Naomi D Harvey

Naomi D Harvey
Dogs Trust · Canine Behaviour and Research

BSc, PhD

About

53
Publications
17,658
Reads
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422
Citations
Introduction
In addition to my role at Dogs Trust I am an Honorary Associate Professor in Companion Animal Behaviour and Welfare at The University of Nottingham. I am a Zoologist with a specialism in dog behaviour and welfare. My skills lie in questionnaire design, data analysis and applied animal behaviour. My current research interests are in clinical animal behaviour & supporting companion animal welfare in the veterinary sector and through owner engagement.
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - November 2019
University of Nottingham
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • This position was funded by Dogs Trust, the University of Nottingham & Royal Canin with Dr Sarah Blott, Prof Gary England & Dr Steve Shaw working on the risk factors for canine atopic dermatitis, & development of a new screening tool.
December 2014 - July 2017
University of Nottingham
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • This post-doctoral position was funded by Guide Dogs, following on from my PhD work, to finalise the larger 6-year 'Epidemiology of Guide Dog Behaviour' project with Dr Lucy Asher and Prof Gary England.
Education
January 2011
University of Nottingham
Field of study
  • Epidemiology of guide dog behaviour
September 2005 - June 2008
Cardiff University
Field of study
  • Zoology

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Full-text available
Conditions of pet rabbit breeding colonies and breeder practices are undocumented and very little is known about the pet rabbit sales market. Here, multiple methods were employed to investigate this sector of the UK pet industry. A freedom of information request sent to 10% of councils revealed confusion and inconsistency in licensing conditions. D...
Article
Full-text available
Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common hereditary clinical syndrome in domestic dogs with no definitive diagnostic tests, which causes marked morbidity and has a high economic impact internationally. We created a novel questionnaire for Labrador (LR) and Golden retriever (GR) owners to evaluate canine skin health with respect to clinical signs...
Chapter
Definition: The stage in human and nonhuman animal development through which a juvenile becomes a reproductively and behaviorally mature adult. Introduction: Adolescence is a developmental stage in an animal’s life history that is characterized by both reproductive and behavioral maturation. The terms “puberty” and “adolescence” are often used int...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs exposed to aversive events can become inactive and unresponsive and are commonly referred to as being "depressed", but this association remains to be tested. We investigated whether shelter dogs spending greater time inactive "awake but motionless" (ABM) in their home-pen show anhedonia (the core reduction of pleasure reported in depression),...
Article
Full-text available
Early life experiences are known to influence behavior later in life. In dogs, environmental influences of early home rearing could be exploited to improve the chances of developing adult behavior most suited to the adult environment. For working dog organisations, such as Guide Dogs, suitable adult behavior is important to ensure dogs can fulfil t...
Poster
Full-text available
This study has identified the four most reported owner-perceived problem behaviours in dogs aged 6, 12 and 18 months. These findings can help inform where specific training strategies and interventions are needed to target these problems and prevent their development which could impact on dog welfare and the human-animal bond. Future work will expl...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs play an important role in many western societies, providing companionship, emotional support, and assistance, as well as other more specialist roles. The literature reveals that many human–animal interaction (HAI) questionnaires exist to measure the human–dog bond (HDB). The first part of this study assessed how far existing questionnaires wen...
Article
Full-text available
Separation-related behaviours (SRBs), including but not limited to vocalisation, pacing, destruction and toileting, occur in the absence of human company. As well as being problematic for the dogs’ owners, such behaviours indicate that the dogs’ emotional state is compromised. As part of the COVID-19 pandemic, time spent alone decreased considerabl...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper outlines the main points to consider when conducting a reliability study in the field of animal behaviour research and describes the relative uses and importance of the different types of reliability assessment: inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest. Whilst there are no absolute methods under which reliability studies should be analys...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral development is a lifelong process where cognitive traits such as learning and memory may be expected to take quadratic or linear trajectories. It is common practice for operational purposes to reduce study subjects into chronological categories when conducting research. However, there are no agreed-upon thresholds for this practice, and...
Article
Full-text available
Initial COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in the United Kingdom (23rd March–12th May 2020) prompted lifestyle changes for many people. We explored the impact of this lockdown phase on pet dogs using an online survey completed by 6004 dog owners, who provided information including dog management data for the 7 days prior to survey completion (4th–12th...
