Nandimandalam Janardhana Raju

Nandimandalam Janardhana Raju
Jawaharlal Nehru University | JNU · School of Environmental Sciences

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Article
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Water quality of Chilika lagoon was assessed for pre- and post-monsoon seasons. A marked spatial and temporal variability in the water quality was observed in this study. Principal component analysis (PCA) reveals the influence of salinity, anthropogenic factors, as well as vegetation on the water quality. The higher concentration of nitrate (NO3⁻)...
Article
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The unplanned Bhalswa landfill is located in one of the most urbanized area of Delhi, and its influence on the huge population are inevitable in the capital city of India lying in flood plain of the Yamuna River, and its alluvial lithology makes it more susceptible to contamination by leaching of pollutants. The present study highlights to assess t...
Article
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The distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the sediment cores from five locations and their impacts on ecological health of Chilika lagoon were investigated. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe were determined in the cores. In general the average concentration of heavy metals in different cores are found in the following o...
Article
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The concentration of heavy metals was analyzed each of 20 river water, suspended sediments and bed sediments along the stretch of Swarnamukhi River Basin. River water is not contaminated with heavy metals except Fe and Mn. Contamination factor in sediments shows considerable to very high degree contamination with Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The sources of t...
Article
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The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of landfill leachate irrigation for wheat plant (Triticum aestivum) by evaluating the trace element accumulation, plant growth (shoot length, root length, number of leaves), and harvest index at different leachate dose rate soil. For the laboratory simulated irrigation, leachate sample was collect...
Yes it is good option for Cr removal.......
Article
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The present study aims at assessing water quality of river Yamuna in one of the world’s most polluted and populated megacities, Delhi. Conductivity, salinity and sodium content were within the permissible categories. Chloride concentration exceeded acceptable levels of drinking water guidelines. Water quality was poor at all locations with respect...
Article
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The area east of Varanasi is one of numerous places along the watershed of the Ganges River with groundwater concentrations of arsenic surpassing the maximum value of 10 parts per billion (ppb) recommended by the World Health Organization in drinking water. Here we apply geostatistics and compositional data analysis for the mapping of arsenic and i...
Article
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The present study investigated the spatial and vertical distribution of organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and biogenic silica (BSi) in the sedimentary environments of Asia’s largest brackish water lagoon. Surface and core sediments were collected from various locations of the Chilika lagoon and were analysed for grain-...
Article
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This article provides technology options for the treatment of Faecal Sludge (FS) in developing countries to minimize exposure to FS and assesses its benefits along with possible revenue generation from reuse. FS that is collected from septic tanks poses management challenges in urban areas of developing countries. Currently, FS is dumped into the u...
Article
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In order to quantify spatio-temporal changes in the hydrogeochemistry of Swarnamukhi river basin, Andhra Pradesh, India, a total of 239 groundwater samples have been collected for pre- and post-monsoon seasons of 2014 and 2015. The geology of the study area is comprised of granite, granitic gneisses, shales, quartzites, laterites and recent alluviu...
Article
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The hydrogeological setup of India represents a wide variation, from rugged Himalayan mountainous region in the north, extensive Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra floodplain and deltaic region in the central and eastern part, aeolian- alluvial deposits in the west, vast basalt flows in the west central part, gently undulating central and southern region under...
Article
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Fluorosis is becoming a global environmental toxicological problem and is most commonly found in water-stressed regions. In order to evaluate the geochemical mechanism of fluoride enrichment in groundwater and health implications in the Padwakodari environs of eastern part of India, a total of twenty two samples were collected and analysed for phys...
Article
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With rapid increase of human population, swift growth of industries and intensive irrigation activities, groundwater quality is being increasingly endangered by agricultural chemicals and indiscriminate disposal of urban and industrial wastes. Hence, in water management, assessment of groundwater quality is as important as quantity especially in th...
Article
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Open dumping of municipal solid waste is prone to groundwater contamination because of leachate production. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess the pollution potential of leachate generated from the solid waste disposal site and its impact on aquifers in the Varanasi environs, Uttar Pradesh, India. Physico-chemical parameters of leach...
