Nancy Eisenberg

Nancy Eisenberg
Arizona State University | ASU · Department of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

601
Publications
477,151
Reads
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63,989
Citations
Citations since 2017
100 Research Items
24458 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202301,0002,0003,0004,000
Additional affiliations
January 1977 - February 2016
Arizona State University
Position
  • Regents' Professor

Publications

Publications (601)
Article
The goal of this study was to investigate the development of young children's goal-directed behaviors in challenging settings––an important behavioral component of mastery motivation – and to examine the relations of maternal warmth and control to its trajectory from toddlerhood to preschool age. A behavioral component of mastery motivation was obs...
Article
Full-text available
Regulatory emotional self-efficacy beliefs (RESE) in managing negative emotions and in expressing positive emotions are believed to play an important role in different spheres of psychological functioning. However, the literature does not offer a quantitative synthesis of the degree of the relation between RESE and indices of (mal)adjustment. The p...
Article
We examined the relation of White parents' color-blind racial attitudes (a global composite score and its subscales) and their implicit racial attitudes to their young children's race-based sympathy toward Black and White victims. One hundred and nighty non-Hispanic White children (54% boys, Mage = 7.13 years, SD = 0.92) reported their sympathy in...
Article
Although there is interest in the role of peers in children's schooling experiences, few researchers have examined associations and related underlying processes between peers’ emotionality, an aspect of temperament, and children's academic achievement. This study evaluated whether target children's (N = 260) own self‐regulation, assessed with two b...
Article
Objective Effortful control (EC) has been conceptualized as a higher-order construct defined by a class of self-regulatory mechanisms. However, the developmental higher-order structure of EC has seldom been investigated with a thorough psychometric analysis. To begin to fill this gap in the literature, data were obtained from parents and teachers o...
Article
Informed by attachment theory and self-determination theory, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that behavioral engagement mediates the longitudinal associations between teacher–child relationship quality and academic achievement. In addition, in an exploratory manner, we expected to identify some additional transactional relations a...
Article
This study investigated developmental trajectories of observationally coded engagement across the early elementary years and whether these trajectories were associated with children's academic achievement. Furthermore, we evaluated if these relations varied as a function of children's family socio-economic status and early reading and math skills....
Article
Full-text available
Although scholars are increasingly building empirical evidence that helps us understand racism, they have conducted surprisingly little research on White children’s prosocial behavior towards historically marginalized people. 190 White, non-Hispanic children (M = 7.09 years, 54.2% boys) participated in the study. We examined whether both parents’ r...
Article
Relations among White (non-Latinx) children's empathy-related responding, prosocial behaviors, and racial attitudes toward White and Black peers were examined. In 2017, 190 (54% boys) White 5- to 9-year-old children (M = 7.09 years, SD = 0.94) watched a series of videos that depicted social rejection of either a White or Black child. Empathy-relate...
Article
This study examined gender-specific longitudinal pathways from harsh parenting through rumination to anxiety and depression symptoms among early adolescents from three countries and six subgroups. Participants were 567 mothers, 428 fathers, and 566 children (T1: Mage = 10.89; 50% girls) from Medellín, Colombia (n = 100); Naples, Italy (n = 95); Rom...
Article
Full-text available
Promoting prosocial behavior toward those who are dissimilar from oneself is an urgent contemporary issue. Because children spend much time in same-gender relationships, promoting other-gender prosociality could help them develop more inclusive relationships. Our goal in the present research was to better understand the extent to which elementary-s...
Article
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This longitudinal study examined the unique and joint effects of early adolescent temperament and parenting in predicting the development of adolescent internalizing symptoms in a cross-cultural sample. Participants were 544 early adolescents (T1: Mage = 12.58; 49.5% female) and their mothers (n = 530) from Medellín, Colombia (n = 88), Naples, Ital...
Poster
Full-text available
Prosocial behavior refers to voluntary behavior that benefits others (Eisenberg et al., 2015). Although there has been increasing empirical attention to understanding racism, there has been surprisingly less focus on children’s positive social behaviors toward “the other.” In this study, We examined the prediction of children’s differential prosoci...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines associations between parents’ rejection and control, adolescents’ self-efficacy in their regulation of negative emotions, and maladjustment. Path analyses were employed to test (a) whether adolescents’ dysregulation and self-efficacy regarding anger/sadness regulation mediate the relationship between parental rejection/control a...
