Naomi Ellemers

Naomi Ellemers
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Psychology

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340
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (340)
Article
Public comments criticizing the honesty and trustworthiness of Professionals in Finance (PIFs) are commonly seen as a way to motivate them towards engaging in more socially responsible business practices. However, the link between public views of this professional group, the self‐views of individual group members, and their motivation to engage in...
Article
In this study we explore possible causes for the differential career success of women in academia. We do this by testing the content of organizational narratives about plausible reasons why women are less likely than men to advance in their academic careers, against the self‐reported experiences and career choices of women and men in the organizati...
Chapter
The key issues in this chapter address concerns often voiced by opponents of diversity targets in organizations. They see such policies as unfair, valuing employee demographics rather than individual merit. Common organizational practices for employee recruitment, selection and development aim to assess professional standards and skills in a neutra...
Chapter
People generally want to do what is morally right. This is also true in the workplace, as research consistently shows. Yet every day we encounter situations in which people in organizations act in ways that appear immoral. How can this be? This chapter explains the paradox of morality as a key issue: it is exactly because people are so motivated to...
Chapter
The procedures organizations commonly use as they try to motivate employees to perform well can discourage them from making morally responsible choices in their interactions with colleagues and clients. Key issues addressed here highlight the unfortunate side effects of emphasizing monetary outcomes, building a distinct identity, and incentivizing...
Chapter
Leaders are seen to embody the vision and goals of the organization, by their subordinates as well as outsiders. The key issues addressed in this chapter indicate how leaders – who define the tone at the top – set the standard for moral behavior in organizations. Unfortunately, it is not easy to specify the characteristics of a moral leader: many g...
Chapter
Key issues addressed in this chapter relate to the growing awareness in many organizations that displaying concern for different stakeholders and their interests is crucial, if only to secure the ‘license to operate’. Here too it is tempting to fall back on quick fixes to signal good intentions. Organizations may try to communicate responsible mana...
Chapter
The key issues in this chapter all relate to the risk that organizational change and innovation deplete human resources. Using quick fixes to adopt new forms of employment, new ways of working, or new products and services, impact on the identity and inclusion of people in organizations. It makes those who express valid concerns about the timelines...
Chapter
The key issues highlighted in this chapter are that organizations in which people work also define who they are and what they stand for. Company logos, mission statements, and mottos all seek to capture and communicate this sense of identity within the organization and to external stakeholders. Unfortunately, efforts to mobilize people towards shar...
Chapter
The key issues in this chapter address the shortcomings of common measures to prevent unethical work behavior. These specify how character traits, incentives, and opportunities influence individual decisions to commit fraud. However, this approach ignores group processes and work climate characteristics that can facilitate irresponsible decision ma...
Article
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There is growing evidence that couples in non-traditional relationships in which the woman attains higher status than her male partner experience more negative relationship outcomes than traditional couples. A possible reason is that non-traditional couples violate persisting gender stereotypes that prescribe men to be breadwinners and women to be...
Chapter
Powerholders make decisions that impact not only their own situation, but also the outcomes of those who depend on them. The implications of being in power have been studied in a multitude of research: Social power is known to foster goal striving and to change interpersonal behavior. Yet, prior work has also yielded quite opposing effects of high...
Article
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Supervisory bodies can intervene in organizational practices that may harm society, but their effectiveness to do so depends on their ability to make decisions reflectively and decisively. Are these tendencies incompatible with each other or can they go together? Can empowering leadership (i.e. participative, coaching, informing behaviors) stimulat...
Article
Cooperation in groups often requires individual members to make costly contributions that benefit the group as a whole. Prior research suggests that shared norms can help to support ingroup cooperation by prescribing common standards of how much to contribute. These common standards may be disrupted when groups undergo membership change, i.e., when...