Chapter
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The persistence of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and Black Carbon (BC) was studied in sediment samples from river Yamuna, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the largest, most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia). High levels (21.41 to 139.95 ng g-1) of sum of 20 OCPs (∑20OCPs) have been detected with β-HCH as the predominant compo...
Chapter
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Significant amounts of fluoride are found in the abstracted groundwater of the southern part of the Upper Panda River basin, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Hence groundwater with high fluoride and water mixture patterns were studied in Panda River basin through hydrochemical interpretation from 65 groundwater chemical data information fr...
Chapter
The hydrogeochemical parameters for forty five groundwater samples of the Dun valley aquifers of central Nepal were studied to appraise the major ion chemistry and suitability of groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Geologically, the area comprises Quaternary alluvium composed of boulder, cobble, pebble, gravel and sand with interc...
In general, Major ions will provide you the better insight of the water quality for drinking or irrigation classification of groundwater. 
If you find any particular health problems in the areas of study (such as flourosis etc) you will see particular element in that water. In the case of Arsenic contamination, TDS and other major ions will be within the permissible limits, but As is the main elements which create damage to the human health. It is also important geology of the area.
The increase of EC may be due to ionic content of the groundwater. The relation of Na/Cl increase with EC increase may be due to the presence of halite mineral or highly anthropogenic activities. Natural contribution of Cl to the groundwater is mainly due to halite or saline water intrusion. Human activities such as sewage ponds, solid waste disposal sites,open drainage system contribute high chloride values to the groundwater. In those cases high Na/Cl may be observed along with high EC values.  Other than those conditions there is no positive relation between Na/Cl and EC.  
The resistivity values of the rock formations depends on their porosity, permeability, fractures, fissures, grain size. Different rocks shows different relativities. For example dry unconsolidated materials shows high resistivity whereas saturated unconsolidated material shows low resistivity values. Hence standard values are not possible because of diverse geological conditions. Refer any Hydrogeology books such as DK Todd, HM Raghunath etc. 
In general, the groundwater EC values always higher than surface waters. Depending on the source of ions/pollution the values may change in the shallow and deep groundwater resources. In shallow wells due to surface pollution some times high EC values observed. In case of hard rocks where abstraction is high, the water levels will go deep. Since the movement of water is very low and water rock interactions are more, hence high EC values. It may be also due to the saline water intrusion or upconing of saline water near coastal regions may also contribute high EC. It is important to observed EC values in different seasons to find variations. 
It is very difficult to come to conclusion on the basis of EC values about the Saraswati River. In general surface waters have less EC when compared to groundwater. We have to see the source of EC at that point, it may be industry or agricultural or water rock interaction. 
Ion chromatography can do the As (III) and As (V) analysis or hydride generation AAS for the speciation analysis. Another possibility is ICPMS.
Always surface waters (if not polluted) have less dissolved solids than groundwater. Same in the case of Na, K and Fluoride. The concentration of particular ion depends on the geology and soil conditions of the area.
The reason for variation of Na, K and F in different reservoirs depends on the geological situation and anthropogenic contamination. We can not pin point exact reason for this, it depends upon lot of environmental  and geological variables.
The one of the main reason might  be due to dilution effect and mixing of rainwater with surface water than groundwater.
PHREEQc program is available free and download. Enter input data (chemical parameters available) and you will get the saturation indices of minerals. Based on your study area you can interpret the saturation index of minerals.
Article
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The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an important issue in hard rock and semi-arid zones and rapid declining of groundwater supplies are common (Raju and Reddy, 2007). Groundwater is the primary source of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses in many countries, and its contamination has been recognised as one o...
Article
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This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were coll...
Article
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The present study focused on the hydrochemistry of groundwater in parts of Chandauli-Varanasi region to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Urbanization and agriculture activities have a lot of impacts on the groundwater quality of the study area. A total of 70 ground water sampl...
