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ABSTRACT: Objectives Anticancer indirubins are poorly soluble in water. Here, digestion of four self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing E804 (indirubin-3′-oxime 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ether) was compared by dynamic lipolysis and bioavailability studies. Used lipids were either medium-chain or long-chain glycerides.MethodsSEDDS E804 were developed. In-vitro lipolysis was carried out at pH 6.5 (37°C) by adding pancreatic lipase (800 U/ml) and controlling by CaCl2 and NaOH addition. E804 content was quantified in the aqueous micellar phase and precipitate using HPLC. Oral bioavailability was determined in rats. Plasma drug content was determined by liquid chromatography (LC)–mass spectrometry.Key findingsAll formulations reserved E804 in the aqueous micellar phase up to 60 min. Precipitation proceeded towards the end of lipolysis up to 45%. Lowest level of precipitation (21%) occurred with long-chain lipids (LC-SEDDS). However, lipolysis was not really discriminative between formulations as the drug mainly stayed in solution. Oral administration of formulations resulted in similar bioavailability of E804 with no significantly different area under the concentration curve. Only medium-chain self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems revealed shorter Tmax compared with the other formulations.ConclusionE804 had a similar performance in four lipid/surfactant systems. All formulations increased the bioavailability of E804 with no significant difference.
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ABSTRACT: Indirubin and its derivatives have been shown to interrupt the cell cycle by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases, explaining their long-time use in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia. A potent derivative of indirubin, indirubin-3'-oxime 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ether (E804), has been shown to block the Src-Stat3 and Src-Stat5 signaling pathway in human cancer cells, inducing apoptosis. The anticancer effects of E804, however, cannot be easily examined in vivo because of its poor water solubility and low absorption. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) containing E804 for enhancing its solubility and bioavailability. Solubility of E804 was determined in various vehicles, and pseudoternary phase diagram was used to evaluate the self-emulsifying existence area. The SNEDDS composed of Capmul MCM (oil), Solutol HS 15 (surfactant), and polyethylene glycol 400 (cosurfactant) on the ratio of 20.5:62.5:16 loaded 1.5% of E804. The particle size of droplets was found to be 16.8 and 140 nm, and SNEDDS was stable after freeze-thaw cycles and upon dilution in HCl 0.1 N and pH 7.4 HBSS++. The ability of formulation for absorption enhancement was studied in rats in vivo after oral administration. The results showed that the developed SNEDDS increased the E804 bioavailability 984.23% compared with the aqueous suspension. Our studies for the first time show that the developed SNEDDS can be used as a possible formulation for E804 to improve its solubility and oral bioavailability. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
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ABSTRACT: The active component of the traditional Chinese medicine, indirubin, exerts anticancer effect on different cancer cell lines. E804, a potent derivative of indirubin inhibits the activation of Stat3 and Stat5 in chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML) cells. However, physicochemical properties and permeation rate of the compound relevant to the drug formulation have never been reported. Therefore, the ionization constant (pKa), lipophilicity (log D/P), aqueous and organic solubility of E804 and its permeation across Caco-2 cells were investigated. Both high throughput and traditional determinations were used in this study. The Caco-2 cell permeation assay was carried out in Poloxamer 188/HBSS++ solution in order to maintain the solubility of drug. The potential P-gp (P-glycoprotein) interaction for E804 was determined through Calcein-AM uptake assay. The results showed that E804 did not have a detectable pKa in the range of pH 2-11. Log D (distribution coefficient) and Log P (partition coefficient) were determined to be 3.54± 0.03. Aqueous solubility test revealed that E804 is practically insoluble in water. Among organic solvents E804 showed the highest solubility in DMSO. The Papp A→B and Papp B→A across Caco-2 cell monolayer were 2.0 ± 0.25 x 10(-6) cm/s and 1.14± 0.12 x 10(-6) cm/s respectively, and the calculated efflux ratio (ER) was 0.57. Calcein-AM uptake assay showed that E804 was not a strong substrate for P-gp. The results indicate that solubility is the major rate limiting step for the drug permeation. The high membrane permeability makes E804 promising for the oral delivery. Therefore, further investigation on solubility of E804 in lipid vehicles is needed to determine an appropriate formulation for the drug.