Article
In this article, we identify approaches for understanding more thoroughly the academic and social experiences of homeschooled students. The growth of the homeschooling movement in the United States, questions about the need for additional regulation, and the importance of high‐quality education for children motivate this scholarly effort. We begin...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel betrachten wir viele entwicklungsrelevante Aspekte familiärer Interaktionen. Wir beginnen mit einer Untersuchung über den möglichen Einfluss von sozialen Veränderungen in den letzten Jahrzehnten in den Vereinigten Staaten auf das Funktionieren von Familie und die Entwicklung der Kinder – vom Alter der ersten Elternschaft bis zu ei...
Chapter
Im Zentrum des vorliegenden Kapitels steht die Entwicklung fundamentaler Konzepte, die sich in den allermeisten Situationen als nützlich erweisen. Konzepte sind geistige Vorstellungen über die Struktur von Gegenständen, Ereignissen, Eigenschaften oder Beziehungen auf der Basis ihrer Ähnlichkeit. Diese Konzepte lassen sich zwei Gruppen zuordnen. Ein...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel behandeln wir die Entwicklung in drei eng miteinander verwandten Bereichen: der Wahrnehmung, dem Handeln und dem Lernen. Unsere Darstellung konzentriert sich vorrangig auf die frühe Kindheit, da sich während der ersten beiden Lebensjahre eines Kindes in allen drei Bereichen außerordentlich schnelle Entwicklungen vollziehen. Ein we...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel betrachten wir die besondere Beschaffenheit der Interaktionen mit Gleichaltrigen und ihre Auswirkungen auf die soziale Entwicklung von Kindern. Zuerst besprechen wir theoretische Perspektiven zur besonderen Rolle der Interaktionen mit Gleichaltrigen. Nachfolgend betrachten wir Freundschaften, die engste Form solcher Beziehungen. D...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel diskutieren wir vor allem die folgenden beiden Fragen: Wie ähnlich oder unterschiedlich sind Mädchen und Jungen in Bezug auf bestimmte psychologische Variablen? Und was könnte Unterschieden zwischen ihnen zugrunde liegen? Nach einer eingehenderen Beschäftigung mit den Begriffen „Geschlecht“ und „Gender“ betrachten wir zunächst die...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel untersuchen wir den Verlauf der pränatalen Entwicklung – einer Zeit erstaunlich schnellen und dramatischen Wandels. Wir werden Störeinflüsse und Umweltgefahren, die den sich entwickelnden Fötus schädigen können, betrachten. Danach behandeln wir in Kürze den Prozess der Geburt und besondere Verhaltensaspekte des Neugeborenen. Schli...
Chapter
Bevor wir uns den Forschungsarbeiten zur Entwicklung der Intelligenz zuwenden, geht es zunächst darum zu klären, was Intelligenz ist. In den meisten Bereichen der kognitiven Entwicklung wie Wahrnehmung, Sprache und Begriffsverstehen werden altersbezogene Veränderungen geprüft. Aber die Intelligenzforschung interessiert sich auch für individuelle Un...
Chapter
Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden fünf besonders einflussreiche Theorien der kognitiven Entwicklung untersucht: die Theorie von Jean Piaget, der Informationsverarbeitungsansatz, die domänenspezifischen Ansätze und Kernwissenstheorien, die soziokulturelle Perspektive sowie die Perspektive dynamischer Systeme. Wir erläutern hierzu die ihnen zugrunde lie...
Chapter
Wir beginnen unsere Darstellung der Moralentwicklung mit der Untersuchung des moralischen Urteils von Kindern: Wie denken Kinder über Situationen, an denen moralische Entscheidungen beteiligt sind? Danach betrachten wir Befunde über die frühe Entstehung des Gewissens und die Entwicklung prosozialen Verhaltens – dazu gehören Verhaltensweisen wie Hel...
Chapter
Wesentlich für das Verständnis der Entwicklung ist die Kenntnis der biologischen Grundlagen, die Verhalten beeinflussen. Der Schwerpunkt dieses Kapitels liegt auf den wichtigsten biologischen Faktoren, die vom Augenblick der Befruchtung bis in die Pubertät hinein im Spiel sind: die Vererbung und der Einfluss der Gene, die Entwicklung und frühe Funk...
Chapter
Wir geben in diesem Kapitel einen Überblick über einige der einflussreichsten allgemeinen Theorien der sozialen Entwicklung. Diese Theorien sind auf die Erklärung vieler wichtiger Entwicklungsaspekte gerichtet, beispielsweise Emotionen, Motivation, Persönlichkeit, Bindung, Selbst, Beziehungen zu Gleichaltrigen, Moral und Geschlecht. In diesem Kapit...
