Nanna Bjørnholt Karlsson

Nanna Bjørnholt Karlsson
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland · Department of Glaciology and Climate

Phd

About

82
Publications
15,910
Reads
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1,807
Citations
Citations since 2016
56 Research Items
1543 Citations
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Introduction
As a glaciologist, my research is driven by a need to understand the processes that govern the response of ice sheets to climate change, in particular I am interested in the interaction between observations and models, and how this gap might be bridged. I work with ice-penetrating radar data from diverse places such as Greenland, Antarctica and Mars. I am interested in what the data can tell us about past and present conditions, and I use the data in conjunction with models to extract this information.
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 2016 - June 2017
Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Postdoc and project manager on the "Reconnaissance for the Oldest Ice" project, part of the European "Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice" project.
November 2010 - December 2015
University of Copenhagen
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Postdoc on the "Water under the Ice", ERC Advanced Grant with PI Dorthe Dahl-Jensen.

Publications

Publications (82)
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce the design and performance of a melt-tip ice-drilling system designed to insert a temperature sensor cable into ice. The melt tip is relatively simple and low cost, designed for a one-way trip to the ice-bed interface. The drilling system consists of a melt tip, umbilical cable, winch, interface, power supply, and support items. The me...
Article
Full-text available
Mass loss near the ice-sheet margin is evident from remote sensing as frontal retreat and increases in ice velocities. Velocities in the ice sheet interior are orders of magnitude smaller, making it challenging to detect velocity change. Here, we analyze a 35-year record of remotely sensed velocities, and a 6-year record of repeated GPS observation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Here, we present a compilation of 85 ice temperature profiles from 79 boreholes from the Greenland Ice Sheet and peripheral ice caps, as well as local ice caps in the Canadian Arctic. Only 25 profiles (32 %) were previously available in open-access data repositories. The remaining 54 profiles (68 %) are being made digitally available here for the f...
Article
Full-text available
The basal thermal state (frozen or thawed) of the Greenland Ice Sheet is under-constrained due to few direct measurements, yet knowledge of this state is becoming increasingly important to interpret modern changes in ice flow. The first synthesis of this state relied on inferences from widespread airborne and satellite observations and numerical mo...
Article
Full-text available
We compile and analyze all available geothermal heat flow measurements collected in and around Greenland into a new database of 419 sites and generate an accompanying spatial map. This database includes 290 sites previously reported by the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC), for which we now standardize measurement and metadata quality. This...
Preprint
The basal thermal state (frozen or thawed) of the Greenland Ice Sheet is under-constrained due to few direct measurements, yet knowledge of this state is becoming increasingly important to interpret modern changes in ice flow. The first synthesis of this state relied on inferences from widespread airborne and satellite observations and numerical mo...
Article
Full-text available
We propose the exploration of polar areas on Mars by a next-generation orbiter mission. In particular, we aim at studying the seasonal and regional variations in snow-deposits, which – in combination with measurements of temporal variations in rotation and gravity field – will improve models of the global planetary CO2 cycle. A monitoring of polar...
Conference Paper
Subglacial lakes may form beneath ice sheets and ice caps, given the availability of water and appropriate bedrock and surface topography to capture the water. On a regional scale, these lakes can modulate the freshwater output to the ocean by acting as reservoirs that may periodically drain and recharge. Several such active subglacial lakes have b...
Article
Full-text available
Basal conditions play an essential role in the dynamics of outlet glaciers, but direct observations at the bed of glaciers are challenging to obtain. Instead, inverse methods can be used to infer basal parameters from surface observations. Here, we use a simple ice-flow model as a forward model in an inversion scheme to retrieve the spatio-temporal...
Article
Full-text available
The mass of the Greenland ice sheet is declining as mass gain from snow accumulation is exceeded by mass loss from surface meltwater runoff, marine-terminating glacier calving and submarine melting, and basal melting. Here we use the input–output (IO) method to estimate mass change from 1840 through next week. Surface mass balance (SMB) gains and l...
Preprint
Full-text available
We compile, analyse and map all available geothermal heat flow measurements collected in and around Greenland into a new database of 419 sites and generate an accompanying spatial map. This database includes 290 sites previously reported by the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC), for which we now standardize measurement and metadata quality....
Article
Full-text available
The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has been measuring climate and ice sheet properties since 2007. Currently, the PROMICE automatic weather station network includes 25 instrumented sites in Greenland. Accurate measurements of the surface and near-surface atmospheric conditions in a changing climate are important for r...
Article
Full-text available
We present the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) Ice Velocity product (https://doi.org/10.22008/promice/data/sentinel1icevelocity/greenlandicesheet, Solgaard and Kusk, 2021), which is a time series of Greenland Ice Sheet ice velocity mosaics spanning September 2016 through to the present. The product is based on Sentinel...
