metamaterials have revolutionized the way we think about optical space (ɛ,μ), enabling us to engineer the refractive index almost at will, to confine light to the smallest of the volumes, and to manipulate optical signals with extremely small footprints and energy requirements. Significant efforts are now devoted to finding suitab...
Data
Supplementary Notes, Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Discussion and Supplementary References
Article
Full-text available
Overcoming the challenge of growing ultrathin metallic films is of great importance for practical applications of nanoplasmonic structures. In the present work, epitaxial, ultrathin (<10 nm) films of plasmonic TiN are grown on MgO using DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The optical properties of the films are studied through variable angle spectros...
Article
Full-text available
The field of nanophotonics has ushered in a new paradigm of light manipulation by enabling deep subdiffraction confinement assisted by metallic nanostructures. However, a key limitation which has stunted a full development of high-performance nanophotonic devices is the typical large losses associated with the constituent metals. Although silver ha...
Article
Full-text available
The field of integrated plasmonics is multifaceted in a way that few other disciplines in applied science are, mainly due to its intrinsic "hybrid" nature of combining materials and strategies borrowed from electronics and photonics. Because of the multitude of angles under which the plasmonic world could be analyzed, and also because of the intrin...
Conference Paper
Towards the fabrication of all-dielectric nanophotonic devices with tunable capabilities, we combined interband and intraband nonlinearities in aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films thus enlarging the material bandwidth and gaining ultra-fast control over the transmitted spectrum.
Article
Full-text available
The development of optical metamaterials enabled new light?matter interaction effects based on nano-structural engineering rather than the natural properties of the constituent materials. This facilitated applications unachievable with natural materials; however, practical applications of the proposed three-dimensional devices are limited by costly...