Article
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The present study focused on the hydrochemistry of groundwater in parts of Chandauli-Varanasi region to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Urbanization and agriculture activities have a lot of impacts on the groundwater quality of the study area. A total of 70 ground water sampl...
Chapter
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Water is an essential and vital component for the life support system. Since most of the human sufferings are directly related to water, man is always fascinated to explore and understand the chemical content of water. Water never exists in its purest form; as soon as it enters the atmosphere through precipitation it gathers gases, few elements and...
Book
This book addresses issues related to sources of groundwater pollution such as arsenic, uranium, fluoride and their effects on human health. It discusses extensively the removal of heavy metals, arsenic and fluoride from drinking water. Bioremediation and phyto remediation on biomass productivity are treated in several chapters in the book. The vol...
Article
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Groundwater vulnerability assessments calculate the sensitivity of quality of groundwater to an imposed contaminant load which is essential element of the aquifer management plans. Seventy five groundwater samples have been analyzed for different chemical parameters to understand the groundwater quality of the lower Varuna river basin, Uttar Prades...
Article
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The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20O...
Article
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Overuse of groundwater in coastal areas, due to high population and agricultural activity results in seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer. This paper presents the control measures taken to manage aquifer recharge (MAR) and also to overcome the problem of seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer along the Kalangi river, Nellore district of...
Article
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Around 9000 inhabitants in the Panda River basin, Sonbhadhra District, Uttar Pradesh, India, are vulnerable to a “silent” dental and skeletal fluorosis from groundwater consumption. The fluoride source and seasonal groundwater quality variation were studied by collecting 65 groundwater samples in the Upper Panda River basin. Major rock types are ph...
Article
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This review contains a summary of the work on arsenic and flouride pollution of surface and ground water in parts of the Indian peninsula and Ganga-Brahmaputra Alluvial and Delta Plains. The results of the investigation have been be categorized institutions wise with identification of the principal worker in the research group.
Article
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The study area covers an about 100 km2 of the middle Ganga plain in Uttar Pradesh, experiencing intensive groundwater extraction. In order to recognize the arsenic contamination zones of the Varanasi environs, sixty eight groundwater samples have been collected and analyzed for major ions, iron and arsenic. Twenty one sediment samples in the four b...
Article
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Evaluation of major ion chemistry and solute acquisition process controlling water chemical composition were studied by collecting a total of fifty-one groundwater samples in shallow (<25 m) and deep aquifer (>25 m) in the Varanasi area. Hydrochemical facies, Mg-HCO3 dominated in the largest part of shallow groundwater followed by Na-HCO3 and Ca-HC...
Article
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Active tectonics plays a major role in landscape evolution by bringing changes in topography and channel slopes. The alluvial plains in Ganga Basin are divided into a number of tectonic blocks by several active subsurface faults. The associated disturbances along these faults have given rise to a distinctive fluvial regime and geomorphology in the...
Article
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The hydrogeochemical parameters for groundwater samples of the Varanasi area, a fast-urbanizing region in India, were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, weathering and solute acquisition processes controlling water composition, and suitability of water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Sixty-eight groundwater samples were collecte...
Article
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The lower Varuna River basin in Varanasi district situated in the central Ganga plain is a highly productive agricultural area, and is also one of the fast growing urban areas in India. The agricultural and urbanization activities have a lot of impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. The river basin is underlain by Quaternary alluvial...
Article
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Fluoride (F¯) concentration over and above the permissible limits (1.5 mg/l) in drinking water leads to human health hazards, such as dental and skeletal fluorosis affecting millions of people in many parts of India. Preliminary investigations indicate that severe health disorders have been identified in parts of the Kachnarwa region, which is in t...
Article
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Borehole data reveals that during Late Quaternary, the Ganga river was non-existent in its present location near Varanasi. Instead, it was flowing further south towards peripheral craton. Himalayan derived grey micaceous sands were being carried by southward flowing rivers beyond the present day water divide of Ganga and mixed with pink arkosic san...