Article
In many contexts, people collaborate with others to complete tasks. Collaboration provides opportunities to achieve goals (e.g., to combine expertise and split workload), but also responsibilities to ensure that things go well (e.g., that work assignments are appropriate and that different contributions are taken into account). Successful collabora...
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This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. Abstract Many organizations have diversity statements in place in w...
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Purpose Reaching decisions in a deliberative manner is of utmost importance for boards, as their decision-making impacts entire organisations. The current study aims to investigate (1) the quality of group decisions made by board members, (2) their confidence in, satisfaction with, and reflection on the decision-making, and (3) the effect of two di...
Article
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The worldwide spread of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) since December 2019 has posed a severe threat to individuals' well-being. While the world at large is waiting that the released vaccines immunize most citizens, public health experts suggest that, in the meantime , it is only through behavior change that the spread of COVID-19 can be controlled...
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Criticizing people on their prior moral failures often causes them to react defensively, especially when this is done by an outgroup. In the current research, we tested whether people become more receptive to such outgroup criticism when it refers to (failures of) their competence, rather than their morality. We conducted two studies, using a 2: Cr...
Chapter
This chapter compares five models that analyze social evaluation from the micro, interpersonal to macro, many-group level: the Dual Perspective Model (DPM), Behavioral Regulation Model (BRM), Dimensional Compensation Model (DCM), Stereotype Content Model (SCM), and Agency-Beliefs-Communion (ABC) Model. A proper understanding of social evaluation mu...
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Offering environmental, social, and governance (ESG) assessment and certification can invite organizations to adapt their activities to accommodate environmental, social, and governance concerns. Prior research points to shortcomings in accurately monitoring and assessing organizational sustainability performance. This contribution aims to highligh...
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The COVID-19 pandemic points to the need for scientists to pool their efforts in order to understand this disease and respond to the ensuing crisis. Other global challenges also require such scientific cooperation. Yet in academic institutions, reward structures and incentives are based on systems that primarily fuel the competition between (groups...
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Norms can promote human cooperation to provide public goods. Yet, the potential of norms to promote cooperation may be limited to homogeneous groups in which all members benefit equally from the public good. Individual heterogeneity in the benefits of public good provision is commonly conjectured to bring about normative disagreements that harm coo...
Article
Social evaluation occurs at personal, interpersonal, group, and intergroup levels, with competing theories and evidence. Five models engage in adversarial collaboration, to identify common conceptual ground, ongoing controversies, and continuing agendas: Dual Perspective Model (Abele & Wojciszke, 2007); Behavioral Regulation Model (Leach, Ellemers,...
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Neuroscientific evidence identifies the brain networks and cognitive processes involved in people’s thoughts and feelings about their behavior. This helps individuals understand the judgments and decisions they make with regard to their own and others’ moral and immoral behavior. This article complements prior reviews by focusing on the social orig...
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The present research investigated whether evaluations of female and male job candidates rely on different dimensions. Going beyond previous studies on the role of gender stereotypes, we examined the relative importance of competence, morality, and sociability in employment decisions. In Study 1, we content-analyzed 68 archival reports of profession...
Article
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Fifteen years ago, the British Journal of Social Psychology published a set of studies on male and female academics, documenting that female faculty members were more likely than male faculty members to express stereotyped views of women at the beginning of their academic careers (PhD candidates; Ellemers et al., 2004, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 43, 3)....
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The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. Because the crisis requires large-scale behaviour change and places significant psychological burdens on individuals, insights from the social and behavioural sciences can be used to help align human behaviour with the recommendations of epidemiologists and public health experts. Here...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive, global health crisis. Because the crisis requires large-scale behavior change and poses significant psychological burdens on individuals, insights from the social and behavioural sciences are critical for optimizing pandemic response. Here we review relevant research from a diversity of research areas rel...
Article
Crises in science concern not only methods, statistics, and results but also, theory development. Beyond the indispensable refinement of tools and procedures, resolving crises would also benefit from a deeper understanding of the concepts and processes guiding research. Usually, theories compete, and some lose, incentivizing destruction of seemingl...