Article
Full-text available
Working dog organisations regularly assess the behaviour of puppies to monitor progression. Here, we tested the predictive validity (for predicting success in guide dog training) of a shortened version of a previously developed juvenile dog behaviour questionnaire (the refined puppy walker questionnaire, r-PWQ) and compared it with the Canine Behav...
Presentation
Full-text available
Introduction: The importance of using appropriate tools to measure human-animal interactions (HAI) is widely recognised. Continuing on from Wilson and Netting's (2012) review of HAI instruments up to 2008, this paper presents the results of a systematic literature review for HAI questionnaires created between 2009 and 2018, and discusses the curren...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lifestyle changes ensued for many people across the United Kingdom (UK) in the Spring of 2020 due to ‘lockdown’ restrictions imposed to curb the spread of a newly emerged virus, SARS-CoV-2, which caused a global pandemic of the disease known as COVID-19. More than 6,000 dog owners living in the UK completed our online survey between the 4th – 12th...
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyle changes ensued for many people across the United Kingdom (UK) in the Spring of 2020 due to ‘lockdown’ restrictions imposed to curb the spread of a newly emerged virus, SARS-CoV-2, which caused a global pandemic of the disease known as COVID-19. More than 6,000 dog owners living in the UK completed our online survey between the 4th – 12th...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between parent and child changes around adolescence, with children believed to have: (i) an earlier puberty if they have less secure attachments to their carer; (ii) a phase of increased conflict behaviour toward their carer; and (iii) heightened conflict behaviour when carer attachments are less secure. We find support for analogo...
Article
Exposure to chronic stressors and/or traumatic events can trigger depression-like forms of waking inactivity in non-human species (mice, horses, primates) as well as clinical depression in humans. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of waking inactivity in the home environment, in tandem with exposure to chronic stress and/...
Article
Full-text available
Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common allergic skin condition in dogs that causes chronic pruritus. The overall quality of life in dogs with cAD is known to be reduced, and human patients with pruritic conditions report significant psychological burdens from pruritus-induced stress, and atopic dermatitis is associated with significant psychopa...
Article
Full-text available
Domesticated rabbits typically exhibit shorter, flatter skulls than their wild counterparts (brachycephalism). However, brachycephaly is associated with considerable health problems, including problems with dentition. The aim of this study was to establish which type of rabbit face people prefer, with a particular emphasis on skull morphology and b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is one the most common and distressing skin disorders seen in dogs. It is characterized by dysfunction in the skin barrier, with a complex pathogenesis combining both genetic and environmental factors. Objectives: To evaluate associations between environmental factors and case-control status in two clos...
Article
Full-text available
There has been much concern in recent years about the welfare of elephants in zoos across North America and Europe. While some previous studies have assessed captive elephant welfare at a particular point in time, there has been little work to develop methods which could be used for regular, routine welfare assessment. Such assessment is important...
Article
Full-text available
Opportunities for positive social interaction are important in captive animals, and social interactions can be used as a welfare indicator. Wild elephants live in related multigenerational herds; however, in captivity they are often managed in less related groups, which could impact the quality of their social interactions, and thus their welfare....
Article
Full-text available
This article is open access and can be found at: https://theconversation.com/obese-dogs-could-have-similar-personality-traits-to-overweight-humans-new-study-97746
Article
Full-text available
An owner perspective contribution towards the Veterinary Record series "WHAT IS YOUR CLIENT THINKING?" Dr Naomi Harvey, a zoologist, describes how she has learnt to deal with her anticipatory grief
Chapter
Definition: A dog that has received specific training to perform specialized tasks that aid people with disabilities, including visual impairment, reduced mobility, and psychiatric and neurological disorders. What is a Service Dog? All service dogs are united by the fact that they have undergone a specialized training regimen, which has provided t...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioural states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behaviour where discrete outcomes are of interest, us...
Article
Full-text available
Working dog organisations, such as Guide Dogs, need to regularly assess the behaviour of the dogs they train. In this study we developed a questionnaire-style behaviour assessment completed by training supervisors of juvenile guide dogs aged 5, 8 and 12 months old (n = 1,401), and evaluated aspects of its reliability and validity. Specifically, int...
Data
