Nancy J Cooke

Nancy J Cooke
Arizona State University | ASU · Human Systems Engineering, The Polytechnic School, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

PhD 1987 New Mexico State

About

274
Publications
91,259
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7,883
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - January 2015
Arizona State University
Position
  • Professor
January 2002 - December 2012
Arizona State University
January 1994 - December 2002
New Mexico State University

Publications

Publications (274)
Preprint
Full-text available
Teams composed of human and machine members operating in complex task environments must effectively interact in response to information flow while adapting to environmental changes. This study investigates how interpersonal coordination dynamics between team members are associated with team performance and shared situation awareness in a simulated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined dyadic team coordination dynamics to understand teammate influence when humans team with an intelligent machine. In a synthetic remotely piloted aircraft system environment, heterogeneous teams of three members were required to take good photos of critical target waypoints during simulated missions by interacting with each other...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Teams are complex systems with many different layers that interact with one another to accomplish a common goal or task. The physiological layer is just one of them. In this study, first, we examined how the Holder exponent, which was extracted from heart rate variability, changed across the missions and roles, and then how the holder exponent is r...
Article
Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) missions continue to benefit from the incorporation of human-robot teams (HRTs). With USAR environments being ambiguous in terms of what to expect, the integration of robot teammates into USAR missions has allowed human teammates to reduce their exposure to dangerous environments and provide access to areas of uncerta...
Preprint
Team communication facilitates team coordination strategies and situations and how teammates perceive one another. In human-machine teams, these perceptions affect how people trust and anthropomorphize their machine counterparts, which in turn affects team performance. This study investigates how personifying and objectifying contents in human-mach...
Preprint
This research examines the relationship between anticipatory pushing of information and trust in human-machine teaming in a synthetic task environment for remotely piloted aircraft systems. Two human participants and one Artificial Intelligent based agent, emulated by a confederate experimenter, executed a series of missions as a team of three, und...
Conference Paper
Workplace research suggests that roughly equal communication between teammates may predict team effectiveness. A distinction between teams in these studies and distributed action teams is the degree of role specialization and context-driven communication which may entail unequal degrees of communication. Yet, distributed action teams may have more...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cyber attackers commonly operate in teams, which may process information collectively and thus, may be best understood when the team is treated as the unit of analysis. Future research in Oppositional Human Factors (OHF) should consider the impact of team-influencing and team-level biases and the impact that defensive interventions have on team cog...
Article
Full-text available
The current study considers Human-Autonomy teams (HATs) in which two human team members interact and collaborate with an autonomous teammate to achieve a common task while dealing with unexpected technological failures that were imposed either in automation or autonomy. A Wizard of Oz (WoZ) methodology was used to simulate the autonomous teammate....
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous robots have the potential to play a critical role in urban search and rescue (USAR) by allowing human counterparts of a response team to remain in remote, stable locations while the robots execute more dangerous work in the field. However, challenges remain in developing robot capabilities suitable for teaming with humans. Communicating...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Project overview. As Human–AI–Robot Teams (HARTs) become prevalent in safety-critical domains, team resilience becomes increasingly relevant for assessing their effectiveness. This study explores a dynamical systems approach to connect interaction-based measures of nominal teamwork with processes and outcomes related to positive adaptation in pertu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) missions often involve a need to complete tasks in hazardous environments. In such situations, human-robot teams (HRT) may be essential tools for future USAR missions. Transparency and explanation are two information exchange processes where transparency is real-time information exchange and explanation is not. For ef...
Conference Paper
Project Overview. Communication is a key ingredient of team cognition (Cooke, Gorman, Myers, & Duran, 2013), and is both a factor and a manifestation of trust in human-autonomy teams (HATs; Hou, Ho, & Dunwoody, 2021). Anthropomorphism, or the attribution of humanlike qualities to inanimate objects, is a distinct factor in human trust in automation...
