Namni Goel

Namni Goel
Rush University Medical Center | Rush

PhD

About

132
Publications
25,732
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,360
Citations

Publications

Publications (132)
Article
Introduction Sleep-associated hypoglycemia is a major concern for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Hybrid closed loop insulin delivery systems with continuous glucose monitoring (HCL-CGM) may reduce the perceived frequency, severity, and impact of sleep-associated hypoglycemia. This analysis assessed changes in perceived sleep-associated hyp...
Article
Introduction Trait-like individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) are robust and phenotypic. We investigated whether the concordance between multiple approaches for defining differential vulnerability depends on the methods and metrics utilized for categorization, including compa...
Article
Introduction Insulin delivery and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs) have been reported to disrupt sleep in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), potentially thwarting the adoption and continued use of diabetes therapeutic technologies. This study assessed changes in actigraphic sleep and glycemic outcomes in individuals at high risk fo...
Article
Introduction Anecdotally, patients with cardiovascular and neurological medical conditions present with sleep disturbances in duration, efficiency, and timing, or with sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. The frequency of such disturbances remains unknown as does whether they result from cardiovascular and neurological conditions or con...
Article
Introduction: Short sleep duration (<7 h/night) is a risk factor for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Not clear is if delayed timing of sleep or eating behaviors adds to this risk. We tested the hypothesis that later sleep and eating timing would be associated with higher blood pressure (BP), and that adults with short sleep +...
Article
Full-text available
The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is a widely used behavioral attention measure, with the 10-min (PVT-10) and 3-min (PVT-3) as two commonly used versions. The PVT-3 may be comparable to the PVT-10, though its convergent validity relative to the PVT-10 has not been explicitly assessed. For the first time, we utilized repeated measures correlation...
Article
Full-text available
There are substantial individual differences (resilience and vulnerability) in performance resulting from sleep loss and psychosocial stress, but predictive potential biomarkers remain elusive. Similarly, marked changes in the cardiovascular system from sleep loss and stress include an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. It remains unknown w...
Article
Full-text available
Cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP) typically change during total sleep deprivation (TSD) and psychological stress; however, it remains unknown whether these biological markers can differentiate robust individual differences in neurobehavioral performance and self-rated sleepiness resulting from these stressors. Additionally, little is known abou...
Article
Study objectives: Sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) reveal well-established individual differences in Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) performance. While prior studies have used different methods to categorize such resiliency/vulnerability, none have systematically investigated whether these methods categorize individuals si...
Article
Background: Impulsivity and sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance are core features of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) that are antecedents to onset and persist even between mood episodes; their pervasive presence in BSD suggests that they may be particularly relevant to understanding BSD onset and course. Considerable research demonstrates bidi...
Article
Study Objectives Although trait-like individual differences in subjective responses to sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) exist, reliable characterizations remain elusive. We comprehensively compared multiple methods for defining resilience and vulnerability by subjective metrics. Methods 41 adults participated in a 13-day ex...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Sleep loss impairs a range of neurobehavioral functions, particularly vigilant attention and arousal. However, the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on inhibition control and its relationship to vigilant attention impairments remain unclear. This study examined the extent to which vigilant attention deficits contribute to inhibitio...
Article
In this review, we discuss reports of genotype-dependent interindividual differences in phenotypic neurobehavioral responses to total sleep deprivation or sleep restriction. We highlight the importance of using the candidate gene approach to further elucidate differential resilience and vulnerability to sleep deprivation in humans, although we ackn...
Article
Study Objectives Substantial individual differences exist in cognitive deficits due to sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD), with various methods used to define such neurobehavioral differences. We comprehensively compared numerous methods for defining cognitive throughput and working memory resiliency and vulnerability. Method...
Article
Introduction There are substantial, stable individual differences in cognitive performance resulting from sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD). The best method for defining cognitive resilience and vulnerability to sleep loss remains an unanswered, yet important question. To investigate this, we compared multiple approaches and...
Article
Introduction Substantial individual differences exist in cognitive deficits due to sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD), but the best approach to define such resilience and vulnerability remains a critical question. We compared multiple approaches and cutoff thresholds to define resilience and vulnerability using the Digit Symbo...
Article
Introduction The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the Profile of Mood States Fatigue and Vigor subscales (POMS-F and POMS-V) are commonly used to assess subjective sleepiness, fatigue and vigor in response to sleep loss. However, the detailed time course of relationships between these measures across sleep loss and recovery remains unknown yet...
