Nadira D Karunaweera

Nadira D Karunaweera
University of Colombo · Department of Parasitology

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166
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Publications

Publications (166)
Article
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Background: Leishmania donovani-induced and sand fly-transmitted leishmaniasis is a growing health problem in Sri Lanka. Limited knowledge on biological and behavioral characteristics of probable vector Phlebotomus argentipes hinders disease control. Here, insecticide susceptibility patterns of P. argentipes were investigated with exploration of p...
Article
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Protein quantification is often an essential step in any research field that involves proteins. Although the standard Lowry assay and its modifications are most abundantly used in protein quantification, the existing methods are rigid or often demonstrate nonlinearity between protein concentration and color intensity. A method for fast and accurate...
Article
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Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is on the decline in South Asia. However, cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis have risen in Sri Lanka since 2001, and the lack of in-depth research on its epidemiologic characteristics hampers control efforts. We analyzed data collected from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka during 2001-201...
Article
Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite of family Trypanosomatidae, causes fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent and Africa and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Another member of Trypanosomatidae, Leptomonas seymouri, resembling Leishmania was discovered recently to co-exist with L. donovani in the clinical sample...
Article
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Introduction: Sri Lanka has a predominantly rural population. However, there is a dearth of research on health and socioeconomic issues in this group. Objective: To describe basic socioeconomic characteristics and health profile in a rural population. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 1950 households in t...
Article
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of L. donovani is being reported from Sri Lanka since year 2001. Patients presented from different geographical locations (600 patients from North or South and a minority of cases from other foci, 2001-2013) were studied. Analysis revealed two different sociodemographic and clinical profiles of le...
Article
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Background: Human leishmaniasis is one of the major parasitic diseases with worldwide distribution. Sri Lanka is a recently established focus of leishmaniasis caused by a variant Leishmania donovani. Early case detection and management is a main approach identified for L. donovani control in the regional leishmaniasis elimination drive. Usefulness...
Article
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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the leading infectious diseases affecting developing countries. Colloidal gold-based diagnostic tests are rapid tools to detect blood/serum antibodies for VL diagnosis. Lack of uniformity in the performance of these tests in different endemic regions is a hurdle in early disease diagnosis. This study is designe...
Article
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Sri Lanka is a recent focus having Leishmania donovani induced cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as the main clinical entity. A separate clinical entity within profile of CL was described in this study. Laboratory confirmed cases of CL (n= 950, 2002-2014) were analysed. Most lesions showed known classical developmental stages of CL (CCL) observed in oth...
Article
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Sri Lanka reports a large epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by an atypical L. donovani while regional leishmaniasis elimination drive aims at achieving its targets in 2020. Visceralization, mucotrophism, and CL associated poor treatment response were recently reported. Long-term clinico-epidemiological trends (2001-2013) in this focus...
Article
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Background Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease with diverse clinical phenotypes, determined by parasite, host and vector interactions. Despite the advances in molecular biology and the availability of more Leishmania genome references in recent years, the association between parasite species and distinct clinical phenotypes remains poorly...
Article
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Background Antibodies against the merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium vivax) are proven to be important in protection against clinical disease. Differences in the production/maintenance of antibodies may be due to many factors including host genetics. This paper discu...
Article
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Background The quality of life in many patients is affected by skin lesions. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the commonest form of leishmaniasis, is no exception. In Sri Lanka, CL is an emerging parasitological condition with over 3,000 cases within the last decade. Lesions are often seen on exposed parts of the body which may cause social stigma, an...
Article
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Leishmania donovani , the most virulent species of Leishmania , is found in the South Asian region that harbours the majority of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases in the world. The traditionally accepted relationships between the causative species of Leishmania and the resultant disease phenotype have been challenged during recent years and have un...
Article
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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered as a major health threat in the Indian subcontinent. Leishmania donovani , a usually visceralizing species, causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. However, visceralizing potential of the local L. donovani is not yet fully understood. This project studied the seroprevalence of local CL by using an...
Article
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is diagnosed mainly by light microscopy of smears made using lesion material. Histopathology is usually done in atypical presentations or when lesion smears are negative. Tissue impression smears (TIS) made from skin biopsy specimens were compared with histopathology for the diagnosis of CL. Out of the 111 patients incl...
Article
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Background Sri Lanka achieved the WHO certificate as a malaria free country in September 2016, thus monitoring of malaria transmission using sensitive and effective tools is an important need. Use of age-specific antibody prevalence as a serological tool to predict transmission intensity is proven to be a cost effective and reliable method under el...
Article
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Background Following its recent certification as malaria-free, imported infections now pose the greatest threat for maintaining this status in Sri Lanka. Imported infections may also introduce species that are uncommon or not previously endemic to these areas. We highlight in this case report the increasing importance of less common malaria species...
