Nan Kang

Nan Kang
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Arts et Métiers | ENSAM · Laboratoire Mécanique, Surfaces, Matériaux et Procédés (MSMP)

Ph.D

About

72
Publications
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1,392
Citations

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
Full-text available
As one of the important additive manufacturing techniques, selective laser melting (SLM) has shown great advantage in the production of metal matrix composite components with complex geometry. However, the layer-by-layer manufacturing procedure causes a nonnegligible thermal accumulation and cycling. Thus, the SLM-deposited component always present...
Article
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) of AlMgScZr alloys have a combination of high strength and good ductility, which may apply to damage-tolerant structures. However, there have been only limited studies on the toughness performance of this promising alloy system. In the present work, the impact toughness of an LPBF-processed AlMgScZr alloy, which is cr...
Article
To develop large-scale use of hydrogen as an environmentally sensible alternative to fossil energy sources, the design of safe and innovative storage and transportation infrastructure is a crucial issue. In direct contact with the high-pressure hydrogen, structural materials, especially traditional alloys, are indeed susceptible to degradation of t...
Article
Full-text available
Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloys manufactured using selective laser melting (SLM) possess outstanding static mechanical properties and thus have great potential application in the aerospace industry. However, their fatigue performance has not been clearly investigated and understood. In this work, the high cycle fatigue properties of an Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy manufac...
Article
Comparison study on the sliding wear behavior and microstructural evolution of Ti6Al4V, which were prepared using forging, laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) and laser directed energy deposition (L-DED), was carried out. Both L-PBF and L-DED samples exhibit nonequilibrium feature with lath/acicular α-Ti, due to the high cooling rate. Considering the h...
Article
The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of 3 wt% TiB2p reinforced 2024Al (TiB2p/2024Al) composite stimulated by T6 heat treatment are reported in this work. Morphological results showed that the initial TiB2p/2024Al composite fabricated by laser-directed energy deposition (LDED) consists of fine equiaxed grains with well dispersed T...
Article
Full-text available
In the present work, an additive manufacturing method of selective laser melting (SLM) was adopted to produce high oxygen-doped commercial purity titanium (Ti-O), with raw materials of high purity Ti and rutile (TiO2) powders. Microstructure and mechanical characterizations were then applied to the materials, which indicates that the TiO2 powders d...
Article
Understanding the effect of reinforcements on microstructure evolution and strengthening mechanism in aluminum matrix is crucial for development of good performance aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) prepared by laser additive manufacturing (LAM). In this work, the roles of submicron-TiB2 particles in the grain morphological evolution, mechanical pr...
Article
Al-Mn-Sc based alloys present potential in manufacturing high-performance aluminum alloy by selective laser melting (SLM) technology. However, the solidification and solid-state phase transformation behaviors induced by SLM layer-by-layer deposition and the interaction between the Al-Mn and Al-Sc systems result in complexity in the precipitation of...
Article
The application of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) in conventional high-strength wrought aluminum alloys is a significant challenge due to its high cracking sensitivity. In this study, 2024Al and 1.3-wt% Zr-modified 2024Al alloy deposits were prepared by L-PBF using pre-alloyed powder. The solidification cracking susceptibility of the 1.3-wt% Zr-mo...
Article
Hybrid manufacturing (HM) uses additive manufacturing (AM) techniques to prepare complex or fine structures on traditional processing parts, which can fully utilize the advantages of AM to form complex parts, and the high efficiency and low cost of conventional processing methods in manufacturing regular components. A bimetal material was produced...
Article
Self-regulation effect (SRE) is a unique phenomenon in laser blown powder directed energy deposition (DED), which can dynamically compensate the sloping deposition surface (within an acceptable tolerance) induced by the fluctuation of the fabricating process or part warpage. For this reason, the layer-thickness is varying in DED and strongly depend...
Article
In this study, a 2219 Al alloy with a heterogeneous band structure characterized by an alternating distribution of equiaxed and columnar α-Al grains was obtained by wire + arc additive manufacturing. The volume fractions of the equiaxed and columnar grains were varied by adjusting the cooling mode of the substrate. The volume fraction of the column...
Article
The properties of modified conventional wrought aluminum alloys cannot be significantly enhanced by normal post-heat treatment in that the fine-grained strengthening, arising from high cooling rate in SLM, is underutilized. In this work, compared with the normal T6 heat treatment, a novel simple direct aging regime was proposed to maintain the grai...
Article
This work investigates the defects (pore and lack of fusion), microstructure, and fatigue properties of Sc and Zr-modified Al–Mg alloy on different building directions fabricated by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). The results showed that transversely deposited (TD) samples exhibited a superior fatigue strength (100.5 MPa) compared to that (57 MPa)...