Article
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Sorption of oxoanions (chromium, arsenic and phosphorous) on quartz sand/ hydrous ferric oxide are carried out in order to understand the mobility and retention of these ions under laboratory simulation batch and column experiments. The present study designed to compare the sorption affinities and the sorption capacity for these oxoanions of well-d...
Chapter
IntroductionExperimental Set-Up and Analytical Methods Modelling of the Oxoanion Breakthrough Data UsedParameters Describing the Available SurfacepH BufferingCell Number and Diffuse Layer OptionsResults Model Runs Using the Site Density of Amorphous Iron Hydroxide and GoethiteFitting the Site DensitiespH ModellingSummary and Conclusions References...
Article
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In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to know the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation in upper Gunjanaeru River basin, 51 water samples in post-monsoon and 46 in pre-monsoon seasons were collected and analyzed for various parameters. Geological units a...
Article
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sistent presence of this behaviour in the samples suggests that there is indeed a bleached signal in the sample. Should this be so, the zero error in the age will be < 50 a. This will be an improvement on the mean SAR age of < 250 a. We thus conclude that with recently developed component specific OSL dating techniques 9 , it is possible to date ts...
Article
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groves has been already initiated. The overall rise in water bodies is attributed to climatic conditions of the area and improved watershed management programmes. The present study was undertaken to detect changes in the coastal zone of Goa using remote sensing and digital image classification techniques. After mapping the coastal land-use and land...
Article
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Declining water level trends and yields of wells, deterioration of groundwater quality and drying up of shallow wells are common in many parts of India. This is mainly attributed to the recurrence of drought years, over exploitation of groundwater, increase in the number of groundwater structures and explosion of population. In this subcontinent, t...
Article
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 Intensive application of surface water in command areas of irrigation projects is creating water logging problems, and the increase of groundwater usage in agriculture, industry and domestic purposes (through indiscriminate sinking of wells) is causing continuous depletion of water levels, drying up of wells and quality problems. Thus the protect...
Article
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Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in cigarettes of 9 different brands produced in India were analysed and compared with the results of other reports on the heavy metal concentration in cigarettes. The mean content of the heavy metals on the dry weight basis are Cd 0.40 μg/g; Co 0.91 μg/g; Cr 0.48 μg/g; Cu 18 μg/g; F...
Article
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 The occurrence, movement and control of groundwater, particularly in hard-rock areas, are governed by different factors such as topography, lithology, structures like fractures, faults and nature of weathering. An attempt is made in the present study to investigate the extent of the influence of structures such as fractures and thereby delineate t...
Article
Integrated geological, hydrological and geophysical (electrical resistivity) surveys have been used to delineate groundwater potential zones in Upper Gunjanaeru catchment (latitudes 13°43′45″ and 14°1′44″ N. and longitudes 79°15′16″ and 79°27′38″ E.) in Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh. The main lithological units in the catchment are alluvium, sh...
Article
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A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of microgram amounts of chromium based on the radiochemical displacement of65Zn from labeled Zn-[1-(2-pyridylazo-2-naphthol]2 complex by chromium. The effect of pH on the displacement of65Zn was studied. 5–65 g of chromium could be determined with great accuracy. The effect of va...
Article
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Electrical resistivity method has been used to delineate groundwater resources in drought prone area of Upper Godduvanka river basin, Chittoor district, Andhra pradesh. 71 vertical electrical soundings were conducted using Wenner configuration. The data was interpreted by partial curve matching with the help of master curves. Contour map of apparen...
Article
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The paper deals with the estimation of total dissolved solids (TDS) by the measurements of specific electrical conductance (SEC) and silica (SiO2) through multiple regression models developed for surface and groundwaters of Tirupati region in Andhra Pradesh. In order to establish the relationship between these parameters in Tirupati region, a study...
Article
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Complexation of fluoride ions by the addition of lime and alum to fluoride-spiked tap water was investigated at varying pH values through the Jar-test technique. The results obtained indicate that the optimum pH for higher complexation of fluoride ions with alum-floc will range from 5.8 to 6.3 depending upon the amount of fluoride present in the so...