Article
Introduction The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), a behavioral attention measure widely used to capture sleep loss deficits, is available in 10-minute (PVT10) and 3-minute (PVT3) versions. The PVT3 is a briefer and presumably comparable assessment to the more commonly used PVT10 yet the relationship between the measures from the two versions acros...
Article
Introduction There are established individual differences in performance resulting from sleep loss. However, differences in behavioral attention performance between demographic subgroups remain unclear, especially during recovery after sleep loss. Thus, we examined demographic subgroup performance differences during baseline, sleep loss (sleep rest...
Article
Introduction The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is a behavioral attention measure widely used to describe sleep loss deficits. Although there are reported differences in PVT performance for various demographic groups, no study has examined the relationship between measures on the 10-minute PVT (PVT10) and the 3-minute PVT (PVT3) within sex, age,...
Article
Introduction The 10-minute and 3-minute versions of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT10 and PVT3) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) are commonly used to assess objective behavioral attention deficits and subjective sleepiness in response to sleep loss, respectively. However, the precise time course of relationships between behavioral atte...
Article
Introduction There are robust, trait-like individual differences in subjective perceptions in response to sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD). How to best define neurobehavioral resilience and vulnerability to sleep loss remains an open question. We compared multiple approaches and cutoff thresholds for defining resilience and...
Article
Introduction The Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST) is a frequently used measure to determine cognitive throughput responses to sleep loss. However, the specific time course of relationships between cognitive throughput and behavioral attention [using the 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT10)] and subjective sleepiness [using the Karolins...
Article
Full-text available
Nocturnal hypoglycemia is life threatening for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to loss of hypoglycemia symptom recognition (hypoglycemia unawareness) and impaired glucose counter regulation. These individuals also show disturbed sleep, which may result from glycemic dysregulation. Whether use of a hybrid closed loop (HCL) insulin deliver...
Chapter
This article provides a comprehensive overview of the impact of acute total sleep deprivation in humans on various biological processes and on neurobehavioral performance, relative to robust interindividual differences. It reviews a number of promising biomarkers to predict responses to total sleep deprivation including genetic, omic (e.g., transcr...
Article
Study Objectives The amount of recovery sleep needed to fully restore well-established neurobehavioral deficits from sleep loss remains unknown, as does whether the recovery pattern differs across measures after total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (SR). Methods In total, 83 adults received two baseline nights (10–12-hour ti...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sleep deprivation (SD) is an antidepressant intervention with multiple administration formats that has been investigated primarily with uncontrolled clinical trials and qualitative reviews of the literature. The validity and applicability of these findings to the treatment of bipolar depression (BPD) is uncertain. Methods A PRISMA‐based...
Article
A delayed eating schedule is associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic dysfunction in humans.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 However, there are no prolonged, highly controlled experimental studies testing the effects of meal timing on weight and metabolism in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 19–27 kg/m².10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep restriction (SR) reliably increases caloric intake. It remains unknown whether such intake cumulatively increases with repeated SR exposures and is impacted by the number of intervening recovery sleep opportunities. Healthy adults (33.9 ± 8.9y; 17 women, Body Mass Index: 24.8 ± 3.6) participated in a laboratory protocol. N = 35 participants e...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need to better understand key factors that impact sleep and circadian function for young adults of differing races and sexes. Sex and race are common factors contributing to disparities in health outcomes; however, the influence of these variables on sleep and circadian patterns for young adults are not well known. Multiple objective and...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep deprivation significantly impairs a range of cognitive and brain function, particularly episodic memory and the underlying hippocampal function. However, it remains controversial whether one or two nights of recovery sleep following sleep deprivation fully restores brain and cognitive function. In this study, we used functional magnetic reson...
Article
Introduction There is a critical need to understand key factors that impact sleep and circadian rhythm function for emerging adults at risk for bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD). Sex and race are common demographic factors contributing to differences in health outcomes; however, the influence of these variables on sleep and circadian rhythm patterns...
Article
Introduction Individuals show robust resilience and vulnerability in neurobehavioral performance to sleep loss and stress. For the first time, we investigated the time course of two cardiovascular measurements, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac index (CI), both derived from echocardiography, across baseline, total sleep deprivation (TSD), the combinat...
Article
Introduction There are substantial individual differences (resilience and vulnerability) in neurobehavioral performance from psychosocial stress and sleep loss. However, the time course of heart rate variability (HRV) across baseline, total sleep deprivation (TSD), the combination of TSD + psychological stress, and recovery has not been investigate...