Article
Full-text available
The Greenland ice sheet has been one of the largest sources of sea-level rise since the early 2000s. However, basal melt has not been included explicitly in assessments of ice-sheet mass loss so far. Here, we present the first estimate of the total and regional basal melt produced by the ice sheet and the recent change in basal melt through time. W...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mass of the Greenland ice sheet is declining as mass gain from snowfall is exceeded by mass loss from surface meltwater runoff, marine-terminating glacier calving and submarine melting, and basal melting. Here we use the input/output (IO) method to estimate mass change from 1840 through next week. Mass gains come from three regional climate mod...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the contribution of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) to past and future sea level has been a major scientific priority over the last three decades. In recent years, observed thinning and ice‐flow acceleration of the marine‐based Pine Island Glacier has highlighted that understanding dynamic changes is critical to predicting the lon...
Article
Full-text available
Camp Century is an American military base built in 1959 under the surface of the Greenland ice sheet and decommissioned in 1967. Here, we use outputs from RACMO2.3p2 and CanESM2 climate models, adjusted to meteorological observations, and a firn model to simulate the firn density and temperature at Camp Century between 1966 and 2100. The model outp...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has been measuring climate and ice sheetproperties since 2007. Currently the PROMICE automatic weather station network includes 25 instrumented sites in Greenland.Accurate measurements of the surface and near-surface atmospheric conditions in a changing climate is important for relia...
Article
Full-text available
Subglacial hydrological systems require innovative technological solutions to access and observe. Wireless sensor platforms can be used to collect and return data, but their performance in deep and fast-moving ice requires quantification. We report experimental results from Cryoegg: a spherical probe that can be deployed into a borehole or moulin a...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) ice velocity product (https://doi.org/10.22008/promice/data/sentinel1icevelocity/greenlandicesheet) (Solgaard and Kusk, 2021)) which is a September 2016 through present time series of Greenland Ice Sheet ice-velocity mosaics. The product is based on Sentinel-1 synthetic ap...
Data
This dataset contains the position and depth of four spatially extensive Internal Reflecting Horizons (or IRHs) traced on the British Antarctic Survey's PASIN system and NASA Operation IceBridge's MCoRDS2 system across the Pine Island Glacier catchment. Using the WAIS Divide icecore chronology and a 1D steadystate model, we assign ages to our four...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a warming climate concise knowledge of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet is of utter importance. Speculations that current warming will increase the snow accumulation and mitigate mass balance losses are unconstrained as accumulation data across large regions of the northern ice sheet are scarce. We reconstructed the accumulation from...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides the first chronology for the deep ice core from the East Greenland Ice-core Project (EGRIP) over the Holocene and the late last glacial period. We rely mainly on volcanic events and common peak patterns recorded by dielectric profiling (DEP) and electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) for the synchronization between the EGRIP,...
Article
Full-text available
The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) extends around 600 km upstream from the coast to its onset near the ice divide in interior Greenland. Several maps of surface velocity and topography of interior Greenland exist, but their accuracy is not well constrained by in situ observations. Here we present the results from a GPS mapping of surface ve...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest sources of sea-level rise since the early 2000s. Basal melt has not been included explicitly in assessments of ice-sheet mass loss so far. Here, we present the first full-coverage estimate of the ice-sheet wide basal melt in Greenland and its recent change through time. We find that presently basal melt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Subglacial hydrological systems require innovative technological solutions to access and observe. Wireless sensor platforms can be used to collect and return data, but their performance in deep and fast-moving ice requires quantification. We report experimental results from Cryoegg: a spherical probe that can be deployed into a borehole or moulin a...
Article
Full-text available
The internal stratigraphy of snow and ice as imaged by ground-penetrating radar may serve as a source of information on past accumulation. This study presents results from two ground-based radar surveys conducted in Greenland in 2007 and 2015, respectively. The first survey was conducted during the traverse from the ice-core station NGRIP (North Gr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) extends around 600 km upstream from the coast to its onset near the ice divide in interior Greenland. Several maps of surface velocity and topography in the interior Greenland exist, but the accuracy is not well constrained by in situ observations and limiting detailed studies of flow structures...
Presentation
Full-text available
Cryoegg: development and field trials of a wireless subglacial probe for deep, fast-moving ice
Article
Full-text available
On 30 September 2017, an Air France Airbus A380-800 suffered a failure of its fourth engine while over Greenland. This failure resulted in the loss of the engine fan hub, fan blades and surrounding structure. An initial search recovered 30 pieces of light debris, but the primary part of interest, a ~220 kg titanium fan hub, was not recovered becaus...
