Naomi P Friedman

Naomi P Friedman
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Institute for Behavioral Genetics (IBG) and Department of Psychology and Neuroscience

PhD

About

107
Publications
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23,431
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Publications

Publications (107)
Article
Background Deficits in executive functions (EFs), cognitive processes that control goal-directed behaviors, are associated with psychopathology and neurological disorders. Little is known about the molecular bases of EF individual differences. Prior candidate gene studies have been underpowered in their search for dopaminergic processes involved in...
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Background Poor sleep is associated with many negative health outcomes, including multiple dimensions of psychopathology. In the past decade, sleep researchers have advocated for focusing on the concept of sleep health as a modifiable health behavior to mitigate or prevent these outcomes. Sleep health dimensions often include sleep efficiency, dura...
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The ability to control one’s thoughts and actions is broadly associated with health and success, so it is unsurprising that measuring self-control abilities is a common goal across many areas of psychology. Puzzlingly, however, different measures of control––questionnaire ratings and cognitive tasks––show only weak relationships to each other. We r...
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Both unipolar and bipolar depression have been linked with impairments in executive functioning (EF). In particular, mood symptom severity is associated with differences in common EF, a latent measure of general EF abilities. The relationship between mood disorders and EF is particularly salient in adolescence and young adulthood when the ongoing d...
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Executive functions (EFs) and impulsivity are dimensions of self-regulation that are both related to psychopathology. However, self-report measures of impulsivity and laboratory EF tasks typically display small correlations, and existing research indicates that impulsivity and EFs may tap separate aspects of self-regulation that independently stati...
Preprint
Executive functions (EFs) and impulsivity are dimensions of self-regulation that are both related to psychopathology. However, self-report measures of impulsivity and laboratory EF tasks typically display small correlations, and existing research indicates that impulsivity and EFs may tap separate aspects of self-regulation that independently stati...
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In this paper, we present and evaluate a novel Bayesian regime-switching zero-inflated multilevel Poisson (RS-ZIMLP) regression model for forecasting alcohol use dynamics. The model partitions individuals' data into two phases, known as regimes, with: (1) a zero-inflation regime that is used to accommodate high instances of zeros (non-drinking) and...
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Much debate has concerned the separability of executive function abilities and intelligence, with some evidence that the 2 constructs are genetically indistinguishable in children and adolescents but phenotypically and genetically distinct in older adolescents and adults. The current study leveraged data from twin and adoption studies to examine ex...
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Characterizing the interactions among attention, cognitive control, and emotion during adolescence may provide important insights into why this critical developmental period coincides with a dramatic increase in risk for psychopathology. However, it has proven challenging to develop a single neurobehavioral task that simultaneously engages and diff...
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Common executive functioning (cEF) is a domain-general factor that captures shared variance in performance across diverse executive function tasks. To investigate the neural mechanisms of individual differences in cEF (e.g., goal maintenance, biasing), we conducted the largest fMRI study of multiple executive tasks to date (N=546). Group average ac...
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Global Positioning System (GPS) data have become one of the routine data streams collected by wearable devices, cell phones, and social media platforms in this digital age. Such data provide research opportunities in that they may provide contextual information to elucidate where, when, and why individuals engage in and sustain particular behaviora...
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Individual differences in music traits are heritable and correlated with the development of cognitive and communication skills, but little is known about whether diverse modes of music engagement (e.g., playing instruments vs. singing) reflect similar underlying genetic/environmental influences. Moreover, the biological etiology underlying the rela...
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Genetic correlations suggest that the genetic relationship of alcohol use with internalizing psychopathology depends on the measure of alcohol use. Problematic alcohol use (PAU) is positively genetically correlated with internalizing psychopathology, whereas alcohol consumption ranges from not significantly correlated to moderately negatively corre...
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Concepts of cognitive control (CC) and executive function (EF) are defined in terms of their relationships with goal-directed behavior versus habits and controlled versus automatic processing, and related to the functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and related regions and networks. A psychometric approach shows unity and diversity in CC constru...
