Naphak Modhiran

Naphak Modhiran
The University of Queensland | UQ · School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

60
Publications
10,870
Reads
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1,337
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2016 - March 2017
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Fellow
May 2010 - January 2013
Mahidol University
Position
  • Research Assistant
April 2009 - January 2010
Mahidol University
Position
  • Teaching Assistance
Description
  • Biostatistic
Education
April 2013 - December 2016
School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience
Field of study
  • Virology and Immunology
April 2008 - April 2010
Mahidol University
Field of study
  • Virology and Immunology
April 2004 - March 2007
Mahidol University
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic response has shown how vaccine platform technologies can be used to rapidly and effectively counteract a novel emerging infectious disease. The speed of development for mRNA and vector-based vaccines outpaced those of subunit vaccines, however, subunit vaccines can offer advantages in terms of safety and stability. Here we des...
Article
Full-text available
Binjari virus (BinJV) is a lineage II or dual-host affiliated insect-specific flavivirus previously demonstrated as replication-deficient in vertebrate cells. Previous studies have shown that BinJV is tolerant to exchanging its structural proteins (prM-E) with pathogenic flaviviruses, making it a safe backbone for flavivirus vaccines. Here, we repo...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to pose an enormous health challenge globally. The ongoing emergence of variants of concern has resulted in decreased vaccine efficacy necessitating booster immunizations. This was particularly highlighted by the recent emergence of the Omicron variant, which contains over 30 mutations in the spike protein...
Article
Full-text available
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple waves of SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged. Of particular concern is the omicron variant, which harbors 28 mutations in the spike glycoprotein receptor binding and N-terminal domains relative to the ancestral strain. The high mutability of SARS-CoV-2 therefore poses significant hurdles for developme...
Article
Full-text available
During 2015–2016, outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Southeast Asia and the Americas. Most ZIKV infections in humans are asymptomatic, while clinical manifestation is usually a self-limiting febrile disease with maculopapular rash. However, ZIKV is capable of inducing a range of severe neurological complications collectively described as co...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest public health threat facing the world today. Multiple vaccines have been approved; however, the emergence of viral variants such as the recent Omicron raises the possibility of booster doses to achieve adequate protection. In Brazil, the CoronaVac (Sinovac, Beijing, China) vaccine was used; however, it is import...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a global crisis, resulting in 0.5 billion infections and over 6 million deaths as of March 2022. Fortunately, infection and hospitalization rates were curbed due to the rollout of DNA and mRNA vaccines. However, the efficacy of these vaccines significantly drops a few months post immunization, from 88% down to 47% in...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to disrupt essential health services in 90 percent of countries today. The spike (S) protein found on the surface of the causative agent, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been the prime target for current vaccine research since antibodies directed against the S protein were found to neutra...
Article
Full-text available
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cell surface polysaccharide recently identified as a coreceptor with the ACE2 protein for the S1 spike protein on SARS-CoV-2 virus, providing a tractable new therapeutic target. Clinically used heparins demonstrate an inhibitory activity but have an anticoagulant activity and are supply-limited, necessitating alternative s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest public health threat facing the globe today. Multiple vaccines have been approved, however the emergence of viral variants such as the recent Omicron, raises the possibility of booster doses to achieve adequate protection. In Brazil, the CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccine was used, however it’s important to assess the...
Preprint
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease, however, an increasing number of reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection can also cause severe neurological manifestations, including precipitating cases of probable Parkinson’s disease. As microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a major driver of neurodegeneration, here...
Preprint
Full-text available
The complement system has been heavily implicated in severe COVID-19 with clinical studies revealing widespread gene induction, deposition, and activation. However, the mechanism by which complement is activated in this disease remains incompletely understood. Herein we examined the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and complement by inoculating the...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine whether SARS-CoV-2 can trigger complement activation, the pathways that are involved and the functional significance of the resultant effect. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 was inoculated into a human lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood model, which contains a full repertoire of complement factors and leukocytes that express compl...
Article
Full-text available
This protocol describes an ELISA-based procedure for accurate measurement of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-receptor binding domain (RBD) neutralization efficacy by murine immune serum. The procedure requires a small amount of S-protein/RBD and angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). A high-throughput, simple ELISA technique is employed. Plate-coated-RBD...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza viruses cause a significant number of infections and deaths annually. In addition to seasonal infections, the risk of an influenza virus pandemic emerging is extremely high owing to the large reservoir of diverse influenza viruses found in animals and the co-circulation of many influenza subtypes which can reassort into novel strains. Dev...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 160 million people and resulted in more than 3.3 million deaths, and despite the availability of multiple vaccines, the world still faces many challenges with their rollout. Here, we use the high-density microarray patch (HD-MAP) to deliver a SARS-CoV-2 spike subuni...