Article
The reinforcing effect of short carbon fibers (CFs) in Ti−6Al−4V (TC4) matrix composites fabricated by powder metallurgy is investigated by mechanical testing at room/high temperatures. Different mass fractions of CFs (0−3%) are dispersed into TC4 matrix by high-energy ball milling. CFs/TC4 powder mixtures are then consolidated by hot isostatic pre...
Article
Full-text available
For most safety-critical applications, the achievement of both high strength and high toughness is one of the key requirements for structural materials. However, strength and toughness are generally mutually exclusive. Here, we report a selective-laser-melted Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy with a good combination of strength and toughness, which is comparable t...
Article
In this work, bulk deposits of a Sc modified Al-Mn-Fe-Si alloy were prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), and the microstructural characteristics and tensile properties of the deposits were analyzed. The as-deposited sample presented a multiscale microstructure consisting of epitaxial columnar grains with width of 30–140 μm, in which there exi...
Article
This paper aims to develop a high-efficient finite element (FE) model by combining the equivalent boundary condition method (EBCM) and dynamic mesh method (DMM) for accelerating the thermo-mechanical simulation of additive manufacturing by powder bed fusion (PBF). EBCM and DMM take advantage of the strong non-linear phenomenon in the thermo-mechani...
Article
In this study, the effect of triple-cycling heat treatment on the microstructure, phase, and compression behaviour of directed energy deposited (DED) Ti-7Mo alloy was investigated with a focus on a non-equilibrium to equilibrium microstructure transition. As a result of thermal accumulation, in situ cycling, and rapid solidification, the as-deposit...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of TiB2 content on the microstructure and wear behavior of nano-TiB2p/2024Al composites fabricated by laser direct energy deposition (L-DED). The dry sliding friction and wear behavior was evaluated using a ball-on-disk tribometer by sliding samples against a 6-mm diameter GCr15 (AISI52100) ste...
Article
The wear of aluminum alloy may be decreased by its reinforcement with quasicrystals (QCs) prepared by melt, which in itself has good wear-resisting properties. This research paper considers the part played by a dense Al-Fe-Cr QC reinforced Al matrix composite fabricated by the directed energy deposition (DED) in reducing wear between sliding surfac...
Article
Weak interfacial bonding was a significant problem in titanium matrix composites (TMCs) reinforced with carbon fibers (CFs). In this study, heat treatment (HT) up to 1000℃ was applied on powder metallurgy Ti-6Al-4V matrix composites reinforced with discontinuous CFs to obtain different interfacial structures. Mechanical tests at both room-temperatu...
Article
Full-text available
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of Sc/Zr-modified Al-based alloys has recently become a promising method for developing a new generation of high-performance Al alloys. To clarify the modification roles of Sc/Zr elements, an Al–4.66Mg–0.48Mn–0.72Sc–0.33Zr (wt.%) alloy was processed using L-PBF. The effect of the local solidification condition of the...
Article
The effect of melting modes on microstructure evolution and tensile properties of selective laser melted (SLM-ed) Sc modified Al-Mn alloy (Al-5Mn-0.6Sc) is investigated in this work. With the transition of melting mode from conduction to keyhole by coinstantaneous increasing the laser power from 200 W to 380 W and the scanning speed from 800 mm/s t...
Article
This study investigates the hot deformation behavior and relative microstructural evolution of a wire + arc additive manufactured (WAAMed) 2219 Al alloy, in which hot compression was conducted in the temperature range of 300 to 480 ºC at the strain rates of 0.01 to 10 s⁻¹ with a true strain of 60%. The local-heterogeneous microstructure shows an al...
Article
Recently, laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloys has been considered an important method for developing a new generation of high-performance Al alloys. However, one of the key differences between LAM and conventional casting/wrought processes is that it has a unique combination of rapid solidification and in-situ solid-state trans...
Article
In the course of the selective laser melting (SLM) process, the part is built layer by layer involving partial re-melting/heating of the previous layer, called as intrinsic heat treatment. Therefore, superficial properties of as-built parts are somewhat different from that of the inside of the part. In this work, the nano-tribological behavior of c...
Article
The dense 2219 Al alloy was successfully fabricated by the Wire + Arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technology. It was subsequently processed through solution and aging (T6) heat treatment to improve its performance. There were some θ' phase precipitated because of the thermal cycling during the WAAM forming process. Then, the supersaturation of co...
Article
The dense 2219 Al alloy was successfully fabricated by the Wire + Arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technology. It was subsequently processed through solution and aging (T6) heat treatment to improve its performance. There were some θ' phase precipitated because of the thermal cycling during the WAAM forming process. Then, the supersaturation of co...