PCA loadings from each age at assessment (5, 8 and 12 months) for 38* of the items from the PTSQ. Results given are component loadings based upon varimax rotation, with loadings below 0.4 suppressed. Items are ordered according to the groups they were designed for and expected to form. Those highlighted represent five groupings of items that emerge...
Data
Subtests and behavioural coding measures from a juvenile guide dog behaviour test used for comparison against the PTSQ scale scores (adapted from Harvey et al., 2016a). (DOCX)
Data
The original 39 puppy training supervisor questionnaire (PTSQ) items, ordered according to the trait they were designed to represent, not in order of appearance in the questionnaire. On each new page the text “This dog…” appeared as a prefix to each item. Superscript numbers provide reference to the origin of the item: 1 Serpell & Hsu (2001); 2 Ara...
Data
The 39 PTSQ items ordered as they were following Initial Refinement and shown with p-values from univariate logistic regressions against training outcome (5M n = 837, 8M n = 832, 12M n = 811). (PDF)
Data
Types of Z-score, at each age, which showed best predictive ability in terms of identifying individual dogs. NF, no flag able to be assigned. Note: Yellow flags were based on red flag Z-scores except where red flags could not be assigned when they were instead based on green flag Z-scores. (DOCX)
Data
A priori predicted correlations between the final scales of the puppy training supervisor questionnaire. (DOCX)
Data
Rotated component matrix loadings for the responses to subtest 7 (tea towel) from the juvenile guide dog behaviour test, at 5 and 8 months of age. The PCA’s achieved KMO statistics of 0.77 and 0.72 for the 5 and 8-month tests, respectively, with Bartlett’s test of spherictiy significant to p<0.001 for both. Cumulative variance explained by the comp...
Data
Rotated component matrix loadings for the responses to subtests 8 (food), 9 (robin), 10 (pigeons) and 11 (human) from the juvenile guide dog behaviour test, at 5 and 8 months of age. The PCA’s achieved KMO statistics of 0.60 and 0.65 for the 5 and 8-month tests, respectively, with Bartlett’s test of spherictiy significant to p<0.001 for both. Cumul...
Data
A list of all predicted associations between puppy test behavioural measures and puppy training supervisor questionnaire (PTSQ) scales. Coef., test coefficients; these are correlation coefficients (rho) for all continuous, component or mean data and standardised test statistics for all tests with binary data from Mann-Whitney U tests (shown in ital...
Article
Full-text available
In a resource-limited world, organisations attempting to reduce the impact of health or behaviour issues need to choose carefully how to allocate resources for the highest overall impact. However, such choices may not always be obvious. Which has the biggest impact? A large change to a small number of individuals, or a small change to a large numbe...
Article
Full-text available
LIMBER tail syndrome (LTS), also known as acute caudal myopathy, is an unusual and poorly understood condition affecting the muscles in the tail and is most often reported in working or sporting dog breeds (De Lahunta and Glass 2008). Although there is no clear definition for the condition, the diagnosis is based on clinical signs of a limp tail, o...
Article
Full-text available
The domestic dog is one of our most popular companions and longest relationships, occupying different roles, from pet to working guide dog for the blind. As dogs age different behavioural issues occur and in some cases dogs may be relinquished or removed from their working service. Here we analyse a dataset on working guide dogs that were removed f...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to measure stable and consistent behavioral traits in dogs would facilitate selection and assessment of working dogs, such as guide dogs. Ideally, these measures should predict suitability for the working role from a young age. This study assessed test-retest reliability of a juvenile guide dog behavior test and predictive validity usin...
Article
Animal personality develops as a result of interactions between genetic components and environmental experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of rearing environment upon personality scores in potential guide dogs. Subjects were 224 potential guide dogs (104M: 120F). Volunteers living with the dogs between 3-14 months of a...
Article
Full-text available
Assessment of quality of life (QoL) is an important, increasingly popular outcome measure in veterinary research and practice, particularly in dogs. In humans, QoL is commonly assessed by self-reporting and since this is not possible for animals, it is crucial that instruments designed to measure QoL are tested for reliability and validity. Using a...
Article
Maintaining adequate welfare in captive elephants is challenging. Few studies have investigated overnight rest behavior in zoo elephants, yet time spent resting has been identified as a welfare indicator in some species. We investigated resting behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in UK zoos, with the aim of identifying patterns or prefere...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I'm working with juvenile dogs, assessing their personality development over their first year of life. I've discovered behavioral changes occur around adolescence but I can't find any papers discussing the physiological changes that occur in dogs during adolescence; hormonal or neurological. I can find similar papers for rats, ground squirrels and who knows what else, but surprisingly not dogs. If you've come across anything that sounds like that then I'd really appreciate it if you could let me know.