Article
Full-text available
This work examines two human–autonomy team (HAT) training approaches that target communication and trust calibration to improve team effectiveness under degraded conditions. Human–autonomy teaming presents challenges to teamwork, some of which may be addressed through training. Factors vital to HAT performance include communication and calibrated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trust in autonomous teammates has been shown to be a key factor in human-autonomy team (HAT) performance, and anthropomorphism is a closely related construct that is underexplored in HAT literature. This study investigates whether perceived anthropomorphism can be measured from team communication behaviors in a simulated remotely piloted aircraft s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research examines the relationship between anticipatory pushing of information and trust in human–autonomy teaming in a remotely piloted aircraft system - synthetic task environment. Two participants and one AI teammate emulated by a confederate executed a series of missions under routine and degraded conditions. We addressed the following que...
Article
The implementation of electronic team training, e-team training, has been used to teach teamwork skills in a wide array of industries. By using e-team training, organizations have seen the observable benefits of improved team effectiveness, faster response times, and reduction in training costs. Those learning from e-team training have reported add...
Article
To support research on artificial social intelligence for successful teams (ASIST), an urban search and rescue task (USAR) was simulated within Minecraft to serve as a Synthetic Task Environment (STE). The goal for the development of the present STE was to create an environment that provides ample opportunities to allow ASI agents to demonstrate th...
Article
Exploration and exploitation are commonly cited in search and rescue scenarios to explain the process by which individuals work in a team and gather information about their environment (exploration) and identify potential solutions and adaptations (exploitation) to pursue successful outcomes. In this paper, we discuss exploration and exploitation a...
Article
This panel will discuss issues related to Manned-Unmanned Teaming (MUMT) technologies. Panelists were selected to represent diverse topics and each will provide a unique perspective on the MUMT challenge space. Joseph Lyons will frame the discussion and introduce the panelists. Each panelist will provide an overview of the MUMT research/application...
Article
Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) missions often involve a need to complete tasks in hazardous environments. In such situations, human-robot teams (HRT) may be essential tools for future USAR missions. Transparency and explanation are two information exchange processes where transparency is real-time information exchange and explanation is not. For ef...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present research defines a pattern-based measure for deviations from Closed LoopCommunication Deviations (CLCD) that can be used to predict Loss of Separation (LOS).Six retired Air Traffic Controllers were recruited and tested in three conditions of varyingworkload in a TRACON arrival radar simulation. Communication transcripts fromsimulated tr...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on methodological adaptations and considerations for remote research on Human–AI–Robot Teaming (HART) amidst the COVID‐19 pandemic. Themes and effective remote research methods were explored. Central issues in remote research were identified, such as challenges in attending to participants' experiences, coordinating experimenter...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of team communication can provide critical insights into team dynamics, cohesion, trust, and performance on joint tasks. Although many communication-based measures have been tested and validated for human teams, this review article extends this research by identifying key approaches specific to human-autonomy teams. It is not possible to...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on two fundamental human-human teamwork processes and seeks to understand them better in human-machine teams. Specifically, team situation awareness (TSA) and team conflict are examined in human-machine teams. There is a significant need to identify how TSA and team conflict occur during human-machine teaming, in addition to ho...
Preprint
Autonomous robots have the potential to play a critical role in urban search and rescue (USAR) by allowing human counterparts of a response team to remain in remote, stable locations while the robots execute more dangerous work in the field. However, challenges remain in developing robot capabilities suitable for teaming with humans. Communicating...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to better understand trust in human-autonomy teams, finding that trust is important to team performance. A wizard of oz methodology was used in an experiment to simulate an autonomous agent as a team member in a remotely piloted aircraft system environment. Specific focuses of the study were team performance and team social behavior...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Project Overview. Human-autonomy teaming is a paradigm in which humans and artificially intelligent agents work together as teammates. Effective team coordination includes anticipating the information needs of teammates, pushing the right information to the right place, at the right time, and maintaining flexible coordination to adapt to changing c...
Article
Security analysts regularly correlate disparate incidents to detect cyber-attacks. However, past research shows that team-based incident correlation analysis may be affected by information pooling bias. This article presents findings from an agent-based model used to explore the cognitive processes hypothesized to be causing this bias during inform...
