Nancy H. Hornberger

Nancy H. Hornberger
University of Pennsylvania | UP · Graduate School of Education -- Educational Linguistics Division

Doctor of Philosophy

About

158
Publications
19,307
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7,186
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Additional affiliations
July 1985 - June 2016
University of Pennsylvania
Position
  • Professor
July 1985 - present
University of Pennsylvania
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Apoyado en mis investigaciones etnográficas tras los años en los Andes, este documento examina la trayectoria de una educadora indígena bilingüe de habla quechua a medida que atravesó (y atraviesa) desde las comunidades rurales de la sierra sur del Perú hacia su desarrollo como maestra, educadora de maestros, investigadora y defensora de lo indígen...
Article
The continua of biliteracy model offers an ecological framework to situate research, teaching, and language policy in multilingual settings. Biliteracy is understood as “any and all instances in which communication occurs in two (or more) languages in or around writing” and the continua as complex, fluid, and interrelated dimensions of communicativ...
Article
Desde la perspectiva de la política y la planificación lingüísticas (PPL), la actual pandemia exacerba preocupaciones en torno a las políticas y prácticas lingüísticas y educativas que sostienen las desigualdades sociales globales en distintas poblaciones e identidades. Hay una urgente necesidad de que los usuarios, educadores e investigadores de i...
Article
The ongoing global pandemic exacerbates, but does not initiate, longstanding language policy and planning (LPP) concerns around the ways language education policies and practices sustain inequalities across linguistic and social identities. Elsewhere, I have argued there is an urgent need for language users, educators and researchers to counter tho...
Article
Tracing applied linguists’ interests in language policy and planning (LPP) as reflected in the pages of the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics since its founding in 1980, I focus on the emergence of, and current boom in, ethnographic LPP research. I draw on the ethnographic concept of ideological and implementational LPP spaces as scalar, layered...
Article
Full-text available
Basadas en una experiencia de monitoreo etnográfico con maestros bilingües interculturales kichwa en la Amazonía peruana, proponemos el uso del monitoreo etnográfico como método y las continuidades de la biliteracidad como heurística para el mapeo de la enseñanza de la biliteracidad en contextos indígenas de bilingüismo. A través de nuestro mapeo,...
Article
One of the central paradoxes of textbook authorship in Indigenous languages is that some of those for whom the textbooks are intended find it challenging to read them. Here, through examining cases of Quechua across the Andes in Peru and in Ecuador, we consider the role of orthography in this paradox. Textbook authors must decide on an alphabet for...
Article
Drawing on an ethnographic monitoring engagement with Kichwa intercultural bilingual educators in the Peruvian Amazon, we argue for ethnographic monitoring as a method and the continua of biliteracy as a heuristic for mapping biliteracy teaching in Indigenous contexts of bilingualism. Through our mapping, we uncover tensions in the teaching of majo...
Article
Ethnography of language planning and policy– ERRATUM - Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo Anzures, David H. Hanks, Frances Kvietok, Siwon Lee
Article
A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's plea...
Article
In an approach inspired by portraiture and ‘history in person,’ this paper portrays three women Indigenous language activists engaged in language reclamation, highlighting the mutually constitutive nature of language and the enduring struggles of Indigenous peoples that are crucibles for forging their identities. Neri Mamani breaks down longstandin...
Article
Aims and objectives/purpose/research questions In this article we draw upon the ethnography of language planning and policy (LPP) to examine the complexities of how young Latino children with a recently deported parent engage with family language policies within their routine interactions. We explore the following questions. (1) How do US elementar...
Article
In personal tribute to Joshua A. Fishman, I tell a few stories about this remarkable scholar as I got to know him – a glimpse of the person behind the great ideas that have so powerfully shaped our thinking. My many vivid memories of things Fishman said or wrote in my personal encounters with him – often pithy one-liners – are testimony to the powe...
Chapter
The continua of biliteracy model offers an ecological framework in which to situate research, teaching, and language policy and planning in multilingual settings. Biliteracy is defined here as “any and all instances in which communication occurs in two (or more) languages in or around writing” and the continua depict the complex, fluid, and interre...
Article
Abstract Drawing from instances of multilingual education involving Quechua in the Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in New Zealand, this paper uses the continua of biliteracy framework to analyse relationships between medium of instruction, student voice and biliteracy content. In each instance, multilingual language policy has arisen in a soc...
Book
Richard Ruiz has inspired generations of scholars in language planning and multilingual education with his unique orientations to language as a problem, a right and a resource. This volume attests to the far-reaching impact of his thinking and teaching, bringing together a selection of his published and unpublished writings on language planning ori...
Article
In the Conversation Currents for the May 2016 issue of Language Arts, guest coeditor Iliana Reyes (research scientist at CINVESTAV, Mexico City, and associated faculty in Language, Reading, and Culture at the University of Arizona) talks with Nancy H. Hornberger (University of Pennsylvania) about the continua of biliteracy and how teachers have use...
Article
Full-text available
The experiences of a community of people learning and teaching Lenape in Pennsylvania provide insights into the complexities of current ways of talking and acting about language reclamation. We illustrate how Native and non-Native participants in a university-based Indigenous language class constructed language, identity, and place in nuanced ways...