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Projects

Projects (7)
Project
To investigate the different types of relationship that exist between animals and humans, focussing on the animal's wellbeing within these relationships. Includes research on: - Measuring HAI - Human-Canine Animal Bond (HCAB) Find out more about the project here: https://www.dogstrust.org.uk/help-advice/research/research-papers/hcab
Project
NEW SURVEY! Help @DogsTrust and @DogsTrustIreland help dogs & the people they come into contact with by taking part in our survey on Perceptions of Dog Behaviour & Emotion! You don't need to own a dog (or to even like dogs that much!!) to take part! The survey involves watching 5 dog videos and answering a few questions based on what you see. To be a part of this #citizenscience go to https://www.smartsurvey.co.uk/s/DogBehaviourEmotion/ For further information on the project visit https://www.dogstrust.org.uk/help-advice/research/research-papers/pob-project Open to those 18yo+ that live in the UK and ROI. #PleaseShare #caninescience #dogbehaviour #animalwelfare #dogs #animalbehaviour #humananimalinteractions
Project
The domestic dog is one of the most popular companion animal species worldwide, generating significant scientific interest in a broad range of topics, such as genetics, cognition, welfare, and the human–animal bond. An ever-increasing evidence base has highlighted several areas of concern, including those relating to the impact of responsible dog ownership (e.g., including, but not limited to: meeting the legal requirements of dog ownership, ensuring the dog is sourced ethically, attending to their physical and mental needs according to the Five Domains of animal welfare, preventing harm to others by their dog), or lack thereof, on the physical and behavioural health of dogs. However, despite this, extensive research reports generated by leading animal welfare organisations suggest that substantial welfare concerns still exist, with important dog welfare needs often not being fully met or being threatened by such factors as irresponsible breeding and high demand for puppies, and unethical training and husbandry. In order to facilitate improvements in dog welfare, and safer dog–human interactions, there is a need to promote human behaviour change in how we live with and interact with the dogs in our care. Effective strategies to promote human behaviour change for improved dog welfare require a solid evidence base. Key knowledge gaps in this field include barriers and drivers for: acquiring dogs from responsible sources; the provision of opportunities to express normal behaviour (such as opportunities for social interactions and olfactory exploration); recognising and addressing early signs of problematic or welfare-related behaviour changes; ensuring appropriate socialisation, habituation and other relevant preventative behavioural husbandry practices, particularly in relation to vet visits and cooperative care handling. Original manuscripts that address the barriers to and drivers of any of these areas of responsible dog ownership are welcomed for this Special Issue. We would particularly encourage those that explore the development of impactful intervention plans that are likely to be adopted across relevant stakeholder groups, as well as strategies that raise the level of public empathy towards dogs. Dr. Naomi Harvey Dr. Jenna Kiddie Dr. Robert Christley Guest Editors