Article
Full-text available
Nipah virus (NiV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) possess two surface glycoproteins involved in cellular attachment and membrane fusion, both of which are potential targets for vaccines. The majority of vaccine development is focused on the attachment (G) protein of NiV, which is the immunodominant target. In contrast, the fusion (F) protein...
Article
Full-text available
The use of dengue virus (DENV) vaccines has been hindered by the complexities of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Current late-stage vaccine candidates utilize attenuated and chimeric DENVs that produce particles of varying maturities. Antibodies that are elicited by preferentially exposed epitopes on immature virions have been linked to incre...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 uses the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor for cell attachment and entry, with mouse ACE2 (mACE2) unable to support infection. Herein we describe an ACE2-lentivirus system and illustrate its utility for in vitro and in vivo SARS-CoV-2 infection models. Transduction of non-permissive cell lines with hACE2 imparted replication competence, and tr...
Article
Full-text available
A recent study proposed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hijacks the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition machinery to integrate into the DNA of infected cells. If confirmed, this finding could have significant clinical implications. Here, we apply deep (>50×) long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing to HEK293T...
Preprint
Full-text available
This protocol describes an ELISA-based procedure for accurate measurement of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-receptor binding domain (RBD) neutralization efficacy by murine immune serum. The procedure requires a small amount of S-protein/RBD and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). A high-throughput, simple ELISA technique is employed. Plate-coated-RBD...
Article
Full-text available
The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome cor-onavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We demonstrate that despite the large size of the viral RNA genome (~30 kb), infectious full-length cDNA is readily assembled in vitro by a circular polymerase extension reaction (CPER) methodology without the need for technically demanding...
Article
Full-text available
The epidemic emergence of relatively rare and geographically isolated flaviviruses adds to the ongoing disease burden of viruses such as dengue. Structural analysis is key to understand and combat these pathogens. Here, we present a chimeric platform based on an insect-specific flavivirus for the safe and rapid structural analysis of pathogenic vir...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 has infected over 160 million people and resulted in more than 3.3 million deaths, and we still face many challenges in the rollout of vaccines. Here, we use the high-density microarray patch to deliver a SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit vaccine directly to the skin. We show the vaccine, dry-coated on the patch is thermostable, and delivery of s...
Preprint
A recent study proposed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hijacks the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition machinery to integrate into the DNA of infected cells. If confirmed, this finding could have significant clinical implications. Here, we applied deep (>50x) long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing to HEK293...
Article
Full-text available
Flaviviruses are the cause of severe human diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks. These viruses use a potent fusion machinery to enter target cells that needs to be restrained during viral assembly and egress. A molecular chaperone, premembrane (prM) maintains the virus particles in an immature, fusion-incompetent state until they exit the c...
Article
Background Given the scale of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the development of vaccines based on different platforms is essential, particularly in light of emerging viral variants, the absence of information on vaccine-induced immune durability, and potential paediatric use. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted su...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Efforts to develop and deploy effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) continue at pace. Here, we describe rational antigen design through to manufacturability and vaccine efficacy of a prefusion‐stabilised spike (S) protein, Sclamp, in combination with the licensed adjuvant MF59 ‘MF59C.1’ (...
Article
Full-text available
The hallmarks of COVID-19 are higher pathogenicity and mortality in the elderly compared to children. Examining baseline SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive immunological responses, induced by circulating human coronaviruses (hCoVs), is needed to understand such divergent clinical outcomes. Here we show analysis of coronavirus antibody responses of pre-pande...
Article
Full-text available
Despite unprecedented global efforts to rapidly develop SARS-CoV-2 treatments, in order to reduce the burden placed on health systems, the situation remains critical. Effective diagnosis, treatment, and prophylactic measures are urgently required to meet global demand: recombinant antibodies fulfill these requirements and have marked clinical poten...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 and is capable of human-to-human transmission and rapid global spread. The rapid emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has encouraged the establishment of a rapid, sensitive, and reliable viral detection and quanti...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed gaps in our understanding of safe, effective and efficient means of disinfecting high use public spaces. Whilst this creates an opportunity for development and application of innovative approaches such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based disinfection, unregulated outdoor disinfection using chlorine has led to e...
Article
Full-text available
Subunit vaccines exhibit favorable safety and immunogenicity profiles and can be designed to mimic native antigen structures. However, pairing with an appropriate adjuvant is imperative in order to elicit effective humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, we aimed to determine an optimal adjuvant pairing with the prefusion form of infl...