Chapter
The continua of biliteracy model offers an ecological framework in which to situate research, teaching, and language policy and planning in multilingual settings. Biliteracy is defined here as “any and all instances in which communication occurs in two (or more) languages in or around writing” and the continua depict the complex, fluid, and interre...
Article
In 1984, Richard Ruiz set forth three orientations to language planning: language as problem, language as right, and language as resource. Since that time, the orientations have only become more powerful, rising to the level of paradigm in the field of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, we revisit Ruiz’s orientations. By drawing upo...
Article
Full-text available
Late in the evening before a regular school day, the mother of a Sámi family gets a call from her husband working at the reindeer corral saying that the reindeer will be brought in for separation and round-up early in the next morning. In the morning the rest of the family will join the father and other relatives at the reindeer corral and will be...
Chapter
LPP issues arise every day and everywhere. Answers to the essential LPP question remain tantalizingly diverse and unpredictable. How then do LPP researchers select appropriate research methods to study these questions? Drawing from a data collection toolkit that includes survey questionnaire, census and demographic data, linguistic corpora, intervi...
Article
South African higher education is at a critical juncture in the implementation of South Africa’s multilingual language policy promoting institutional status for nine African languages, English, and Afrikaans. South African scholars, not content merely to comment from the sidelines on the policy, its promise, and challenges, have also engaged in...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing from long-term ethnographic research in the Andes, this paper examines one Quechua-speaking Indigenous bilingual educator’s trajectory as she traversed (and traverses) from rural highland communities of southern Peru through development as teacher, teacher educator, researcher, and advocate for Indigenous identity and language revitalizatio...
Article
How does one concretely go about reclaiming a heritage language with no living speakers? or with only a few members of an elder generation of native speakers? How does one do this within a family? an extended family? a school? a community? The authors in this book have tackled these questions in their own lives and share with us their wisdom, strat...
Article
Full-text available
How does one concretely go about reclaiming a heritage language with no living speakers? or with only a few members of an elder generation of native speakers? How does one do this within a family? an extended family? a school? a community? The authors in this book have tackled these questions in their own lives and share with us their wisdom, strat...
Article
Building on Agar's (1996: 26) notion of rich points as those times in ethnographic research when something happens that the ethnographer doesn't understand, methodological rich points are by extension those points where our assumptions about the way research works and the conceptual tools we have for doing research are inadequate to understand the...
Chapter
Sandra Lee McKay (1945– ), professor emeritus at San Francisco State University and currently visiting professor of applied linguistics at Hawai'i Pacific University in Honolulu, has led and mentored in the field of language teaching internationally for more than 40 years.
Chapter
Bilingual literacy, or biliteracy, can be defined as “any and all instances in which communication occurs in two (or more) languages in or around writing” (Hornberger, 1990, p. 213), where these instances may be events, actors, interactions, practices, activities, classrooms, programs, situations, societies, sites, or worlds (Hornberger, 2003). The...
Article
As US classrooms approach a decade of response to No Child Left Behind, many questions and concerns remain around the education of those labeled as English language learners, in mainstream, English as a Second Language, and bilingual education classrooms. A national policy context where standardized tests dominate curriculum and instruction, and fi...
Article
Exploring contemporary Aymara and Quechua speakers' engagements with multilingualism, this article examines two transnational sites of Indigenous language use in Bolivia—a master's program in bilingual intercultural education in Cochabamba and a hip hop collective in El Alto. Responding to the call for a sociolinguistics of globalization that descr...
Article
As US classrooms approach a decade of response to No Child Left Behind, many questions and concerns remain around the education of those labeled as ‘English language learners,’ in both English as a Second Language and bilingual education classrooms. A national policy context where standardized tests dominate curriculum and instruction and first lan...
Article
Within discourses of language endangerment, life stages such as child language acquisition, adolescent language shift, and the death of community elders figure prominently, but what of the role of other, intermediate life stages during adulthood and professional life in the course of language obsolescence or revitalization? Drawing from long-term e...
Chapter
Language shift refers to "the gradual displacement of one language by another in the lives of the community members" manifested as loss in number of speakers, level of proficiency, or range of functional use of the language. The contrasting term has traditionally been language maintenance, which "denotes the continuing use of a language in the face...
Article
Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's li...
Book
This book, addressed to experienced and novice language educators, provides an up-to-date overview of sociolinguistics, reflecting changes in the global situation and the continuing evolution of the field and its relevance to language education around the world. Topics covered include nationalism and popular culture, style and identity, creole lang...
Article
This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Māori in Aotearoa/NewZealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language polici...
Article
Paralleling recent developments in South Africa, initiatives in language policy and education reform in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia over the last three decades have opened up new possibilities for indigenous languages and their speakers through bilingual intercultural education. Examining the use and meanings of the term interculturalidad (intercultu...
