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Nathalie Le Brun

Nathalie Le Brun
Imagin@t

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76
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Publications

Publications (76)
Article
The JeuxDeMots project aims to build a broad knowledge base in French, both common sense and specialised, using games, contributory approaches, and inference mechanisms. A dozen games have been designed as part of this project, each one allowing collecting specific information, or to consolidate the information acquired through the other games. Thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GWAP design might have a tremendous effect on its popularity of course but also on the quality of the data collected. In this paper, a comparison is undertaken between two GWAPs for building term association lists, namely JeuxDeMots and Quicky Goose. After comparing both game designs, the Cohen kappa of associative lists in various configurations i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present in this paper the voting games with a purpose that were developed around JeuxDeMots, a central game aiming at creating a lexical network for French. We show that such lightweight applications can help collect quality language resources very efficiently and we advocate for a common platform for such voting games for language resources.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Here we present the assessment of 10 years of experience concerning the JDM project, a set of GWAPs for NLP, among which a main game combined with many satellite games aims to build a large lexical-semantic network for the French language. We highlight the lessons learned from this experience for creating lexical resources through a never ending pr...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents Ambiguss, a Game With A Purpose designed both to collect ambiguous sentences and build a Sense Annotated Corpus. It also generates a lexicon of polysemous words associated with the glosses that illustrate the different meanings. Early evaluations indicate that the approach is relevant and efficient.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Correcting errors in a data set is a critical issue. This task can be either hand-made by experts, or by crowdsourcing methods or automatically done using algorithms. Although even if the rate of errors present in a given lexical network is rather low, it is important to reduce it. We present here automatic methods for detecting potential secondary...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extracting semantic relations from texts is a good way to build and supply a knowledge base, an indispensable resource for text analysis. We propose and evaluate the combination of three ways of producing lexical-semantic relations.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extracting semantic relations from texts is a good way to build and supply a knowledge base, an indispensable resource for text analysis. We propose and evaluate the combination of three ways of producing lexical-semantic relations.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Correcting errors in a data set is a critical issue. This task can be either hand-made by experts, or by crowdsourcing methods, or automatically done using algorithms. We present here automatic methods for detecting potential "secondary" errors that would result from automatic inference mechanisms when they rely on an "initial" error manually detec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cet article présente une méthode de construction d'une ressource lexicale de sentiments/émotions. Son originalité est d'associer le crowdsourcing via un GWAP (Game With A Purpose) à un algorithme de propagation, les deux ayant pour support et source de données le réseau lexical JeuxDeMots. Nous décrivons le jeu permettant de collecter des informati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a method for building a sentiment lexicon. Its originality is to combine crowdsourcing via a Game With A Purpose (GWAP) with automated propagation of sentiments through a spreading algorithm, both using the lexical JeuxDeMots network as data source and substratum. We present the game designed to collect sentiment data, and the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sentiment analysis from a text requires amongst others having a polarity lexical resource. We designed LikeIt, a GWAP (Game With A Purpose) that allows to attribute a positive, negative or neutral value to a term, and thus obtain a resulting polarity for most of the terms of the freely available lexical network of the JeuxDeMots project. We present...
Chapter
When it comes to resort to crowdsourcing through gaming, the medical sector is very active, whether at the research and the development of innovative processing techniques level, or that of support to diagnosis. NANODOC concerns nanomedicine and aims at the design and development of nanoparticle-based treatments. From the beginning of the game, the...
Chapter
This chapter presents the main Games With A Purpose (GWAPs) currently available in biology and biochemistry. NANOCRAFTER approaches the theme of the synthesis of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments by using the pairing properties of nucleotides forming DNA, and especially the displacement mechanisms of strands that occur spontaneously when sever...
Chapter
Games With A Purpose (GWAPs) constitute a way to address the collaborative creation of resources, where Internauts contribute to the creation of a resource while playing, usually even without suspecting it. This chapter presents the delicate question of their acquisition after explaining the need for lexical resources in natural language processing...
Chapter
This chapter shows the great diversity of studies and/or research areas likely to give rise to games with a purpose (GWAP). The diversity comes with a relative disparity regarding the popularity of the games, which itself directly reflects the interest they generate through the mass of potential contributors that the general public represents. To c...
Chapter
The objective of the JEUXDEMOTS (JDM) project is to build a large lexical-semantic network for the French language. It involves a collection of games and counter-games that together contribute in one way or another to this objective. This chapter discusses the limitations and biases of each of the games of the project and shows how counter-games ca...