Article
Full-text available
The current study focuses on improving team effectiveness in Next Generation Combat Vehicles (NGCVs) that combine humans, intelligent agents, and unmanned assets working together toward common goals, “teaming”, through the development of interaction strategies for this future contextual domain. Twenty interaction strategies were derived from three...
Chapter
Any functional human-AI-robot team consists of multiple stakeholders, as well as one or more artificial agents (e.g., AI agents and embodied robotic agents). Each stakeholder's trust in the artificial agent matters because it not only impacts their performance on tasks with human teammates and artificial agents but also influences their trust in ot...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This research leverages the recent success of AFRL's Synthetic Air Vehicle Operator's interactions with Cooke's CERTT Lab on teams. Furthering the effort of better understanding human-autonomy teaming (HAT), we (Cognitive Engineering Research Institute – CERI) conducted a series of experiments to assess the quality of HAT in the face of degraded co...
Conference Paper
Verbal communication is important for coordination and performance in many team settings. However, the inclusion of autonomous artificial agents presents challenges to teamwork. This study sought to examine the effects of three different training approaches on team communication behaviors in human-autonomy teams (HATs) under normal and degraded con...
Article
As robots become more autonomous, their roles shift from being operated and controlled by humans to interactively teaming with humans. The current research focuses on how human operators can effectively team with autonomous urban search and rescue agents in a dynamic and complex task environment. To do so, we empirically examined how shared cogniti...
Article
Full-text available
Civil infrastructure systems (CIS) require effective systems-level operation and maintenance (O&M) processes to ensure safety and efficiency. Such processes demand significant human efforts in human/team cognition, decision-making, and execution of activities. Poor human behaviors could affect CIS O&M safety and efficiency. This review synthesized...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
On a team, autonomy must be able to work alongside human counterparts and carry out the fundamentals of teamwork and taskwork. In this paper we refer to these ma-chine teammates as autonomy. These Human-Autonomy Teams (HATs) need to be assembled to have the appropriate roles and responsibilities and to interact in an in-terdependent manner. One cha...
Chapter
Full-text available
Next Generation Combat Vehicles (NGCVs) are incorporating more advanced technology which will enable humans and intelligent artificial agents to team up on the battlefield. Effective system design and evaluation for these human–agent teams require an understanding of individual and team tasks in the context of larger-scale operations. Previous taxo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current study focuses on improving team effectiveness in Next Generation Combat Vehicles (NGCVs) that combine humans, intelligent agents, and unmanned assets working together toward common goals, "teaming", through the development of interaction strategies for this future contextual domain. Twenty interaction strategies were derived from three...
Technical Report
Full-text available
SoLaR-SoAR consists of a review of the current state of the art for distributed learning environments. The report is structured for use by multiple types of end users. The main report provides a 22-page, high-level overview of findings of the current state of the art. This section can serve as a quick reference. The report’s Appendixes provide a de...
Conference Paper
The primary goal of this experiment is to examine and build dynamical systems models which specify the optimum coordination area that enables teams to perform better when they collaborate with an autonomous agent in the context of explicable behavior. In this preliminary study, we examine team coordination dynamics and explicable behavior by using...
Conference Paper
Project overview Teamwork can be defined as dynamic team interaction between two or more interdependent members to achieve a shared goal. Many studies have examined how coordination dynamics are associated with team effectiveness in the context of all-human teams (Gorman, Amazeen, & Cooke, 2010), and later, in human-autonomy teams (HAT)s (Demir, Li...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Project Overview Team Situation Awareness (TSA), which is a part of team cognition, is a critical factor that influences team effectiveness. It can be defined as getting the right information from the right person within the right amount of time, in order to overcome an unexpected event (Gorman, Cooke, Pederson, Connor, & DeJoode, 2005). TSA is dev...
Poster
Full-text available
In future urban search and rescue teams, robots may be expected to conduct cognitive tasks. As the capabilities of robots change, so too will their interdependence with human teammates. Human factors and cognitive engineering are well-positioned to guide the design of autonomy for effective teaming. Previous work in the urban search and rescue synt...