Article
This article uses results of an ethnographic study in two Quechua‐speaking communities of Puno, Peru, to explore a specific instance of the phenomenon of schooltime spent in other than academic endeavors. It documents the uses to which schooltime is put in these communities and then seeks to account for the observed uses of time in terms of ethnogr...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores tensions in translating multilingual language policy to classroom linguistic practice, and especially the paradoxical role of and demand for English as a tool of decolonization for multilingual populations seeking equitable access to a globalizing economy. We take an ecological and sociolinguistic approach, depicting tensions be...
Article
Education is one of the arenas in which Hymes has brought his scholarship and politics of advocacy to bear in the world, perhaps most visibly through his University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education deanship (1975-1987), but also through the scope and depth of his writings on linguistics and ethnography in education. Language inequality...
Article
Although multilingualism and multilingual education have existed for centuries, our 21st-century entrance into the new millennium has brought renewed interest and contestation around this educational alternative. Ethnolinguistic diversity and inequality, intercultural communication and contact, and global political and economic interdependence are...
Chapter
Principles of Language EcologyContributions of Language Ecology to the Study of Educational Language Planning and PolicyExamples of an Ecological Approach to Educational Language PolicyConclusion
Chapter
The precarious circumstances of the world’s Indigenous languages are by now well known: of 6800 languages currently spoken in the world, not only are more than half at risk of extinction by the end of this century (Romaine 2006: 441), but approximately 95 per cent are spoken by less than five per cent of the world’s population (May 2001: 2), mainly...
Article
Full-text available
Herein, we are privileged to be given a close and detailed look at the lives and literacies of transnational multilingual youth and adults of diverse origins and communities from across the United States. These are multilingual lives and literacies located on the west coast, or in western mountain, southwest, midwest, or northeast U.S. There are Ne...
Article
In this article, we take up the call for more multilayered and ethnographic approaches to language policy and planning (LPP) research by sharing two examples of how ethnography can illuminate local interpretation and implementation. We offer ethnographic data collected in two very different institutions—the School District of Philadelphia and the A...
Article
This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/NewZealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language polici...
Article
Portuguese: Voz y Biliteracidad en la Revitalización de Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas en Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, y Maori Resumo: Este artigo examina instâncias de práticas educacionais de biletramento em contextos de revitalização de línguas indígenas envolvendo Quéchua nos Andes da América do Sul, Guarani no Paraguai e Maori em Ao...
Article
For more than three decades US language education policy was realized through the Bilingual Education Act, enacted in 1968 to meet the educational needs of language minority students. The Bilingual Education Act emphasized bilingual education and provided options for the development of students native language as well as their English language prof...
Chapter
Over the last three decades, research on family and community literacy practices has moved from the periphery to center stage in a quest to understand which policies best support the acquisition and development of literacy skills among diverse populations. Indeed, some of the most important theoretical insights concerning the nature and acquisition...
Chapter
The continua model of biliteracy offers a framework in which to situate research, teaching, and language planning in linguistically diverse settings; bilingual teacher education represents a conjunction of all three of these and hence, a good candidate for applying the continua model. This paper uses selected experiences in language teacher educati...
Article
The continua model of biliteracy offers a framework in which to situate research, teaching, and language planning in linguistically diverse settings; bilingual teacher education represents a conjunction of all three of these and hence, a good candidate for applying the continua model. This paper uses selected experiences in language teacher educati...
Article
Full-text available
Although Quechua is spoken by eight to twelve million people across six South American countries, by most measures, Quechua is an endangered language. This article provides an overview of the current situation of Quechua language shift, maintenance, and revitalization, and makes a case for the importance of language planning for the survival and de...
Article
Em muitos casos dispersos pelo mundo – incluindo grupos étnicos da Amazônia Brasileira, os guaranis bolivianos, grupos indígenas andinos e amazônicos dentre outros – a educação intercultural bilíngüe torna-se o veículo não somente para o desenvolvimento da escrita nas línguas indígenas e para o desenvolvimento acadêmico dos seus falantes, mas també...
Article
The one language—one nation ideology of language policy and national identity is no longer the only available one worldwide (if it ever was). Multilingual language policies,which recognize ethnic and linguistic pluralism as resources for nation-building, are increasingly in evidence. These policies, many of which envision implementation through bil...
Article
This book contains 19 readings covering three decades of the work of academic Jim Cummins. Section 1, "The 1970s," includes: "A Theoretical Perspective on the Relationship between Bilingualism and Thought"; "The Influence of Bilingualism on Cognitive Growth: An Synthesis of Research Findings and Explanatory Hypotheses"; "Immersion Programs: The Iri...
Article
The continua model of biliteracy offers a framework in which to situate research,teach-ing, and language planning in linguistically diverse settings. Arguing from this model, and citing examples of Cambodian and Puerto Rican students in Philadelphia's public schools as illustrative of the challenge facing American educators, Hornberger has suggeste...
Article
Recent developments in language policy and education reform in Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, paralleling similar developments in the United States and elsewhere, have opened up new possibilities for indigenous languages and their speakers through bilingual intercultural education. Examining the use and meanings of the term interculturality in policy...
Article
Full-text available
Examines mathematics instruction and its relationship to issues of language, culture, and power in a low-income urban elementary school with large numbers of bilingual students. Results of discussions of student work during a summer training institute for university researchers, teachers, and administrators provide suggestions for approaching issue...