Article
Full-text available
We use remotely sensed ice velocities in combination with observations of surface elevation and glacier area change to investigate the dynamics of Hagen Bræ, North Greenland in high detail over the last 35 years. From our data, we can establish for the first time that Hagen Bræ is a surge-type glacier with characteristics of both Alaskan- and Svalb...
Article
Full-text available
Radar sounding is a powerful geophysical approach for characterizing the subsurface conditions of terrestrial and planetary ice masses at local to global scales. As a result, a wide array of orbital, airborne, ground-based, and in situ instruments, platforms and data analysis approaches for radioglaciology have been developed, applied or proposed....
Article
Full-text available
The Antarctic ice sheet has been losing mass over past decades through the accelerated flow of its glaciers, conditioned by ocean temperature and bed topography. Glaciers retreating along retrograde slopes (that is, the bed elevation drops in the inland direction) are potentially unstable, while subglacial ridges slow down the glacial retreat. Desp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. This paper provides the first chronology for the deep ice core from the East GReenland Ice-core Project (EGRIP) over the Holocene and late last glacial period. We rely mainly on volcanic events and common patterns of peaks in dielectric profiling (DEP), electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) and tephra records for the synchronization...
Article
Full-text available
The Martian mid-latitudes contain numerous small water-ice deposits, collectively termed viscous flow features (VFFs). The shape and topography of the deposits contain information on their past flow history and formation process. In order to access this information, it is imperative to get information on their deformational properties. Here we use...
Article
Full-text available
The international endeavour to retrieve a continuous ice core, which spans the middle Pleistocene climate transition ca. 1.2–0.9 Myr ago, encompasses a multitude of field and model-based pre-site surveys. We expand on the current efforts to locate a suitable drilling site for the oldest Antarctic ice core by means of 3-D continental ice-sheet model...
Article
Full-text available
The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has measured ice-sheet elevation and thickness via repeat airborne surveys circumscribing the ice sheet at an average elevation of 1708 ± 5 m (Sørensen et al. 2018). We refer to this 5415 km survey as the ‘PROMICE perimeter’. Here, we assess ice-sheet mass balance following the input...
Article
Full-text available
The Greenland ice sheet has been losing mass in response to increased surface melting (Khan et al. 2015; van den Broeke et al. 2017) as well as discharge of ice from marine terminating outlet glaciers (van den Broeke et al. 2009; Box et al. 2018). Marine terminating outlet glaciers flow to the ocean where they lose mass by e.g. iceberg calving. Cur...
Article
Full-text available
We present a 1986 through 2017 estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet ice discharge. Our data include all discharging ice that flows faster than 100 m yr−1 and are generated through an automatic and adaptable method, as opposed to conventional hand-picked gates. We position gates near the present-year termini and estimate problematic bed topography (ice t...
Article
Full-text available
The warming climate is changing the surface dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet, including the balance between snowfall and melt. Increasing surface melt impacts the structure of the relatively porous near-surface layer known as firn. Camp Century, a base abandoned in 1967, now comprises a subsurface debris field within the firn in Northwest Greenl...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new 18-year (2000 to 2018) estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet ice discharge. Our data include all ice that flows faster than 100 m yr−1 and are generated through an automatic and adaptable method, as opposed to conventional hand-picked gates. We position gates near the present-year termini and estimate problematic bed topography (ice thic...
Article
Full-text available
The international endeavour to retrieve a continuous ice core, which spans the middle Pleistocene climate transition ca. 1.2–0.9Myr ago, encompasses a multitude of field and model-based pre-site surveys. We expand on the current efforts to locate a suitable drilling site for the oldest Antarctic ice core by means of 3D continental ice sheet modelli...
Article
Full-text available
The detection and monitoring of meltwater within firn presents a significant monitoring challenge. We explore the potential of small wireless sensors (ETracer+, ET+) to measure temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity and thus the presence or absence of meltwater within firn, through tests in the dry snow zone at the East Greenland Ice Core P...
Article
Full-text available
To resolve the mechanisms behind the major climate reorganisation, which occurred between 0.9 and 1.2Ma, the recovery of a suitable 1.5 million-year-old ice core is fundamental. The quest for an Oldest Ice core requires a number of key boundary conditions, of which the poorly known basal geothermal heat flux (GHF) is lacking. We use a transient the...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic sea ice has a significant impact on the global radiation budget, oceanic and atmospheric circulation and the stability of the Greenland ice sheet (Vaughan et al. 2013). Prior to the era of aircraft and satellite, information on sea-ice extent relied on observations from ships and people living at the coast. This information is a valuable con...
Article
Full-text available
A key objective in palaeo-climatology is the retrieval of a continuous Antarctic ice-core record dating back 1.5Ma. The identification of a suitable Antarctic site requires sufficient knowledge of the subglacial landscape beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Here, we present new ice thickness information from the Dome Fuji region, East Antarctica, base...