Poster
Full-text available
Literature New capabilities to modernize the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) include support of real-time information streams derived from many data sources across the NAS. As an emergent property, safety of the NAS arises from interactions between many elements at different levels, ranging from those attributable to humans, technology, and the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Project overview Team resilience is an interactive and dynamic process that develops over time while a team maintains performance. This study aims to empirically investigate systems-level resilience in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) System simulated task environment by examining team interaction during novel events. The approach used in the curr...
Article
Full-text available
Project overview As a team explores interactions, they may find opportunities to expand and refine teamwork over time. This can have consequences for team effectiveness in normal and unexpected situations (Woods, 2018). Understanding the role of exploratory team interactions may be relevant for human-autonomy team (HAT) resilience in the face of sy...
Article
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies) conducted a decadal survey (anticipated report release date is 5 March 2019) to explore and identify promising research opportunities in the social and behavioral sciences (SBS) for applications to national security. The report also provides guidance for the deve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Project overview. Team resilience is an interactive and dynamic process that develops over time while a team maintains performance. This study aims to empirically investigate systems-level resilience in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) System simulated task environment by examining team interaction during novel events. The approach used in the cur...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this current research is twofold: (1) to understand how team interaction in human-autonomy teams (HAT)s evolve in the Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) task context, and (2) to understand how HATs respond to three types of failures (automation, autonomy, and cyber-attack) over time. We summarize the findings from three of our re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Project overview. Teamwork can be defined as dynamic team interaction between two or more interdependent members to achieve a shared goal. Many studies have examined how coordination dynamics are associated with team effectiveness in the context of all-human teams (Gorman, Amazeen, & Cooke, 2010), and later, in human-autonomy teams (HAT)s (Demir, L...
Preprint
Full-text available
Literature. New capabilities to modernize the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) include support of real-time information streams derived from many data sources across the NAS. As an emergent property, safety of the NAS arises from interactions between many elements at different levels, ranging from those attributable to humans, technology, and th...
Conference Paper
New capabilities to modernize the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) include support of real-time information streams derived from many data sources across the NAS. This provision allows for system risk prognostics originating from sets of diagnostic health information. The current exploratory paper presents how to model human performance with the...
Article
Engineering grand challenges and big ideas not only demand innovative engineering solutions, but also typically involve and affect human thought, behavior, and quality of life. To solve these types of complex problems, multidisciplinary teams must bring together experts in engineering and psychological science, yet fusing these distinct areas can b...
Article
In the past, team coordination dynamics have been explored using nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) methods, but the relationship between team coordination dynamics and team performance for all-human teams was assumed to be linear. The current study examines team coordination dynamics with an extended version of the NDS methods and assumes that its...
Article
The rise in autonomous system research and development combined with the maturation of computational cognitive architectures holds the promise of high-cognitive-fidelity agents capable of operating as team members for training. We report an ACT-R model capable of operating as a team member within a remotely-piloted aerial system, and provide result...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this exploratory paper is to underline the importance of coordination-based training for dynamic tasks in human-autonomy teaming. We address training solutions to distinct types of failures caused by either internal (the system) and external sources (the dynamic task environment). In order to accomplish this, we explore Human-Autonomy te...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims to better understand trust in human-autonomy teams, finding that trust is related to team performance. A wizard of oz methodology was used in an experiment to simulate an autonomous agent as a team member in a remotely piloted aircraft system environment. Specific focuses of the study were team performance and team social behaviors...
Article
Full-text available
As coordination mechanisms change and technology failures occur, a sociotechnical system must reorganize itself across human and technological layers to maintain effectiveness. We present a study examining reorganization across communication, controls, and vehicle layers of a remotely-piloted aircraft system (RPAS) using a layered dynamics approach...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Three different team configurations are compared with the goal of better understanding human-autonomy teaming (HAT). Background Although an extensive literature on human-automation interaction exists, much less is known about HAT in which humans and autonomous agents interact as coordinated units. Further research must be conducted to be...