Preprint
Central to human sociality, evaluation occurs at personal, interpersonal, group, and intergroup levels, with competing theories and evidence. Five current social-evaluation models engage here in adversarial alignment, to identify common conceptual ground, ongoing controversies, and continuing agendas for work on social evaluation: Dual Perspective...
Article
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The positive effects of intergroup contact on prejudice reduction have been widely validated by now. However, the potential of contact for intergroup relations is only available when there is readiness to have contact with outgroup members to begin with. In two correlational studies with the main ethnic groups in postconflict Kosovo, Albanian major...
Chapter
This chapter examines an important barrier to achieving more equality in society: the resilience of dominant group members to social change initiatives. We build on relevant theory and research to examine structural and psychological factors that contribute to the emergence of “status stress,” that is, the threat among those high in status due to s...
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Purpose Emphasizing that errors are unacceptable and will be sanctioned does not prevent that errors are made – but can cause workers to cover up mistakes. Making an effort to identify things that go wrong to learn from them and prevent errors in the future offers a more fruitful approach. By sharing an applicable LEARN framework, this paper aims t...
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We aim to improve our understanding of how perceptions of social inclusion come about, unfold over time, and relate to individual and group outcomes. To do so, we draw on the MARGINI model, which offers a novel theoretical account of inclusion by delineating that inclusion is the result of a dynamic interplay between the individual’s motivation to...
Chapter
According to social identity theory, people derive part of their identity – their social identity – from the groups to which they belong (e.g., an identity as “student,” “woman,” “left-hander,” or “Barcelona supporter”). Social identities differ in strength and content. The strength component is conceptualized in terms of social identification (e.g...
Article
We examine the conditions under which power decreases trust and the process by which this occurs. Three experiments and a field study revealed that occupying an unstable power position decreases trust as it raises power holders’ concerns about losing power. We replicate this finding across studies differing in measures and design, using different s...
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We investigated how the perception of being dissimilar to others at work relates to employees’ felt inclusion, distinguishing between surface-level and deep-level dissimilarity. In addition, we tested the indirect relationships between surface-level and deep-level dissimilarity and work-related outcomes, through social inclusion. Furthermore, we te...
Article
We review empirical research on (social) psychology of morality to identify which issues and relations are well documented by existing data and which areas of inquiry are in need of further empirical evidence. An electronic literature search yielded a total of 1,278 relevant research articles published from 1940 through 2017. These were subjected t...
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Although many organizations are actively enacting diversity policies, these initiatives have not always proven effective. In this contribution, we discuss several barriers that organizations may encounter while implementing diversity policies. We argue that both content-wise and methodologically, science and practice do not neatly join up and that...
Article
In an experimental design, we manipulated disagreement about values versus resources (N = 36). We investigated, using male participants, how the nature of the conflict affects testosterone and cortisol changes. We hypothesized a testosterone increase in response to disagreement about resources, but no increase when values were at stake. Results cor...
Article
Genderdiversiteit is een speerpunt geworden in beleid gericht op inclusie en gelijke kansen, ook in de academische wereld. Genderdiversiteit van wetenschappers kan dan ook bijdragen aan kennisontwikkeling en -benutting. Toch is het voor vrouwen nog steeds moeilijker dan voor mannen om succesvol te zijn in de wetenschap. Zelfs als er geen prestatiev...
Article
Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Applied Social Psychology - edited by Linda Steg
Article
Power usually lowers stress responses. In stressful situations, having high (vs. low) power heightens challenge and lowers threat. Yet, even power-holders may experience threat when becoming aware of the responsibility that accompanies their power. Power-holders can construe (i.e., understand) a high-power position primarily as opportunity to “make...