Book
Human brains can be seen as knowledge processors in a distributed system. Each of them can achieve, conscious or not, a small part of a treatment too important to be done by one. These are also "hunter / gatherers" of knowledge. Provided that the number of contributors is large enough, the results are usually better quality than if they were the re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Do you like it? or not ? LikeIt, a game to build a polarity lexical resource The ability to analyze the feelings that emerge from a text requires having a polarity lexical resource. In the lexical network JeuxDeMots we designed LikeIt, a GWAP that allows attributing a positive, negative or neutral value to a term, and thus obtaining for each term a...
Book
Les jeux avec but, ou GWAP, permettent de collecter des données ou de résoudre des problèmes trop complexes, ou trop coûteux en termes de moyens pour être résolus par des machines. Ces activités ludiques, qui représentent un type de jeu sérieux, sont délicates à concevoir, car elles doivent être à la fois attrayantes et utiles. Jeux et intelligenc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Natural Language Processing and semantic analysis in particular, color information may be important in order to properly process textual information (word sense disambiguation, and indexing). More specifically, knowing which colors are generally associated to terms is a crucial information. In this paper, we explore how crowdsourcing through a g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Natural Language Processing and semantic analysis in particular, color information may be important in order to properly process textual information (word sense disambiguation, and indexing). More specifically, knowing what colors are generally associated with what terms is crucial information. In this paper, we explore how crowdsourcing through...
Article
Full-text available
Coevolution in mutualistic symbiosis can yield, because the interacting partners share common interests, to coadaptation: hosts perform better when associated with symbionts of their own locality than with others coming from more distant places. However, as the two partners of a symbiosis might also experience conflicts over part of their life cycl...
Article
Isolation and identification of native nematode-bacterial associations in the field are necessary for successful control of endemic pests in a particular location. No study has yet been undertaken to recover and identify EPN in metropolitan France. In the present paper, we provide results of a survey of EPN and their symbiotic bacteria conducted in...
Article
Natural hybridization of Barbus barbus and B. meridionalis has been demonstrated in southern France. A genetical study (isozyme electrophoresis) of these species and their hybrids revealed the characteristics of hybridization. Ten enzyme markers and five morphological parameters were used to distinguish between the two parent species. Enzymatic div...
Article
In this work, we investigate the investment of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes (Rhabditidae) in their symbiotic association with Xenorhabdus bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae). Their life cycle comprises two phases: (1) a free stage in the soil, where infective juveniles (IJs) of the nematode carry bacteria in a digestive vesicle and search for i...
Article
Full-text available
Steinernema species are entomopathogenic nematodes associated with Xenorhabdus bacteria. The life cycle of these associations is composed of two stages: (1) a free stage in the soil, where infective juveniles (IJs), which carry bacteria in their guts, search for new insect hosts; and (2) a parasitic stage, where the IJs infect insects, release thei...
Article
Full-text available
Symbioses between invertebrates and prokaryotes are biological systems of particular interest in order to study the evolution of mutualism. The symbioses between the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema and their bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus are very tractable model systems. Previous studies demonstrated (i) a highly specialized relationship be...
Article
Full-text available
The level of specialization of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scapterisci with its native Xenorhabdus symbiont was investigated by testing (1) the influence of non-native bacterial strains on nematode fitness within an insect-host (Galleria mellonella) and (2) specificity of the association between the nematode infective juveniles and no...
Article
In this paper, we investigate the level of specialization of the symbiotic association between an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae) and its mutualistic native bacterium (Xenorhabdus nematophila). We made experimental combinations on an insect host where nematodes were associated with non-native symbionts belonging to the same spec...
Article
Full-text available
Steinernema species are entomopathogenic nematodes. They are symbiotically associated with Enterobacteriaceae of the genus Xenorhabdus. These nematode-bacteria symbioses are extremely diversified and constitute an important new model in ecology and evolution to investigate symbioses between microbes and invertebrates. However, no study has so far a...
Article
A previous study showed that the susceptibility of hybrids between two Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus did not apply to every parasite. The authors proposed that only parasites which exerted enough constraints would induce the selection of poorly compatible systems of resistance in the subspecies. This study completes the previous...
Article
Derothe, J.-M., Le Brun, N., Loubes, C., Perriat-Sanguinet, M., and Moulia, C. 1999.Trypanosoma musculi:Compared levels of parasitosis in wild and laboratory strains ofMus musculusmice.Experimental Parasitology91,196–198.