Chapter
Dieses abschließende Kapitel vermittelt einen Überblick darüber, wie die vielen Aspekte, die Sie in diesem Buch kennengelernt haben, in ein integratives Rahmenkonzept eingebunden werden können. Wie dargelegt zielen die meisten Forschungsarbeiten zur Kindesentwicklung letztendlich darauf ab, grundlegende Fragen zu verstehen, die mit den in ► Kap. 1...
Chapter
Emotionen sind ein grundlegender Teil der menschlichen Erfahrung, aber wie Kinder lernen, ihre Gefühle und ihr Verhalten zu regulieren, kann lebenslange Konsequenzen haben. In diesem Kapitel untersuchen wir die Entwicklung von Emotionen sowie die Entwicklung der Fähigkeit von Kindern, ihre Gefühle und das mit ihnen zusammenhängende Verhalten zu reg...
Article
Full-text available
An important part of children's social and cognitive development is their understanding that people are psychological beings with internal, mental states including desire, intention, perception, and belief. A full understanding of people as psychological beings requires a representational theory of mind (ToM), which is an understanding that mental...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigated the psychometric properties of the Prosociality Scale and its cross-cultural validation and generalizability across five different western and non-western countries (China, Chile, Italy, Spain, and the United States). The scale was designed to measure individual differences in a global tendency to behave in prosocial ways...
Article
In this short-term longitudinal study, we tested if peers' temperament in the fall of second grade predicted target children's (N = 241) student–teacher conflict and closeness in the spring of second grade and whether target children's self-regulation moderated these associations. Based on regression analyses, peers' negative emotionality was negat...
Article
The main goal of this study was to more closely understand the direction of relations between maternal behavior and young children's defiance and committed compliance. We examined 256 mother–child dyads to explore developmental transactional relations between maternal assertive control, children's committed compliance, and children's defiance at 18...
Article
This study tested whether the relations between parental warmth and children’s problem behaviors vary as a function of the quality of the teacher-student relationship while controlling for prior levels of the outcomes. When children (N = 301, M age = 5.48, 52% girls) were in kindergarten, teachers reported on the quality of the teacher-student rela...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested whether the relations between parental warmth and children’s problem behaviors vary as a function of the quality of the teacher-student relationship while controlling for prior levels of the outcomes. When children (N = 301, M age = 5.48, 52% girls) were in kindergarten, teachers reported on the quality of the teacher-student rela...
Article
Objective Despite concerns about the inaccuracy of parents’ reports of children’s sleep, it remains unclear whether the bias of parents’ reports varies across racial/ethnic groups. To address this limitation, the current study systematically investigated the concordance among parent-reported sleep questionnaires, sleep diaries, and actigraphy-based...
Article
Full-text available
Studies with extensive observations of real-life emotions at school are rare but might be especially useful for predicting school-related outcomes. This study evaluated observations of negative emotion expressivity in lunch and recreation settings across kindergarten, first grade, and second grade (N = 301), kindergarten teachers' reports of childr...
Article
Negative urgency, rash action during negative mood states, is a strong predictor of risky behavior. However, its developmental antecedents remain largely unstudied. The current study tested whether childhood temperament served as a developmental antecedent to adolescent negative urgency. Participants (N=239) were from a longitudinal study oversampl...
Article
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) represent a specific class of prosocial behaviors observable in the organizational environment. This study examined the longitudinal relations among regulatory emotional, social and work self-efficacy beliefs, and their relations to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors directed at specific individuals (OC...
Book
Dieses Standardwerk bietet allen, die sich beruflich oder privat für die Entwicklung im Kindes- und Jugendalter interessieren, umfassende Einblicke in den spannenden Prozess des Erwachsenwerdens. Die Autor*innen sind renommierte Wissenschaftler und Pädagogen. Sie haben diese Auflage grundlegend überarbeitet und um wichtige neue Informationen zur so...
Article
Memorializes Claire B. Kopp (1931-2019). Between 1970 and 2000, she was a lecturer in psychology, assistant research psychologist, and clinical professor in the Departments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry, and Education and then adjunct professor in psychology at UCLA. At Claremont McKenna College, she was an adjunct professor in psychology from 1995 to...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to investigate the relations between White parents’ implicit racial attitudes and their children’s racially-based bias in empathic concern towards White and Black victims of injustice, as well as the moderating role of children’s age in this relation. Five to 9-year-old children (N = 190; 103 boys) reported how sorry (i.e...