Article
Long-standing research traditions in psychology have established the fundamental impact of social categories, such as race and gender, on people’s perceptions of themselves and others, as well as on the general human cognition and behavior. However, there is a general tendency to ignore research staff demographics (e.g., researchers’ race and gende...
Article
There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women d...
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Current societies are characterised by unprecedented change in demographic, economic and political terms. These changes may be rather stressful, especially for those who have most to lose, that is members of (formerly) high-status groups. In this contribution, we review research on the influence of hierarchy stability on physiological stress, makin...
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Een organisatie waarin medewerkers zich niet veilig voelen om zich uit te spreken, kritische vragen achterwege blijven en de top niet het goede voorbeeld laat zien, brengt verschillende gedragsrisico's met zich mee. Een dergelijke organisatiecultuur kan de tevredenheid van medewerkers ondermijnen en het enthousiasme waarmee ze aan het werk gaan ver...
Article
The current research extends previous work (e.g., Blair, 2002; Lai et al., 2014; van Nunspeet, Ellemers, & Derks, 2015) by directly comparing the effectiveness of different contextual factors and personal motives on the reduction of implicit bias toward Muslim women in a 2 × 2 × 2 research design. Non-Muslim participants performed an implicit assoc...
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Power relations affect dynamics within groups. Power-holders’ decisions not only determine their personal outcomes, but also the outcomes of others in the group that they control. Yet, power-holders often tend to overlook this responsibility to take care of collective interests. The present research investigated how social identification – with the...
Article
Empirical evidence suggests that power elicits a generic tendency to disregard advice. We examined different responses power holders may show in their tendency to take advice depending on the construal of power. We report a field study and an experiment among managers and other powerful professionals (Studies 1 and 2) and an experiment in which par...
Article
Apologies can have desirable effects on the reduction of anger and may foster forgiveness. Yet, we know little about the effectiveness of apologies across different cultures. In this research, we distinguished two important components of apologies: admission of blame by the self and the expression of remorse for the plight of the other. We investig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Studies with segregated ethnic groups in newly-independent Kosovo (NAlbanians=221, NSerbs=110) reveal that superordinate categorization at national level predicts negative intergroup outcomes for Albanian majority. For Serb minority, it predicts positive ones but is currently low. More complex identities benefit Albanians
Book
Morality indicates what is the 'right' and what is the 'wrong' way to behave. It is one of the most popular areas of research in contemporary social psychology, driven in part by recent political-economic crises and the behavioral patterns they exposed. In the past, work on morality tended to highlight individual concerns and moral principles, but...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
People in Kosovo are still faced with reconciliation hardships since the conflict ended in 1999. The two main ethnic groups, Albanian majority (93% of the population) and Serb minority (about 5% of the population), have a history of problematic differences that have further continued with Kosovo’s declaration of independence in 2008. Now, their big...
Article
When is an individual likely to be accepted or rejected by a group? This research investigates responses towards prospective group members depending on how they compare to the group in terms of their perceived morality or competence. Because morality is of particular importance to groups, we hypothesized that the perceived morality of prospective g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the biggest challenges in most post-conflict contexts is reconciliation and functional intergroup relations. In Kosovo, as one such context, declaration of independence in 2008 offers a possibility for ethnic groups to recategorize themselves under a common ingroup identity – Kosovar national identity. However, this identity building process...
Chapter
This chapter examines the ways in which work teams respond to newcomers, here conceptualized as team receptivity. It distinguishes among three theoretically exhaustive components of team receptivity to newcomers. The three components are: team reflection, team knowledge utilization, and newcomer acceptance. The chapter provides a more detailed comp...
Article
Authorities frequently justify their sanctions as attempts to deter people from rule breaking. Although providing a sanction justification seems appealing and harmless, we propose that a deterrence justification decreases the extent to which sanctions are effective in promoting rule compliance. We develop a theoretical model that specifies how and...