Article
Introduction Individuals show marked differential vulnerability in neurobehavioral deficits from psychosocial stress and sleep deprivation. Although changes in salivary cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP) typically occur across total sleep deprivation (TSD) and recovery sleep, whether these biological markers during fully rested conditions predic...
Article
Introduction Nocturnal hypoglycemia is life threatening for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to loss of hypoglycemia symptom recognition (hypoglycemia unawareness) and impaired glucose counterregulation. These individuals also show disturbed sleep, which may result from glycemic dysregulation. Whether use of a hybrid closed loop (HCL) ins...
Article
Introduction Negativity bias in depression has been repeatedly demonstrated in the judgment and decision-making literature. Research investigating the impact of sleep deprivation on self-evaluation of performance in healthy or depressed populations is limited. We examined 1) whether individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) exhibit a negativ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review In this review, we comprehensively discuss recent reports of heritability and genetic associations using candidate gene and genome-wide association (GWA) approaches in circadian and sleep phenotypes in adults, including chronotype (morningness-eveningness), sleep duration and daytime sleepiness, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorde...
Article
Study objectives: Sleep loss produces large individual differences in neurobehavioral responses, with marked vulnerability or resilience among individuals. Such differences are stable with repeated exposures to acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) or chronic sleep restriction (SR) within short (weeks) and long (years) intervals. Whether trait-like...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To systematically review the literature on the efficacy and tolerability of the major chronotherapeutic treatments of bipolar disorders (BD) - bright light therapy (LT), dark therapy (DT), treatments utilizing sleep deprivation (SD), melatonergic agonists (MA), interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) and cognitive behavioral therapy adap...
Article
Introduction The timing of eating is a significant contributor to body weight regulation. The effects of a consistent, prolonged delayed eating pattern compared with a daytime pattern on weight and metabolism remain unclear, however, since few highly controlled, rigorous human trials exist. We report on the final dataset of such a controlled trial....
Article
Introduction Sleep deprivation results in rapid antidepressant effects in 50% of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, this antidepressant effect is typically reversed by recovery sleep. More recently, it has been shown that BDNF, a key component in regulating neuroplasticity, is both reduced in MDD, and increases following tre...
Article
Introduction There are substantial individual differences (resistance and vulnerability) in neurobehavioral deficits from psychosocial stress and sleep loss. However, little is known about whether the time course of heart rate responses across total sleep deprivation (TSD), the combination of TSD and psychological stress, and recovery, differs in r...
Article
Introduction The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) is frequently used as a measure of alertness in studies of sleep loss in healthy individuals. However, very little is known about PVT performance in clinical samples. Differences in attention and vigilance stemming from affective disorders may present a potential confound in clinical PVT data. We ex...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Adolescence/early adulthood is an “age of risk” for bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). BPDs have been linked to circadian rhythm and reward processing disruptions; such disruptions may serve as risk factors for BSD mood symptoms/ Episodes However, the bidirectional relationships of the circadian and reward systems have not been system...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Prior work demonstrates circadian rhythm disruptions of sleep/wake, activity, hormones, and melatonin in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorder (BSDs). Such disruptions may be a key mechanism underlying neurobiological vulnerability to BSDs. Methods 150 adults (ages 18–27; mean age ± SD, 21.9 ± 2.1y; 88 women), with high reward se...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Sleep loss is associated with cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease and psychiatric disorders, and also impairs cognitive performance, although there are individual differences in such deficits. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression, typically repress expression of...
Article
Full-text available
Study Objectives Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune responses, cancer, and morbidity and mortality, and can degrade cognitive performance, although individual differences exist in such responses. Sleep deprivation induces DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation in animals, and psychological stress is associated with increased DNA...
Article
Recent evidence has highlighted the health inequalities in sleep behaviors and sleep disorders that adversely impact outcomes in select populations, including African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Race-related sleep health inequalities are ascribed to differences in multilevel and interlinked health determinants, such as sociodemographic factor...