Article
Negative emotional inertia refers to the degree of which a current emotional state can be predicted by a previous emotional state and it represents a relevant marker of psychological maladjustment. The current study tested a theoretical model in which the dynamic impact of daily hassles on negative emotional inertia is mediated by exhaustion, and m...
Article
This special issue consists of 20 articles that focus on issues related to Eisenberg and colleagues' (Eisenberg, Cumberland, & Spinrad, 1998; Eisenberg, Spinrad, & Cumberland, 1998) model of emotion socialization processes and its relevance for understanding a range of aspects of children's socioemotional functioning. The various papers have addres...
Article
The present study examines parents' self-efficacy about anger regulation and irritability as predictors of harsh parenting and adolescent children's irritability (i.e., mediators), which in turn were examined as predictors of adolescents' externalizing and internalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents (N = 1,298 families) from 12 cultur...
Preprint
Previous research has shown that children’s home environment plays an important role in children’s early language skills. Yet, few researchers have examined the unique role of family-level factors (SES, household chaos) on children’s learning, or focused on the longitudinal processes that might explain their relations to children’s early language s...
Article
Full-text available
Empathy has been a key focus of social, developmental, and affective neuroscience for some time. However, research using neural measures to study empathy in response to social victimization is sparse, particularly for young children. In the present study, 58 children’s (White, non-Hispanic; five to nine years old) mu suppression was measured using...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly half of adolescents experience depressive or aggressive symptoms that impair their functioning at some point in adolescence. Experiencing intense difficult emotions and difficulties regulating such emotions may lead to these depressive and aggressive symptoms. However, existing work largely investigates how adolescent emotions at a single ti...
Article
Full-text available
Without a doubt, parents play a critical role in socializing moral development in their children. This handbook provides a collection of state-of-the-art theories and research on the important role that parents play in moral development. The contributors take a comprehensive, yet nuanced approach to considering the links between parenting and diffe...
Article
Attachment theorists have argued that securely attached children tend to exhibit flexible attention; the attention of children with resistant attachments is centered on attachment-related worries; children with avoidant attachments defensively focus attention away from attachment-related emotions/thoughts; and children with disorganized attachments...
Article
The structure of executive function (EF), as it pertains to distinct “hot” (affectively salient) and “cool” (affectively neutral) dimensions, in early childhood is not well understood. Given that the neural circuitry underlying EF may become increasingly differentiated with development and enriched experiences, EF may become more dissociable into h...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Literature on adolescent prosocial behavior (PB) has grown tremendously since the development of The Prosocial Tendency Measure-Revised (PTM-R), which includes subscales assessing different types of PB. However, findings of gender differences are inconsistent across studies. Thus, we computed meta-analyses to examine gender differenc...
Article
Moderation and mediation models of religiosity and effortful control as predictors of tobacco and alcohol use were tested in this 2‐year longitudinal study of 563 16‐year‐old Muslim Indonesian adolescents. Adolescents reported their effortful control, religiosity, and tobacco and alcohol use and peers provided reports of adolescents’ effortful cont...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to understand the role young children's sleep plays in the association between their family environment and academic achievement (AA) by examining sleep as a moderator between home chaos (chaos) and children's AA. We examined this question in a sample of 103 kindergarteners and 1st graders. In the fall, parents reported o...
Article
Objective Children's effortful control and impulsivity are important predictors of the personality trait, ego‐resiliency (i.e., resiliency). Most researchers have not considered the fact that effortful control and impulsivity share substantial conceptual and empirical overlap, yet they also have been shown to be distinct. We tested a bifactor model...
Article
Full-text available
Generally, research on children's anger and prosocial outcomes has been inconsistent, perhaps because researchers have overlooked nuances in children's anger, such as whether the emotion is situational versus dispositional or is in response to blocked goals versus violations of moral principles (e.g., unfairness). Additionally, mixed findings may b...
Article
Full-text available
The associations between children's (N = 301) observed expression of positive and negative emotion in school and symptoms of psychological maladjustment (i.e., depressive and externalizing symptoms) were examined from kindergarten to first grade. Positive and negative emotional expressivity levels were observed in school settings, and teachers repo...