Article
Full-text available
Two antibodies against flaviviruses Flaviviruses are a group of RNA viruses that include the human pathogens dengue virus, Zika virus, and West Nile virus. The envelope protein (E) on the virus surface has been the target of vaccine development, but problems have arisen with antibodies against E, leading to enhanced infection. Now, Modhiran et al....
Article
Full-text available
Background: We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted subunit vaccine for COVID-19 based on recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein stabilised in a prefusion conformation by a novel molecular clamp (Sclamp). Methods: Phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Australia (July 2020–ongoing; ClinicalTrials.go...
Article
Although enveloped viruses canonically mediate particle entry through virus–cell fusion, certain viruses can spread by cell–cell fusion, brought about by receptor engagement and triggering of membrane-bound, viral-encoded fusion proteins on the surface of cells. The formation of pathogenic syncytia or multinucleated cells is seen in vivo , but thei...
Preprint
Full-text available
Efforts to develop and deploy effective vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue at pace with more than 30 candidate vaccines now in clinical evaluation. Here we describe the preclinical development of an adjuvanted, prefusion-stabilised Spike (S) protein "Sclamp" subunit vaccine, from rational antigen...
Preprint
A major global effort is currently ongoing to search for therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Repurposing existing entities is one attractive approach. The heparan sulfate mimetic pixatimod is a clinical-stage synthetic sulfated compound that is a potent inhibitor of the glycosidase heparanase, and has kn...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2, the pandemic coronavirus that causes COVID-19, has infected millions worldwide, causing unparalleled social and economic disruptions. COVID-19 results in higher pathogenicity and mortality in the elderly compared to children. Examining baseline SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive coronavirus immunological responses, induced by circulating human c...
Article
Full-text available
Flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, Zika, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus present substantial global health burdens. New vaccines are being sought to address safety and manufacturing issues associated with current live attenuated vaccines. Here, we describe a new insect-specific flavivirus, Binjari virus, which was found to be rem...
Article
The highly oxygenated pimarane diterpenoids basimarols A, B, and C (3-5) were isolated from the plant species Basilicum polystachyon, which was collected within the Australian arid zone. Structure elucidation was performed using a suite of spectroscopic techniques, including X-ray crystallography. Anticancer and anti-DENV activity of 3-5 was explor...
Article
Full-text available
Arboviruses cycle between, and replicate in, both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, which for Zika virus (ZIKV) involves Aedes mosquitoes and primates1. The viral determinants required for replication in such obligate hosts are under strong purifying selection during natural virus evolution, making it challenging to resolve which determinants are...
Article
Stachyonic acid A, arising from the first in‐depth phytochemical investigation of the herb Basilicum polystachyon, was found to display potent inhibitory activity against dengue virus, with limited cytotoxicity. Andrographolide, a known dengue virus inhibitor and closely related labdane‐type diterpene, is structurally more complex but displayed poo...
Chapter
Recent structural and functional advances provide fresh insight into the biology of the dengue virus non-structural protein, NS1 and suggest new avenues of research. The work of our lab and others have shown that the secreted, hexameric form of NS1 has a systemic toxic effect, inducing inflammatory cytokines and acting directly on endothelial cells...
Article
The secreted hexameric form of the dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has recently been shown to elicit inflammatory cytokine release and disrupt endothelial cell monolayer integrity. This suggests that circulating NS1 contributes to the vascular leak that plays a major role in the pathology of dengue haemorrhagic fever and shock. P...
Article
Background: Dengue viruses (DENV 1-4) are emerging across the world, and these viruses pose a risk to transfusion safety. Pathogen inactivation may be an alternative approach for managing the risk of DENV transfusion transmission. This study aimed to investigate the ability of riboflavin and UV light to inactivate DENV 1-4 in platelet concentrates...
Article
Full-text available
Complications arising from dengue virus infection include potentially fatal vascular leak, and severe disease has been linked with excessive immune cell activation. An understanding of the triggers of this activation is critical for the development of appropriately targeted disease control strategies. We show here that the secreted form of the deng...
Article
Full-text available
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes are known to migrate from joint to joint and are proposed to be one of the key players in the inflammatory cascade amplification in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In the recent CHIKV epidemic, patients developed arthritis-like syndrome and the synoviocyte is one of the suspected players in CHIKV-induced polyarthritis. T...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The phenomenon of antibody dependent enhancement as a major determinant that exacerbates disease severity in DENV infections is well accepted. While the detailed mechanism of antibody enhanced disease severity is unclear, evidence suggests that it is associated with both increased DENV infectivity and suppression of the type I IFN and...
Article
Full-text available
Virus evolution facilitates the emergence of viruses with unpredictable impacts on human health. This study investigated intra-host variations of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the avian H5N1 viruses obtained from the 2004 and 2005 epidemics. The results showed that the mutation frequency of the RBD ranged from...

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