Article
Protoancylodiscoides malapteruri n. sp. Monogne parasite branchial du poisson lectrique Malapterurus electricus Gmelin a t rcolt au Cameroun dans une seule localit du bassin de la Sanaga. Ce parasite est caractris par la prsence, au niveau du hapteur, de deux onchia (l'un ventral, l'autre dorsal), de quatre types d'uncinuli et, au niveau de l'appar...
Article
This chapter focuses on the mouse genetic control of the early response against Leishmania/Salmonella/Mycobacterium infections, which provides one of the best examples of successful linkage between the phenotype of susceptibility/resistance of inbred mice and their genetic background. The chapter discusses the influence of the genes in the major hi...
Article
Full-text available
The resistance and susceptibility to the intestinal pinworm Aspiculuris tetraptera, a natural parasite of the house mouse Mus musculus, is experimentally analysed using both the F1 from wild-type mice of the two subspecies (M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus) and the F1 from different laboratory inbred mice. The results show that: (i) the F1 from...
Article
In the hybrid zone of the two mouse subspecies Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus, mice with hybrid genotypes harbour, on the average, more helminth parasites (cestodes and nematodes) than mice of the two parental taxa. In order to determine the roles played by genetic parameters in this phenomenon, mice with recombined and parental...
Article
In southern France, Diplozoon gracile (Monogenea, Polyopisthocotylea), parasitizes four sympatric cyprinids. One of these host species, Barbus meridionalis, naturally hybridizes with another species of barbel, Barbus, barbus, which is never parasitized by D. gracile under natural conditions. This hybridization has previously been studied and descri...
Article
In southern France, Diplozoon gracile (Monogenea, Polyopisthocotylea), parasitizes four sympatric cyprinids. One of these host species, Barbus meridionalis, naturally hybridizes with another species of barbel, Barbus barbus, which is never parasitized by D. gracile under natural conditions. This hybridization has previously been studied and describ...
Article
Full-text available
La relation habituelle et nécessaire entre systématique et écologie s'impose lorsque le sujet d'étude est une population de parasites, comme elle s'impose pour les populations d'animaux libres. En ce sens, le point de vue du parasitologiste n'a rien d'original. Cependant, le parasite vit dans un milieu vivant, donc mortel, hétérogène, reproductible...
Chapter
Invasions by parasites which have been studied in Continental Europe could occur in two different ecological situations: either the invasion had no link with a change in the biocenosis, and spread out from an initial focus into preexisting potential hosts, or it resulted from the introduction of one or several hosts harbouring parasites which could...
Article
Diplozoon gracile (Polyopisthocotylea) parasitizes Gobio gobio, Barbus meridionalis, Telestes soufia and Phoxinus phoxinus, which live in sympatry in a tributary of the river Herault, France. D. gracile displays a differential host settlement strategy, reflected by variations in prevalence and intensity between the host species. Parasite prevalence...
Article
Different populations of the genus Diplozoon have been investigated in southern France by genetical analysis and experimental infestations. They represent a complex of four species: D. nipponicum which parasitizes Cyprinus carpio can be clearly distinguished from the others by significant morphoanatomical particularities, large genetical difference...
Article
The evolutionary geographic origin of Diplozoon and Octomacrum (Monogenea, Polyopisthocotylea) is discussed. Diplozoon occurs in Eurasia and Africa, whereas the distribution of Octomacrum is limited to North-America. These two monogeneans likely had a common progenitor originating from the Pacific. This hypothesis is suggested by the morpho-anatomi...
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary geographic origin of Diplozoon and Octomacrum (Monogenea, Polyopisthocotylea) is discussed. Diplozoon occurs in Eurasia and Africa, whereas the distribution of Octomacrum is limited to North-America. These two monogeneans likely had a common proge­ nitor originating from the Pacific. This hypothesis is suggested by the morpho-anato...
Article
Full-text available
Monogeneans were obtained from the Eel, Anguilla anguilla from fresh water in southeastern France; on the basis of adult morphology they were identified as Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae. The chaetotaxy, ciliated cells, excretory system and haptor of the oncomiracidium are described for the first time. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon shows a s...
Article
Diplozoon is known to display an exceptional biology of reproduction: the hermaphroditic adults are permanently fused together and their genital ducts communicate. In contrast to all other polyopisthocotylean monogeneans in which the spermatozoa show an homogeneous biflagellate structure, the spermatozoon of Diplozoon is aflagellate. It is filiform...
Article
Full-text available
The spermatozoon of Diplozoon gracile, studied by electron microscopy, does not show any flagellum, but contains numerous longitudinal singlet microtubules. This is the first reported case of an aflagellate spermatozoon in the Monogenea and even in the parasitic Platyhelminthes in general.

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Project
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