Article
The effect of powder mixture on the mechanical properties of in-situ SLM processed Al-Fe-Cr quasicrystal (QC) reinforced α-Al matrix composite was investigated in this work. The results show that the microstructure is inhomogeneous with non-uniformly distributed QC particles in the melt pool from non-equilibrium solidification during SLM, which res...
Article
Full-text available
The control of grain morphology is important in laser additive manufacturing (LAM), as grain morphology further affects the hot cracking resistance, anisotropy, and strength–ductility synergy of materials. To develop a solidification-control solution and achieve columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) in Al-based alloys during LAM, Sc-and-Zr-modified...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the microstructure and tensile properties of selective laser melted AlSi10Mg at elevated temperature were investigated with focus on the interfacial region. In-situ SEM and in-situ EBSD analysis were proposed to characterize the microstructural evolution with temperature. The as-fabricated AlSi10Mg sample presents high tensile streng...
Article
A novel graded Al matrix composite (AMC) was prepared by direct energy deposition (DED) from the mixture of pure Al, Cr and Fe powders. From the perspective of a single molten pool, the microstructure consists of two regions: AMC region with coarse Al13Fe4 laths and AMC region with fine Al13Fe4 particles. With increasing the deposited layer, the co...
Article
In this work, a novel tungsten steel was in-situ prepared using selective laser melting (SLM) and hot isotropic pressing (HIPing). The sample is firstly prepared by SLM from powder mixture of maraging steel and WC for the net-shaped manufacturing requirement. Then, the effects of HIPing on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of SLMed...
Article
In this work, a Sc/Zr modified Al-Mg alloy was processed by both selective laser melting (SLM) and directed energy deposition (DED). Due to different precipitation behavior of primary Al3(Sc,Zr)-L12 nucleation sites, a heterogeneous grain structure was formed in SLMed sample, which consisted of ultrafine equiaxed grains bands and columnar grains do...
Article
To better understand the structure-mechanical properties relation of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloys, a comparison study was performed on Ti64 alloys fabricated by powder-based selective laser melting (SLM) and sintering methods. It is found that the SLM Ti64 alloy has prior β grains filled with (lath α + needle α′) structure. While...
Article
The powder mixture, which used as feedstock materials in selective laser melting (SLM), always brings the undesirable problem in microstructure and then mechanical properties, due to its inhomogeneous chemical composition and stability. In this work, the in-situ SLMed Ti-7.5Mo alloy presents an heterogeneous conchoidal structure (hcp α-Ti and bcc β...
Article
In this work, almost dense (over 99.8 %) Ti-Mo alloy samples were manufactured by directed energy deposition (DED) from a mixture of pure Ti and pure Mo (7.5 wt.%) powders. As a consequence of thermal accumulation and in-situ heat treating during the DED process, as-deposited samples present a graded microstructure along the building direction alon...
Article
Full-text available
Wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) was preliminarily employed to fabricate the 2219 aluminum alloy. The influence of the electric arc travel speed (TS) on the macro-morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that as the electric arc TS increased, the size and the volume fraction of equiaxed...
Article
In this work, Al/quasicrystal (QC) composite lattice samples with several cellular sizes ranging from 1.5 to 5 mm were manufactured using selective laser melting (SLM). The porosity of all the designed lattice structure samples is fixed as 50%. The morphology of QC reinforcement on the top surface changes from micro desquamated to nano in situ reac...
Article
In this work, the tribological behaviour of selective laser melting (SLM)processed hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is investigated by the ball on disc test with focus on the effect of silicon content (18 and 50 wt %). Different from the conventional casted sample, the SLM processed sample shows an ultra-fine microstructure with silicon size inferior to 5...
Article
In this research, Al-Fe-Cr quasicrystal (QC) reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites were in-situ manufactured by using selective laser melting (SLM) from the powder mixture. The parametrical optimization based on our previous work was performed with focus on laser scanning speed. From the optimized parameters, an almost dense (99.7%) free-crac...
Article
In this work, a novel high-wear-resistant dense WC/18Ni-300 maraging steel matrix composite (99.6%) was manufactured by selective laser melting from power mixture of WC and maraging steel. The microstructural analysis indicates that the WC particle was either partially or fully melted during SLM process with a homogenous distribution. Moreover, a p...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, the nano-wear-induced behavior of selective laser melting (SLM) processed commercial pure titanium was investigated under several applied loads from 1 mN to 100 mN. The dense (over 99%) commercial pure titanium sample was manufactured using SLM process with optimized process parameters (900 J m⁻¹). Nano-wear testing was performed on t...