Article
Timing of eating is recognized as a significant contributor to body weight regulation. Disruption of sleep-wake cycles from a predominantly diurnal (daytime) to a delayed (evening) lifestyle leads to altered circadian rhythms and metabolic dysfunction. This article reviews current evidence for timed and delayed eating in individuals of normal weigh...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep loss produces well-characterized cognitive deficits, although there are large individual differences, with marked vulnerability or resilience among individuals. Such differences are stable with repeated exposures to acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) within a short-time interval (weeks). Whether such stability occurs with chronic sleep restr...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: This article reviews the neurobehavioral deficits resulting from sleep loss in adults, various countermeasures to mitigate these effects, and biomarkers to identify individual differences in neurobehavioral responses. Recent findings: Total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase the homeostatic sleep drive an...
Article
Objective: To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. Data sources: English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Study selection: A total...
Article
The circadian clock interacts with the sleep homeostatic drive in humans. Chronotype and sleep parameters show substantial heritability, underscoring a genetic component to these measures. This article reviews the genetic underpinnings of chronotype and of sleep, including sleepiness, sleep quality and latency, and sleep timing and duration in heal...
Article
Introduction In humans and rodents, the timing of food consumption is a major contributor to body weight regulation. Sleep-wake cycle disruptions and circadian misalignment due to shifts from a diurnal to nocturnal lifestyle produce abnormal circadian rhythms and metabolic dysfunction. However, the metabolic consequences of a consistent, prolonged...
Conference Paper
Introduction Acute sleep deprivation (SD), either total or partial, is a well-known non-pharmacologic treatment for depression that produces clinical improvement in depression symptoms within a single 24-hour period and, as such, is one of the most rapid antidepressant interventions known. Studies of SD typically report a 40% to 60% response rate,...
Article
Introduction In highly-controlled laboratory studies, there are substantial individual differences (resilience and vulnerability) in neurobehavioral deficits from psychosocial stress and sleep loss. We determined whether highly-motivated subjects would show such individual differences in performance and affective responses to stress and sleep loss...
Article
Introduction Experimental studies have shown sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) increase caloric intake, fat consumption, and late-night eating. However, whether the same individuals show similar caloric intake responses to both SR and TSD is unknown. As such, we determined whether trait-like responses are observed during and...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Sleep loss is increasingly associated with diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. MicroRNAs (miRs), small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression, typically repress the expression of their target mRNAs, and play an established role in these diseases. To determine whether miRs are invo...
Article
Full-text available
Insufficient sleep increasingly characterizes modern society, contributing to a host of serious medical problems. Loss of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurological and cognitive impairments. Shifts in gut microbiome composition have also been associated with the same patholo...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% wome...
Article
Study objectives: We objectively measured body composition, energy expenditure, caloric intake and sleep in a large, diverse sample of healthy men and women and determined how energy balance and diet associated with sleep physiology. Methods: Healthy adults (n=50; 21-50y) participated in an in-laboratory study involving two baseline sleep nights...
Article
Full-text available
Chronotype (also referred to as morningness-eveningness or diurnal preference) is the tendency to be an early “lark” (alert and preferring to be active early in the day) or a late “owl” (alert and preferring to be active later in the day). Chronotype shows considerable interindividual variation and is the most frequently measured circadian rhythm t...
Article
Objective: Short sleep duration is a significant risk factor for weight gain, particularly in African Americans and men. Increased caloric intake underlies this relationship, but it remains unclear whether decreased energy expenditure is a contributory factor. The current study assessed the impact of sleep restriction and recovery sleep on energy...
Article
Full-text available
Short sleep duration is a risk factor for increased hunger and caloric intake, late-night eating, attenuated fat loss when dieting, and for weight gain and obesity. It is unknown whether altered energy-balance responses to sleep loss are stable (phenotypic) over time, and the extent to which individuals differ in vulnerability to such responses. He...
Article
The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is a widely used assay of behavioural alertness sensitive to the effects of sleep loss and circadian misalignment. However, there is currently no accepted PVT composite outcome metric that captures response slowing, attentional lapses and compensatory premature reactions observed typically in sleep-deprived subj...
Article
Full-text available
The two-process model of sleep-wake regulation asserts a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a similar manner during sleep) and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking performance and alertness...
Article
The two-process model of sleep-wake regulation posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep) and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performanc...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep is an essential biological process that is thought to have a critical role in metabolic regulation. In humans, reduced sleep duration has been associated with risk for metabolic disorders, including weight gain, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of sleep lo...
Article
Full-text available
Although insufficient sleep is a well-recognized risk factor for overeating and weight gain, the neural mechanisms underlying increased caloric (particularly fat) intake after sleep deprivation remain unclear. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined brain connectivity changes associated with macronutrient intak...