Article
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Background: Leishmania donovani is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. However, it is also known to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan L. donovani differs from other L. donovani strains, both at the molecular and biochemical level. To investigate the different species or strain-...
Article
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The visceralizing potential of apparently dermotropic Leishmania donovani in Sri Lanka ( L. donovani -SL) was investigated through long-term follow-up of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients and in vivo and in vitro experimental infection models. CL patients ( n = 250) treated effectively with intra-lesional antimony therapy were followed-up six m...
Article
Background: Sri Lanka is a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of usually visceralizing parasite Leishmania donovani. Over 3000 cases have been reported to our institution alone, during the past two decades. Recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis is of concern. Methods: Patients suspected of having visceral...
Article
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Leishmania donovani causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Standard treatment is multiple, painful doses of intralesional sodium stibogluconate (IL-SSG). Treatment failures are increasingly reported, hence the need to investigate alternatives. Efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of thermotherapy were assessed for the first time forL...
Article
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Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme deficiency is known to offer protection against malaria and an increased selection of mutant genes in malaria endemic regions is expected. However, anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine can cause haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. We studied the extent of G6PD deficiency in selected...
Article
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Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka is a newly established parasitic disease caused by the usually visceralizing Leishmania donovani. Skin lesions manifest as non-itchy, non-tender papules, nodules or ulcers. In situ cytokine expression provides clues for immunopathogenesis of this localized form of disease. Methods: Skin biopsies...
Article
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Background The outcome of leishmaniasis is an interplay between Leishamania and the host. Identifying contributory host genetic factors is complicated by the variability in phenotype, ethnicity and parasite species. Leishmaniasis is caused exclusively by L. donovani in Sri Lanka with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) being the predominant for...
Article
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Leishmaniasis is caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sri Lanka with over 3000 cases during the last decade and numbers are increasing. Treatment options available in Sri Lanka for CL include intralesional/intramuscular sodium stibogluconate and cryotherapy. Eight cases of treatment failur...
Article
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The widespread distribution and relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection present major challenges for the elimination of malaria. To characterize the genetic diversity of this parasite in individual infections and across the population, we performed deep genome sequencing of >200 clinical samples collected across the Asia-Pacific region and a...
Article
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Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani MON 37. Confirmation of diagnosis is done through microscopy, either directly or after in vitro culture. Molecular diagnostic methods are sensitive, but require well established laboratories. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) is rapid, specif...
Conference Paper
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Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by the usually visceralizing Leishmania donovani. Host immune response plays a key role in the clinical presentation of leishmaniasis. Role of cytokines in pathogenesis of local lesions has not been studied. Objective: To study tissue cytokine expression with lesion progression with t...
Article
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that plays an important role in many cellular functions. Deficiency of this enzyme results from point mutations in the coding region of the G6PD gene. G6PD-deficiency is important in malaria, as certain anti-malarial drugs could induce haemolysis in such patients and mutations in this gene may i...
Article
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in Sri Lanka. Studies on vector aspects, although important for better understanding of disease transmission dynamics, are still limited. The present study describes the species distribution and behavioral patterns of sandflies within selected disease- prevalent zones in the country. Adult sandflie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a newly established vector-borne parasitic disease in Sri Lanka. Military personnel have an occupational risk for CL due to being stationed in endemic areas and exposure to vectors outdoors. This study describes the clinical and histopathological features of CL in a group of military personnel. Thirty five patients w...
Article
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Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lank...
Article
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Background: Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites a...
Article
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was first detected in Sri Lanka in 1992.Local disease is caused by a genetically different variant of Leishmania donovani. Early case detection and management is the mainstay of L. donovani control. High degree of clinical suspicion is critical but a clinical diagnostic tool is not available for leishmaniasis. Current s...
Article
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Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. D...
Article
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Success of the global research agenda towards eradication of malaria will depend on the development of new tools, including drugs, vaccines, insecticides and diagnostics. Genetic and genomic information now available for the malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors and human host, can be harnessed to both develop these tools and monitor their effe...
Article
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Plasmodium vivax, one of the five species of Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria, is responsible for 25-40% of malaria cases worldwide. Malaria global elimination efforts will benefit from accurate and effective genotyping tools that will provide insight into the population genetics and diversity of this parasite. The recent sequencing of...
Article
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Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers dur...