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Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence (IQ) are phenotypically correlated. In twin studies, latent variables for EFs and IQ display moderate to high heritability estimates; however, they show variable genetic correlations in twin studies spanning childhood to middle age. We analyzed data from over 11,000 children (9-10-year-olds, including 749...
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The field of human behavioral genetics has come full circle. It began by using twin/family studies to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences. As large-scale genotyping became cost-effective, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) yielded insights about the nature of genetic influences and new methods that use GWAS...
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Background The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development ™ Study (ABCD StudyⓇ) is an open-science, multi-site, prospective, longitudinal study following over 11,800 9- and 10-year-old youth into early adulthood. The ABCD Study aims to prospectively examine the impact of substance use (SU) on neurocognitive and health outcomes. Although SU initiation t...
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A full list of affiliations appears at the end of the paper. T he ABCD Study ® aims to characterize adolescent development and evaluate many influences that might shape developmental trajectories. While numerous factors are plausibly associated with neurodevelopment (for example, nutrition, sleep, exercise, head injuries and substance use), we have...
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Introduction Heritability estimates of nicotine dependence (ND) range from 40-70%, but discovery GWAS of ND are underpowered and have limited predictive utility. In this work, we leverage genetically correlated traits and diseases to increase the accuracy of polygenic risk prediction. Methods We employed a multi-trait model using summary statistic...
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Resilience is the capacity of complex systems to persist in the face of external perturbations and retain their functional properties and performance. In the present study, we investigated how individual variations in brain resilience, which might influence response to stress, aging and disease, are influenced by genetics and/or the environment, wi...
Preprint
Individual differences in music traits are heritable and correlated with the development of cognitive and communication skills, but little is known about whether diverse modes of music engagement (e.g., playing instruments vs. singing) reflect similar underlying genetic/environmental influences. Moreover, the biological etiology underlying the rela...
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Full-text available
Although stress is frequently considered an environmental factor, dependent stressful life events (SLEs)--stressors that result from one's actions or behaviors--may in fact be evoked by a genetic liability. It has been suggested that dependent SLEs may be partially caused by poor executive function (EFs), higher-level cognitive abilities that enabl...
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Despite overlapping terminology and assumptions that they tap the same constructs, executive function (EF) task performance and EF/effortful control (EC) questionnaires have been reported to be only weakly correlated. It is unclear if this reflects true lack of association or methodological limitations. The current study addresses past methodologic...
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Aims: To examine whether moderate adolescent cannabis use has neurocognitive effects that are unexplained by familial confounds, which prior family-controlled studies may not have identified. Design: A quasi-experimental, sibling-comparison design was applied to a prospective, observational study of adolescents with moderate cannabis use. Partic...
Preprint
Attentional control as an ability to regulate information processing during goal-directed behavior is critical to many theories of human cognition and thought to predict a large range of everyday behaviors. However, in recent years, failures to reliably assess individual differences in attentional control have sparked a debate concerning whether at...
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Factor analyses suggest that impulsivity traits that capture tendencies to act prematurely or take risks tap partially distinct constructs. We applied genomic structure equation modeling to evaluate the genetic factor structure of two well-established impulsivity questionnaires, using published statistics from genome-wide association studies of up...
Preprint
Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence (IQ) are phenotypically correlated and heritable; however, they show variable genetic correlations in twin studies spanning childhood to middle age. We analyzed data from over 11,000 children (9-10-year-olds, including 749 twin pairs) in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to examine th...
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Laboratory executive function (EF) constructs, such as response inhibition, are often conceptually linked with self-report measures of impulsivity, yet their empirical correlations are low. We examined, in two twin studies ( ns = 749 and 761 individuals with EF data), the phenotypic and genetic overlap of three EF latent variables (a Common EF fact...
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The present study examined empathy deficits in toddlerhood (age 14 to 36 months) as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms and psychopathy measured by the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) in adulthood (age 23 years) in 956 individuals from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study. Cons...