Chapter
Recently there has been an increasing appreciation of the role of emotion and its regulation in children's socioemotional functioning. Investigators have varied in their definitions of emotion regulation and related constructs. Different conceptualizations of emotion‐related regulation are discussed, and the usefulness of examining top‐down self‐re...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the association between children’s (N = 301) self-regulation and math and reading achievement in kindergarten, 1st grade, and 2nd grade. Children’s self-regulation was assessed using the Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders (HTKS) task (involving control of gross body movements) and a computerized continuous performance task (CPT; assessi...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the study was to examine whether target children’s temperamental negative emotional expressivity (NEE) and effortful control in the fall of kindergarten predicted academic adjustment in the spring and whether a classmate’s NEE and effortful control moderated these relations. Target children’s NEE and effortful control were measured in t...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from a study of 140 preschool children (39% female), we examined the relations between direct assessments of emotion knowledge and naturalistic observations of behavior during free‐play periods, and tested parent‐ and teacher‐reported effortful control as a moderator of these relations. Basic emotion recognition was unrelated to social p...
Article
During adolescence, some personality characteristics may represent vulnerabilities to adolescents’ adjustment. Adopting a person-centered approach, the aims of this study were (a) to examine the relations of early adolescents’ personality profiles to internalizing (i.e., anxious/depressed, withdrawal, and somatic complaints) and externalizing (i.e....
Article
Moderation and mediation models of the relation between religiosity and effortful control as predictors of problem behavior and aggression were assessed in this study of 237 16-year-old Muslim Indonesian adolescents. Adolescents reported their engagement in behavior required and recommended by their religion and their effortful control using the Ea...
Article
Empathy plays a central role in prosocial behavior and human cooperation. Very few twin researchers have investigated innate and environmental effects in adult empathy, and twin research on gender differences in these effects is sparse. The goal of this study was to examine innate and environmental influences on three components of an empathy scale...
Article
The goal of the current study was to identify factors that contribute to individual differences in school functioning. We proposed a model including direct effects of Effortful Control (EC) on Spanish 6- to 12-year olds' (N = 142) academic achievement and social adaptation at school, with these relations partially mediated by learning-related behav...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to predict young children’s shyness from both internal/biological (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) and external (i.e., neighborhood quality) factors. Participants were 180 children at 42 (Time 1; T1), 72 (T2), and 84 (T3) months of age. RSA data were obtained at T1 during a neutral film in the l...
Article
Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children’s emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children’s self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current...
Article
The present study examines whether early adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs about anger regulation mediate the relation between parents' self-efficacy beliefs about anger regulation and early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants were 534 early adolescents (T1: M age = 10.89, SD = .70; 50% female), their mothers (n = 5...
Article
Full-text available
We examined individual trajectories, across four time points, of children’s (N = 301) expression of negative emotion in classroom settings and whether these trajectories predicted their observed school engagement, teacher-reported academic skills, and passage comprehension assessed with a standardized measure in first grade. In latent growth curve...
Article
Research Findings: The primary goal of this study was to determine whether sleep duration moderates the relations of 2 dimensions of children’s temperament—shyness and negative emotion—to academic achievement. In the autumn, parents and teachers reported on kindergartners’ and 1st graders’ (N = 103) shyness and negative emotion and research assista...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We examined the relations of children's (N = 301) observed expression of negative and positive emotion in classes or non-classroom school contexts (i.e., lunch and recess) to school adjustment from kindergarten to first grade. Method: Naturalistic observations of children's emotional expressivity were collected, as were teachers' repo...
Article
Guided by the person by environment framework, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether classroom chaos moderated the relation between effortful control and kindergarteners' school adjustment. Classroom observers reported on children's (N = 301) effortful control in the fall. In the spring, teachers reported on classroom chaos and sc...
Article
Given the increasing societal concerns about youth’s mental health problems in the context of rapid sociocultural changes in urban China, studying the links of appraisals and coping to Chinese children’s adjustment can inform cultural adaptations of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions for this population. In a school-based sample of 59...
Article
Full-text available
Family socio-economic status (SES) represents one of the major determinants of youth's scholastic achievement, and thus it is important to unravel the psychological factors underlining this relation. In this article, we examined youth's ability to flexibly adapt and, thus, cope with harsh environmental conditions-assessed by the construct of ego-re...
Article
In this two-wave longitudinal study, concurrent and longitudinal relations among teacher-reported shyness, peer acceptance, and academic achievement were examined (Ns = 162 and 155; and Msage = 6.09 and 7.07 years). Concurrently, at both times, shyness was negatively related to peer acceptance and academic achievement, and peer acceptance was posit...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later (N = 301), and whether teacher–student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children’s effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of c...
Article
Full-text available
Research findings: Higher positive expressivity during lunch/recess compared to positive expressivity in the classroom was associated with lower teacher-student conflict, externalizing behaviors, and depressive symptoms. In addition, overall positive emotional expressivity predicted lower externalizing behaviors as well as lower depressive and anx...