Article
This study presents the manufacturing of an Al[sbnd]Fe based intermetallic coating by the Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying (VLPPS) process. Coating microstructure and mechanical properties are carried on with a focus on the in-situ reaction. An aluminum powder was sprayed with a plasma torch under a working pressure of 150 Pa on a stainless steel...
Article
Al91Fe4Cr5 quasicrystal (QC) reinforced α-Al matrix composite materials from the mixture of pure aluminum and Al65Cu20Fe10Cr5 QC powders were prepared by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) which can produce parts with sophisticated form and fine microstructure with near-zero material waste. The effects of process parameters (such as laser power and scan...
Article
Due to the high heating/cooling rates involved in selective laser melting, the samples fabricated by this process, typically present high tensile residual stresses. The goal of this work was thus to investigate the effects of heat treatments on the microstructure and residual stress of selective laser melting processed Al-50Si alloy. Heat treatment...
Article
In this study, the effects of processing parameters on the microstructure of Al-Cu-Fe-Cr quasicrystalline (QC) coatings fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) are investigated. A qualitative analysis on the XRD patterns indicates that the phase composition for the SLM processed coating mainly consisted of Al-Cu-Fe-Cr quasicrystals and α-Al (Cu...
Article
In this work, a functionally graded silicon matrix composite material was in-situ manufactured by a self-developed Magnetic Field assisted Selective Laser Melting (MF-SLM) system free of cracks. A mixture of powders in proportion 50% Al, 50% Si (wt.%) was employed and processed, the build zone being submitted to a static magnetic field provided by...
Article
In this paper, Al-6 vol.% Si coating was in-situ manufactured by cold spraying from powder mixture of pure Si powder in fraction 25 vol.% with a pure gas-atomized Al powder, mean particle sizes being of 16 μm and 41 μm respectively. Nitrogen was chosen as the spraying and carrier gas to avoid oxidation. The image analysis results show that the Si c...
Article
Tensile strength and ductility of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) processed commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) were simultaneous enhanced by preforming the melting/solidification processes under Static Magnetic Field (SMF). The effects of SMF on microstructure and tensile properties were examined. The SMF-SLMed CP-Ti sample presents a microstructure of fin...
Thesis
La micro fusion laser d'un lit de poudre (SLM) permet la réalisation de pièces complexes avec des microstructuresfines. Cette technologie présente de nombreux avantages mais se heurte encore à une faible disponibilité des poudres d'alliages. En SLM, la pièce est d'abord conçue par CAO (conception assistée par ordinateur), puis construite couche par...
Article
Pure copper is known to present very high thermal and electrical conductivities, but poor mechanical properties. In this study, a novel micro-alloyed copper was prepared in a powder form by inert gas-atomization with a mean particle size of about 30 μm. Solid parts with high tensile strength (over 500 MPa) were manufactured by cold spray with heliu...
Article
CoMoCrSi coatings were manufactured on a steel substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), followed by a three-hour heat treatment at a temperature of 800 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Prior to the ultrasonic test of the cavitation erosion, coating cross-sections were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by X-ray diffract...
Article
This work investigates the microstructure and wear behavior of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, in-situ fabricated using selective laser melting of a mixture of eutectic Al-12Si (wt.%) and pure Si powders. The first observation was that the size and morphology of the Si phase are strongly influenced by the laser power. In addition, it was also observed...
Article
This work investigates the microstructure and wear behavior of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, in-situ fabricated using selective laser melting of a mixture of eutectic Al-12Si (wt.%) and pure Si powders. The first observation was that the size and morphology of the Si phase are strongly influenced by the laser power. In addition, it was also observed...
Article
Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, which integrate CAD, digital control, laser and advanced material and other manufacturing technologies. 3D model is sliced into a 2D stack of layers, and then the scanning trace is created with fixed scanning gap. Laser scans along the traces and completely melts powd...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
Dear All,
Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties iopscience.org/stmp has launched an exciting new 2022 additive manufacturing special issuer.
I am very pleased to invite you to contribute.
Please can you let me know if you would be able to submit a paper. The page is now live at https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/2051-672X/page/3D-4D-Printing-of-Complex-Functional-Surfaces-for-Convergent-Manufacturing.
The journal will consider submissions until 31st December, 2022. Accepted papers will be published as soon as possible.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
With best regards,
Guest Editor:
Prof. Mohamed El Mansori
Dr. Nan Kang
Question
Adding a static magnetic field during the solidification of commercial pure Ti, the microstructure (hcp-Ti) will be affected or not? is that possible to change the growth direction of hcp-Ti?

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