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Factor analyses suggest that impulsivity traits that capture tendencies to act prematurely or take risks tap partially distinct constructs. We applied genomic structure equation modeling to evaluate the genetic factor structure of two well-established impulsivity questionnaires (the short version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale and the Barra...
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Although prior theory suggests that rumination contributes to cognitive impairments associated with depression, recent work suggests that rumination is associated with higher levels of intelligence. The present study examined the relations between two ruminative subtypes (brooding and reflective pondering) and multiple measures and types of intelli...
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Study Objectives Estimate the genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between onset of regular cannabis use and young adult insomnia. Methods In a population-based twin cohort of 1882 twins (56% female, mean age = 22.99, SD = 2.97) we explored the genetic/environmental etiology of the relationship between onset of regular cannabis...
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Social processes are associated with depression, particularly understanding and responding to others, deficits in which can manifest as callousness/unemotionality (CU). Thus, CU may reflect some of the genetic risk to depression. Further, this vulnerability likely reflects the neurological substrates of depression, presenting biomarkers to capture...
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Full-text available
Detailed mapping of genetic and environmental influences on the functional connectome is a crucial step toward developing intermediate phenotypes between genes and clinical diagnoses or cognitive abilities. We analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from two adult twin samples (Nos = 446 and 371) to quantify genetic and en...
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Background: It is unclear whether cannabis use causes cognitive decline; several studies show an association between cannabis use and cognitive decline, but quasi-experimental twin studies have found little support for a causal effect. Here, we evaluate the association of cannabis use with general cognitive ability and executive functions (EFs) wh...
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Executive function (EF) deficits have been proposed as transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology, and recent research suggests EF impairments are associated with what is shared across forms of psychopathology (p factor). However, most research has not employed methods that differentiate between EF components, and little is known about the me...
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Genetic correlations between brain and behavioral phenotypes in analyses from major genetic consortia have been weak and mostly non-significant. fMRI models of systems-level brain patterns may help improve our ability to link genes, brains, and behavior by identifying reliable and reproducible endophenotypes. Work using connectivity-based predictiv...
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The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years to characterize normative brai...
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Full-text available
Executive functions (EFs) are top-down cognitive control mechanisms that direct goal-orientated behaviors. EF deficits are associated with psychopathology and neurological disorders, but little is known about the molecular bases of EF individual differences. Existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of EFs used small sample sizes and/or indiv...
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Introduction: Both rumination, a pattern of repetitive, self-focused thought in response to distress, and deficits in executive functions (EFs), a set of cognitive abilities that facilitate higher-order thinking, have transdiagnostic associations with psychopathology. Although empirical studies suggest associations between EFs and rumination, this...
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Neuroticism, a dispositional trait of heightened negative emotionality, is a vulnerability factor for psychopathology. Given neuroticism's strong association with rumination, a repetitive thought pattern that intensifies and prolongs emotions, some question whether these constructs capture the same or unique information about vulnerability for psyc...
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The ε4 allele of APOE is a well-established genetic risk factor for cognitive aging and dementia, but its influence on early life cognition is unknown. Consequently, we assessed associations of APOE genotypes with cognitive performance during 7, 12, and 16 year-assessments in our ongoing Colorado Adoption/Twin Study of Lifespan behavioral developme...
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The relationship of verbal fluency to executive functions (EFs) remains somewhat unclear. Verbal fluency is sometimes considered an EF ability, but is not often included in the same models as other well-studied EFs (inhibition, shifting, and working memory updating). We examined the associations between verbal fluency and EFs at 2 ages with the uni...
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In this study, we characterized the genetic/environmental commonality and heterogeneity of impulsivity facets and tested the hypothesis that goal-management is central to their common variance. 764 young-adult twins completed the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale and measures of goal management, personality, and psychopathology. We found common genet...
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Background: Studies have shown a correlation between language abilities and alcohol use; however, results are inconsistent. A recent study using a discordant twin design showed an association between early child language development and later alcohol use behaviors; i.e., the twin with more advanced language abilities was more likely to try alcohol...