Article
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Two studies carried out in Switzerland examined different explanations for the “Queen Bee (QB)-phenomenon.” In Study 1 (N = 315), female managers (vs. subordinates) identified with successful women and supported measures that would benefit these women—even though they are their direct competitors. However, they were disinclined to identify with wom...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to identify social psychological root causes of misconduct by traders and offers practical guidelines to prevent misconduct. Design/methodology/approach The authors use insights on social psychological mechanisms to examine current business practices observed in the context of supervisory activities. Case examples were co...
Article
Social power implies responsibility. Yet, power-holders often follow only their own interests and overlook this responsibility. The present research illuminates how a previously adopted cognitive focus guides perceived responsibility when a person receives high (vs. low) power. In three experiments, adopting a cognitive focus on another person (vs....
Article
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Ambivalent sexism theory (Glick & Fiske, 1996) distinguishes between two inter-related forms of sexism: Hostile and benevolent. Although this theory motivated a large body of work examining how endorsement of these views impacts on social interactions and women’s performance, no research has yet examined what these forms of sexism are seen to commu...
Article
Attitudes on which people have achieved cognitive closure are better predictors of future attitudes and behavior than open attitudes. In two experiments, we found that factors in communication (source identity, source consensus) can enhance people's ability to achieve cognitive closure on complex environmental topics through an increase in perceive...
Article
People are particularly attracted to groups that value morality. However, in social and work life, team decision-making sometimes involves balancing moral considerations with achievement goals in ambiguous situations. We examined how the importance attached to morality and competence in experimentally created task teams influenced perceived team at...
Chapter
Full-text available
We address intergroup relations in a post-conflict context, Kosovo—where the 2008 declaration of independence led to the creation of a new national Kosovar identity. However, Kosovars still identify primarily with the ethnic identity, central to historical tensions between two main ethnic groups: the Albanian majority (over 90 % of the population)...
Article
This contribution explains that minority and majority employees have a different perspective on workplace diversity. Expecting minority employees to fit in can undermine the added value of a diverse workforce. Neglecting the needs of majority employees causes resistance to change. Leaders who succeed in making all workers feel included and valued,...
Article
In dit artikel reageren wij op de bewering dat de hedendaagse arbeids- en organisatiepsychologie de mens benadert als 'homo economicus' (Bal, 2015). Wij betogen dat er binnen dit vakgebied wel degelijk stelselmatig aandacht wordt besteed aan de interpersoonlijke relaties en emotionele reacties in werksituaties. Daarnaast wijzen wij op de beperkinge...
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Four studies specify how moral evaluations of the self regulate behavior aimed at restoring a moral reputation. We propose that people care about evaluations of themselves as moral or immoral because these are perceived as more consequential than other types of information. Therefore people are more inclined to restore their image after being negat...
Article
People generally consider it more important to reach moral standards than other types of standards (e.g., competence). In this article it is argued that pursuit of goals that have implications for one's morality (vs. competence) therefore leads to increased engagement of the central executive. A first study demonstrates that individuals perform bet...
Article
The mitigation of climate change requires reductions in the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. One way to achieve this in the short run is through the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The viability of CCS not only depends on technical and regulatory issues, but also on public attitudes. Communication plays an impo...
Article
This contribution reviews work on the queen bee phenomenon whereby women leaders assimilate into male-dominated organizations (i.e., organizations in which most executive positions are held by men) by distancing themselves from junior women and legitimizing gender inequality in their organization. We propose that rather than being a source of gende...
Article
On the basis of research in the social identity tradition, we contend (a) that identification and differentiation are not mutually exclusive, (b) that a sequence in which identification gives way to differentiation is not necessarily associated with superior organizational outcomes, and (c) that social identification, and leadership that builds thi...
Article
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This contribution reviews the state of the art of research on the effects of prejudice on its targets. We structure this review around ongoing debates and core questions that have been guiding this field of research and how these are addressed by recent evidence. We address five central themes that have characterized research on the way prejudice e...