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Increasing evidence suggests that executive functions (EFs) - a set of general-purpose control processes that regulate thoughts and behaviors - are relevant for creativity. However, EF is not a unitary process, and it remains unclear which specific EFs are involved. The present study examined the association between the three EFs, both uniquely (EF...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Social processes are associated with depression, particularly understanding and responding to others, deficits in which can manifest as callousness/unemotionality (CU). Thus, CU may reflect some of the genetic risk to depression. Further, this vulnerability likely reflects the neurological substrates of depression, presenting biomarkers...
Article
Meta-analytic findings suggest that antisocial behavior, broadly defined, may relate to a Common Executive Function (EF) factor that captures covariance across response inhibition, working memory updating, and mental set shifting tasks. However, it is unclear whether this common factor, which is isomorphic with individual differences in response in...
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Full-text available
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The ABCD Study is a collaborative effort, including a Coordinating Center, 21 data acquisition sites across the United States, and a Data Analysis and Informatics Cent...
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Full-text available
Aims To estimate interactions and unique effects of behavioral approach and behavioral control on alcohol involvement hypothesized by dual‐systems models, during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Design In a longitudinal study, behavioral approach and behavioral control were examined in relation to alcohol involvement, cross‐sectionally and pros...
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Developing self‐restraint, or the inhibition of behavior in response to a prohibition, is an important process during toddlerhood. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of individual differences in the development of self‐restraint during toddlerhood by examining stable elements and growth of temperament (i.e., attentional...
Preprint
Full-text available
Detailed mapping of genetic and environmental influences on the functional connectome is a crucial step toward developing intermediate phenotypes between genes and clinical diagnoses or cognitive abilities. We analyze resting-state data from two, adult twin samples - 390 twins from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Sample and 422 twins from the Human...
Article
Full-text available
The brain is organized into a number of large networks based on shared function, for example, high-level cognitive functions (frontoparietal network), attentional capabilities (dorsal and ventral attention networks), and internal mentation (default network). The correlations of these networks during resting-state fMRI scans varies across individual...
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Understanding the neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in executive function (EF) is integral to a complete characterization of the neural systems supporting cognition. While studies have investigated EF-neuroanatomy relationships in adults, these studies often include samples with wide variation in age, which may mask relationships...
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The ability to enact cognitive control under changing environmental demands is commonly studied using set-shifting paradigms. While the control processes required for task set reconfiguration (switch costs) have been studied extensively, less research has focused on the control required during task repetition in blocks containing multiple tasks as...
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Internalizing and externalizing behaviors are heritable, and show genetic stability during childhood and adolescence. Less work has explored how genes influence individual differences in developmental trajectories. We estimated ACE biometrical latent growth curve models for the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and parent Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in...
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The present study examined the influence of maternal and child characteristics on parenting behaviors in a genetically informative study. The participants were 976 twins and their mothers from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study and the Twin Infant Project. Indicators of positive parenting were coded during parent–child interactions when twins wer...
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Depression is associated with deficits in executive functions (EFs)—cognitive control abilities that regulate goal-directed thoughts and actions—but the etiology of these associations is unclear. We examined the relations between depressive symptoms and multiple EF latent variables in a population-based sample of 439 twin pairs assessed at mean age...
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Full-text available
Lower self-control is a significant correlate or predictor of a wide range of adult outcomes, and this association may be due to more general tendencies toward childhood externalizing problems. The present study examined the association between toddlerhood self-control expressed within a “don’t” compliance task (at 14–36 months) and later externali...
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Research on executive functions (EFs) has revealed that individual differences in general EF abilities are highly correlated across the first few decades of life, especially at the level of genetic influences. Our work has also provided evidence for substantial heritability of this Common EF factor in midlife, but it remains unclear whether individ...
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This study examined whether executive functions (EFs) might be common features of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems across development. We examined relations between three EF latent variables (a common EF factor and factors specific to updating working memory and shifting sets), constructed from nine laboratory tasks administered at...